Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Consumer Related Abstracts

27 Customer Relations and Use of Online Shopping Sites

Authors: Bahar Urhan Torun, Havva Nur Tarakcı

Abstract:

At the present time, online marketing has become the common target of small and full-scale organizations. Today’s humanbeing who has to spend most of their time in front of the computer because of his job, prefers to socialize by internet due to the easy access to technology. So online marketing area expands day by day. All business organizations from the smallest to the biggest are in a race in order to get a cut from the virtual market share in an extreme competitive environment. However these organizations which use the internet to reach more consumers cannot determine their target group accurately, so this is the biggest handicap of online marketing sales nowadays. The aim of this study is to determine some significant elements about need for communicating efficiently with the consumer on the internet on online marketing. The strategies that can be used in order to increase sales and the limitations of virtual