Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Contaminated Water Related Abstracts

3 Outbreak of Cholera, Jalgaon District, Maharastra, 2013

Authors: Yogita Tulsian, A. Yadav

Abstract:

Background: India reports 3,600 cholera cases annually. In August 2013, a cholera outbreak was reported in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra state. We sought to describe the epidemiological characteristics,identify risk factors, and recommend control measures. Methods: We collected existing stool and water testing laboratory results, and conducted a1: 1 matched case-control study. A cholera case was defined as a resident of Vishnapur or Malapur villagewith onset of acute watery diarrhea on/ after 1-July-2013. Controls were matched by age, gender and village and had not experienced any diarrhea for 3 months. We collected socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and food/travel/water exposure history and conducted conditional logistic regression. Results: Of 50 people who met the cholera case definition, 40 (80%) were from Vishnapur village and 30 (60%) were female. The median age was 8.5 years (range; 0.3-75). Twenty (45%) cases were hospitalized, twelve (60%) with severe dehydration. Three of five stool samples revealed Vibrio cholerae 01 El Tor, Ogawa and samples from 7 of 14 Vishnapur water sources contained fecal coliforms. Cases from Vishnapur were significantly more likely to drink from identified contaminated water sources (matched odds ratio (MOR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1-13), or from a river/canal (MOR=18.4;95%CI: 2-504). Cases from Malapur were more likely to drink from a river/canal (MOR=6.2; 95%CI: 0.6-196). Cases from both villages were significantly more likely to visit the forest (MOR 6.3; 95%CI: 2-30) or another village (MOR 3.5; 95%CI; 0.9-17). Conclusions: This outbreak was caused by Vibrio cholerae, likely through contamination of water in Vishnapur village and/or through drinking river/canal water. We recommended safe drinking water for forest visitors and all residents of these villages and use of regular water testing.

Keywords: Cholera, Contaminated Water, river, case control study

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2 Experimental Study on Modified Double Slope Solar Still and Modified Basin Type Double Slope Multiwick Solar Still

Authors: Piyush Pal, Rahul Dev

Abstract:

Water is essential for life and fresh water is a finite resource that is becoming scarce day by day even though it is recycled by hydrological cycle. The fresh water reserves are being polluted due to expanding irrigation, industries, urban population and its development. Contaminated water leads to several health problems. With the increasing demand of fresh water, solar distillation is an alternate solution which uses solar energy to evaporate water and then to condense it, thereby collecting distilled water within or outside the same system to use it as potable water. The structure that houses the process is known as a 'solar still'. In this paper, ‘Modified double slope solar still (MDSSS)’ & 'Modified double slope basin type multiwick solar still (MDSBMSS)' have been designed to convert saline, brackish water into drinking water. In this work two different modified solar stills are fabricated to study the performance of these solar stills. For modification of solar stills, Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Acrylic sheets are used. The experiments in MDSBMSS and MDSSS was carried on 10 September 2015 & 5 November 2015 respectively. Performances of the stills were investigated. The amount of distillate has been found 3624 Ml/day in MDSBMSS on 10 September 2015 and 2400 Ml/day in MDSSS on 5 November 2015.

Keywords: Contaminated Water, conventional solar still, modified solar still, wick

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1 A Methodology for Optimisation of Water Containment Systems

Authors: Amir Hedjripour

Abstract:

The required dewatering configuration for a contaminated sediment dam is discussed to meet no-spill criteria for a defined Average Recurrence Interval (ARI). There is an option for the sediment dam to pump the contaminated water to another storage facility before its capacity is exceeded. The system is subjected to a range of storm durations belonging to the design ARI with concurrent dewatering to the other storage facility. The model is set up in 1-minute time intervals and temporal patterns of storm events are used to de-segregate the total storm depth into partial durations. By running the model for selected storm durations, the maximum water volume in the dam is recorded as the critical volume, which indicates the required storage capacity for that storm duration. Runoff from upstream catchment and the direct rainfall over the dam open area are calculated by taking into account the time of concentration for the catchment. Total 99 different storm durations from 5 minutes to 72 hours were modelled together with five dewatering scenarios from 50 l/s to 500 l/s. The optimised dam/pump configuration is selected by plotting critical points for all cases and storage-dewatering envelopes. A simple economic analysis is also presented in the paper using Present-Value (PV) analysis to assist with the financial evaluation of each configuration and selection of the best alternative.

Keywords: Optimisation, Contaminated Water, pump, sediment dam

Procedia PDF Downloads 226