Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Contact angle Related Abstracts

16 Analysis of the Detachment of Water Droplets from a Porous Fibrous Surface

Authors: Ibrahim Rassoul, E-K. Si Ahmed

Abstract:

The growth, deformation, and detachment of fluid droplets adherent to solid substrates is a problem of fundamental interest with numerous practical applications. Specific interest in this proposal is the problem of a droplet on a fibrous, hydrophobic substrate subjected to body or external forces (gravity, convection). The past decade has seen tremendous advances in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. However, there remain many challenges to bring commercially viable stationary PEMFC products to the market. PEMFCs are increasingly emerging as a viable alternative clean power source for automobile and stationary applications. Before PEMFCs can be employed to power automobiles and homes, several key technical challenges must be properly addressed. One technical challenge is elucidating the mechanisms underlying water transport in and removal from PEMFCs. On the one hand, sufficient water is needed in the polymer electrolyte membrane or PEM to maintain sufficiently high proton conductivity. On the other hand, too much liquid water present in the cathode can cause 'flooding' (that is, pore space is filled with excessive liquid water) and hinder the transport of the oxygen reactant from the gas flow channel (GFC) to the three-phase reaction sites. The aim of this work is to investigate the stability of a liquid water droplet emerging form a GDL pore, to gain fundamental insight into the instability process leading to detachment. The approach will combine analytical and numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements.

Keywords: Contact angle, polymer electrolyte fuel cell, water droplet, gas diffusion layer, surface tension

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15 Wettability of Superhydrophobic Polymer Layers Filled with Hydrophobized Silica on Glass

Authors: Diana Rymuszka, Konrad Terpiłowski, Lucyna Hołysz, Elena Goncharuk, Iryna Sulym

Abstract:

Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely high water repellency. The commonly accepted basic criterion for such surfaces is a water contact angle larger than 150°, low contact angle hysteresis and low sliding angle. These surfaces are of special interest, because properties such as anti-sticking, anti-contamination and self-cleaning are expected. These properties are attractive for many applications such as anti-sticking of snow for antennas and windows, anti-biofouling paints for boats, waterproof clothing, self-cleaning windshields for automobiles, dust-free coatings or metal refining. The various methods for the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces since last two decades have been reported, such as phase separation, electrochemical deposition, template method, plasma method, chemical vapor deposition, wet chemical reaction, sol-gel processing, lithography and so on. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of modified colloidal silica, used as a filler, on the hydrophobicity of the polymer film deposited on the glass support activated with plasma. On prepared surfaces water advancing (ӨA) and receding (ӨR) contact angles were measured and then their total apparent surface free energy was determined using the contact angle hysteresis approach (CAH). The structures of deposited films were observed with the help of an optical microscope. Topographies of selected films were also determined using an optical profilometer. It was found that plasma treatment influence glass surface wetting and energetic properties that is observed in higher adhesion between polymer/filler film and glass support. Using the colloidal silica particles as a filler for the polymer thin film deposited on the glass support, it is possible to produce strongly adhering layers of superhydrophobic properties. The best superhydrophobic properties were obtained for surfaces of the film glass/polimer + modified silica covered in 89 and 100%. The advancing contact angle measured on these surfaces amounts above 150° that leads to under 2 mJ/m2 value of the apparent surface free energy. Such films may have many practical applications, among others, as dust-free coatings or anticorrosion protection.

Keywords: plasma, Contact angle, superhydrophobic, surface free energy

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14 Wetting Properties of Silver Based Alloys

Authors: Zoltan Weltsch, József Hlinka, Eszter Kókai

Abstract:

The temperature dependence of wettability (wetting angle, Θ (T)) for Ag-based melts on graphite and Al2O3 substrates is compared. Typical alloying effects are found, as the Ag host metal is gradually replaced by various metallic elements. The essence of alloying lies in the change of the electron/atom (e/a) ratio. This ratio is also manifested in the shift of wetting angles on the same substrate. Nevertheless, the effects are partially smeared by other (metallurgical) factors, like the interaction between the oxygen-alloying elements and by the graphite substrate-oxygen interaction. In contrast, such effects are not pronounced in the case of Al2O3 substrates. As a consequence, Θ(T) exhibits an opposite trend in the case of two substrates. Crossovers of the Θ(T) curves were often found. The positions of crossovers depend on the chemical character and concentration of solute atoms. Segregation and epitaxial texture formation after solidification were also observed in certain alloy drops, especially in high concentration range. This phenomenon is not yet explained in every detail.

Keywords: Contact angle, Soldering, Silver, Graphite, wetting, solid solubility, substrate, temperature dependence

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13 Production of Hydrophilic PVC Surfaces with Microwave Treatment for its Separation from Mixed Plastics by Froth Floatation

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Nguyen Thanh Truc

Abstract:

Organic polymeric materials (plastics) are widely used in our daily life and various industrial fields. The separation of waste plastics is important for its feedstock and mechanical recycling. One of the major problems in incineration for thermal recycling or heat melting for material recycling is the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contained in waste plastics. This is due to the production of hydrogen chloride, chlorine gas, dioxins, and furans originated from PVC. Therefore, the separation of PVC from waste plastics is necessary before recycling. The separation of heavy polymers (PVC 1.42, PMMA 1.12, PC 1.22 and PET 1.27 g/cm3 ) from light ones (PE and PP 0.99 g/cm3) can be achieved on the basis of their density. However it is difficult to separate PVC from other heavy polymers basis of density. There are no simple and inexpensive techniques to separate PVC from others. If hydrophobic the PVC surface is selectively changed into hydrophilic, where other polymers still have hydrophobic surface, flotation process can separate PVC from others. In the present study, the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment after alkaline/acid washing and with activated carbon was studied as the pre-treatment of its separation by the following froth flotation. In presence of activated carbon as absorbent, the microwave treatment could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the PVC surface (i.e. PVC contact angle decreased about 19o) among other plastics mixture. At this stage, 100% PVC separation from other plastics could be achieved by the combination of the pre- microwave treatment with activated carbon and the following froth floatation. The hydrophilization of PVC by surface analysis would be due to the hydrophilic groups produced by microwave treatment with activated carbon. The effect of optimum condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated.

Keywords: Microwave, Contact angle, Waste Plastics, additive, PVC, Hydrophilic, froth floatation

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12 Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Based on Poly Vinyl Alcohol Boric Acid Matrix

Authors: Luminita Marin, Daniela Ailincai, Bogdan C. Simionescu

Abstract:

Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) represent an interesting class of materials which combine the ability of polymers to form films and their mechanical strength with the opto-electronic properties of liquid crystals. The proper choice of the two components - the liquid crystal and the polymeric matrix - leads to materials suitable for a large area of applications, from electronics to biomedical devices. The objective of our work was to obtain PDLC films with potential applications in the biomedical field, using poly vinyl alcohol boric acid (PVAB) as a polymeric matrix for the first time. Presenting all the tremendous properties of poly vinyl alcohol (such as: biocompatibility, biodegradability, water solubility, good chemical stability and film forming ability), PVAB brings the advantage of containing the electron deficient boron atom, and due to this, it should promote the liquid crystal anchoring and a narrow liquid crystal droplets polydispersity. Two different PDLC systems have been obtained, by the use of two liquid crystals, a nematic commercial one: 4-cyano-4’-penthylbiphenyl (5CB) and a new smectic liquid crystal, synthesized by us: buthyl-p-[p’-n-octyloxy benzoyloxy] benzoate (BBO). The PDLC composites have been obtained by the encapsulation method, working with four different ratios between the polymeric matrix and the liquid crystal, from 60:40 to 90:10. In all cases, the composites were able to form free standing, flexible films. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, RAMAN- spectroscopy and the contact angle measurements have been performed, in order to characterize the new composites. The new smectic liquid crystal has been characterized using 1H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and its thermotropic behavior has been established using differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy. The polarized light microscopy evidenced the formation of round birefringent droplets, anchored homeotropic in the first case and planar in the second, with a narrow dimensional polydispersity, especially for the PDLC containing the largest amount of liquid crystal, fact evidenced by SEM, also. The obtained values for the water to air contact angle showed that the composites have a proper hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance, making them potential candidates for bioapplications. More than this, our studies demonstrated that the water to air contact angle varies as a function of PVAB matrix crystalinity degree, which can be controled as a function of time. This fact allowed us to conclude that the use of PVAB as matrix for PDLCs obtaining offers the possibility to modulate their properties for specific applications.

Keywords: Contact angle, buthyl-p-[p’-n-octyloxy benzoyloxy] benzoate, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, poly vinyl alcohol boric acid

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11 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee

Abstract:

This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Contact angle, froth flotation, Hydrophilic, ABS

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10 Numerical Study of Homogeneous Nanodroplet Growth

Authors: S. B. Q. Tran

Abstract:

Drop condensation is the phenomenon that the tiny drops form when the oversaturated vapour present in the environment condenses on a substrate and makes the droplet growth. Recently, this subject has received much attention due to its applications in many fields such as thin film growth, heat transfer, recovery of atmospheric water and polymer templating. In literature, many papers investigated theoretically and experimentally in macro droplet growth with the size of millimeter scale of radius. However few papers about nanodroplet condensation are found in the literature especially theoretical work. In order to understand the droplet growth in nanoscale, we perform the numerical simulation work to study nanodroplet growth. We investigate and discuss the role of the droplet shape and monomer diffusion on drop growth and their effect on growth law. The effect of droplet shape is studied by doing parametric studies of contact angle and disjoining pressure magnitude. Besides, the effect of pinning and de-pinning behaviours is also studied. We investigate the axisymmetric homogeneous growth of 10–100 nm single water nanodroplet on a substrate surface. The main mechanism of droplet growth is attributed to the accumulation of laterally diffusing water monomers, formed by the absorption of water vapour in the environment onto the substrate. Under assumptions of quasi-steady thermodynamic equilibrium, the nanodroplet evolves according to the augmented Young–Laplace equation. Using continuum theory, we model the dynamics of nanodroplet growth including the coupled effects of disjoining pressure, contact angle and monomer diffusion with the assumption of constant flux of water monomers at the far field. The simulation result is validated by comparing with the published experimental result. For the case of nanodroplet growth with constant contact angle, our numerical results show that the initial droplet growth is transient by monomer diffusion. When the flux at the far field is small, at the beginning, the droplet grows by the diffusion of initially available water monomers on the substrate and after that by the flux at the far field. In the steady late growth rate of droplet radius and droplet height follow a power law of 1/3, which is unaffected by the substrate disjoining pressure and contact angle. However, it is found that the droplet grows faster in radial direction than high direction when disjoining pressure and contact angle increase. The simulation also shows the information of computational domain effect in the transient growth period. When the computational domain size is larger, the mass coming in the free substrate domain is higher. So the mass coming in the droplet is also higher. The droplet grows and reaches the steady state faster. For the case of pinning and de-pinning droplet growth, the simulation shows that the disjoining pressure does not affect the droplet radius growth law 1/3 in steady state. However the disjoining pressure modifies the growth rate of the droplet height, which then follows a power law of 1/4. We demonstrate how spatial depletion of monomers could lead to a growth arrest of the nanodroplet, as observed experimentally.

Keywords: Contact angle, augmented young-laplace equation, disjoining pressure, nanodroplet growth

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9 Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures

Authors: Abinash Tripathy, Girish Muralidharan, Amitava Pramanik, Prosenjit Sen

Abstract:

Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.

Keywords: Contact angle, contact time, superhydrophobic, contact angle hysteresis

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8 Effects of Surface Textures and Chemistries on Wettability

Authors: Dipti Raj, Himanshu Mishra

Abstract:

Wetting of a solid surface by a liquid is an extremely common yet subtle phenomenon in natural and applied sciences. A clear understanding of both short and long-term wetting behaviors of surfaces is essential for creating robust anti-biofouling coatings, non-wetting textiles, non-fogging mirrors, and preventive linings against dirt and icing. In this study, silica beads (diameter, D ≈ 100 μm) functionalized using different silane reagents were employed to modify the wetting characteristics of smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. Resulting composite surfaces were found to be super-hydrophobic, i.e. contact angle of water,

Keywords: Contact angle, Texture, PDMS, silica, wetting, Cassie-Baxter

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7 Nanofiltration Membranes with Deposyted Polyelectrolytes: Caracterisation and Antifouling Potential

Authors: Viktor Kochkodan

Abstract:

The main problem arising upon water treatment and desalination using pressure driven membrane processes such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis is membrane fouling that seriously hampers the application of the membrane technologies. One of the main approaches to mitigate membrane fouling is to minimize adhesion interactions between a foulant and a membrane and the surface coating of the membranes with polyelectrolytes seems to be a simple and flexible technique to improve the membrane fouling resistance. In this study composite polyamide membranes NF-90, NF-270, and BW-30 were modified using electrostatic deposition of polyelectrolyte multilayers made from various polycationic and polyanionic polymers of different molecular weights. Different anionic polyelectrolytes such as: poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), poly(vinyl sulfonic acid, sodium salt), poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt, poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PA) and cationic polyelectrolytes such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), poly(ethylenimine) and poly(hexamethylene biguanide were used for membrane modification. An effect of deposition time and a number of polyelectrolyte layers on the membrane modification has been evaluated. It was found that degree of membrane modification depends on chemical nature and molecular weight of polyelectrolytes used. The surface morphology of the prepared composite membranes was studied using atomic force microscopy. It was shown that the surface membrane roughness decreases significantly as a number of the polyelectrolyte layers on the membrane surface increases. This smoothening of the membrane surface might contribute to the reduction of membrane fouling as lower roughness most often associated with a decrease in surface fouling. Zeta potentials and water contact angles on the membrane surface before and after modification have also been evaluated to provide addition information regarding membrane fouling issues. It was shown that the surface charge of the membranes modified with polyelectrolytes could be switched between positive and negative after coating with a cationic or an anionic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the water contact angle was strongly affected when the outermost polyelectrolyte layer was changed. Finally, a distinct difference in the performance of the noncoated membranes and the polyelectrolyte modified membranes was found during treatment of seawater in the non-continuous regime. A possible mechanism of the higher fouling resistance of the modified membranes has been discussed.

Keywords: Surface modification, Contact angle, membrane fouling, polyelectrolytes

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6 Investigating the Effects of Thermal and Surface Energy on the Two-Dimensional Flow Characteristics of Oil in Water Mixture between Two Parallel Plates: A Lattice Boltzmann Method Study

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat

Abstract:

A hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model was used to study the combined effects of temperature and contact angle on the movement of slugs and droplets of oil in water (O/W) system flowing between two parallel plates. The model static contact angle due to the deposition of the O/W droplet on a flat surface with simulated hydrophilic characteristic at different fluid temperatures, matched very well the proposed theoretical calculation. Furthermore, the model was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of droplets and slugs deposited on the domain’s upper and lower surfaces, while subjected to parabolic flow conditions. The model accurately simulated the contact angle hysteresis for the dynamic droplets cases. It was also shown that at elevated temperatures the required power to transport the mixture diminished remarkably.

Keywords: Thermal, Contact angle, lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, high viscosity ratio

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5 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: Contact angle, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential, celestite, suspension stability

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4 Development of Transparent Nano-Structured Super-Hydrophobic Coating on Glass and Evaluation of Anti-Dust Properties

Authors: Abhilasha Mishra, Neha Bhatt

Abstract:

Super-hydrophobicity is an effect in which a surface roughness and chemical composition are combined to produce unusual water and dust repellent surface. The super-hydrophobic surface is widely used in many applications such as windshields of the automobile, aircraft, lens, solar cells, roofing, boat hull, paints, etc. Four coating solutions were prepared by varying compositions of 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexametyldisilazane (HDMS) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) sol. These solutions were coated on glass slides by a spin coating method and etched at a high temperature ranging 250 -350 oC. All the coatings were studied for its different properties like water repellent, anti-dust, and transparency and contact angle measurements. Stability of coatings was also studied with respect to temperature, external environment, and pH. It was found that all coatings impart a significant super-hydrophobicity on a glass surface with contact angle ranging from 156o to 162o and have good stability in the external environment. The results of the different coatings were observed and compared with each other. On increasing layers of coatings the super-hydrophobicity and anti-dust properties increases but after 3 coatings the transparency of coating starts decreasing.

Keywords: Coating, Contact angle, super-hydrophobic, anti-dust

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3 Wettability Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fibers and Banana Pseudostem Fibers Treated by Cold Plasma

Authors: Hugo A. Estupinan, Tatiana Franco

Abstract:

Banana pseudostem fiber (BPF) and pineapple leaf fiber (PLF) for their excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability characteristics arouse interest in different areas of research. F In tropical regions, where the banana pseudostem and the pineapple leaf are transformed into hard-to-handle solid waste, they can be low-cost raw material and environmentally sustainable in research for composite materials. In terms of functionality of this type of fiber, an open structure would allow the adsorption and retention of organic, inorganic and metallic species. In general, natural fibers have closed structures on their surface with intricate internal arrangements that can be used for the solution of environmental problems and other technological uses, however it is not possible to access their internal structure and sublayers, exposing the fibers in the natural state. An alternative method to chemical and enzymatic treatment are the processes with the plasma treatments, which are known to be clean, economical and controlled. In this type of treatment, a gas contained in a reactor in the form of plasma acts on the fiber generating changes in its structure, morphology and topography. This work compares the effects on fibers of PLF and BPF treated with cold argon plasma, alternating time and current. These fibers are grown in the regions of Antioquia-Colombia. The morphological, compositional and wettability properties of the fibers were analyzed by Raman microscopy, contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM). The treatment with cold plasma on PLF and BPF allowed increasing its wettability, the topography and the microstructural relationship between lignin and cellulose.

Keywords: Contact angle, Natural Fibers, Wettability, SEM, cold plasma, Raman

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2 Surface Morphology and Wetting Behavior of the Aspidiotus spp. Scale Covers

Authors: Meril Kate Mariano, Billy Joel Almarinez Divina Amalin, Jose Isagani Janairo

Abstract:

The scale insects Aspidiotus destructor and Aspidiotus rigidus exhibit notable scale covers made of wax which provides protection against water loss and is capable to resist wetting, thus making them a desirable model for biomimetic designs. Their waxy covers enable them to infest mainly leaves of coconut trees despite the harsh wind and rain. This study aims to describe and compare the micro morphological characters on the surfaces of their scale covers consequently, how these micro structures affect their wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope was used for the surface characterization while an optical contact angle meter was employed in the wetting measurement. The scale cover of A. destructor is composed of multiple overlapping layers of wax that is arranged regularly while that of A. rigidus is composed of a uniform layer of wax with much more prominent wax ribbons irregularly arranged compared to the former. The protrusions found on the two organisms are formed by the wax ribbons that differ in arrangement with their height being A. destructor (3.57+1.29) < A. rigidus (4.23+1.22) and their density A. destructor (15+2.94) < A. rigidus (18.33+2.64). These morphological measurements could affect the contact angle (CA θ) measurement of A. destructor (102.66+9.78°) < A. rigidus (102.77 + 11.01°) wherein the assessment that the interaction of the liquid to the microstructures of the substrate is a large factor in the wetting properties of the insect scales is realized. The calculated surface free energy of A. destructor (38.47 mJ/m²) > A. rigidus (31.02 mJ/m²) shows inverse proportionality with the CA measurement. The dispersive interaction between the surface and liquid is more prevalent compared to the polar interaction for both Aspidiotus species, which was observed using the Fowkes method. The results of this study have possible applications to be a potential biomimetic design for various industries such as textiles and coatings.

Keywords: biomimetics, Contact angle, surface characterization, Aspidiotus spp, wetting behavior

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1 Effects of Beeswax Coating on the Properties of Cocoa Bean Shell Based Papers

Authors: Sri Rejeki, Tamrin Tamrin, RH. F. Faradilla, Muhammad N. Ibrahim, Mariana M., Irnawati Irnawati

Abstract:

Cocoa bean shells, despite their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, are still considered as an underutilized agricultural waste. The functional properties and their lignocelluloses content make cocoa bean shells a potential material for paper-based food packaging. In our previous research, we have successfully produced papers from cocoa bean shells that had antioxidant and antibacterial activities. However, the hydrophilic nature of the lignocelluloses of cocoa bean shells hinders the application of the paper to be used as a food packaging. In this research, we aimed to study the effects of beeswax coating on the wettability and mechanical properties of the paper. The coating was done by dipping the papers in beeswax solution several times and in three different beeswax concentrations. The number of dipping and beeswax concentration significantly (p<0.05) affected the water contact angle of the papers. Results show that the water contact angle increases dramatically due to the coating treatment. The control paper or uncoated paper had a contact angle of 40.50o, while the contact angle of the best-coated paper (D3B3: 3x dipping, 3g/10mL beeswax) reached 96.93o. Both tensile strength and percent elongation were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the coating treatment. This showed that beeswax was a potential organic material to improve the hydrophobicity of paper from cocoa bean shells without any undesirable effects on the mechanical properties of the paper.

Keywords: Coating, Contact angle, paper, cocoa bean shell, beeswax

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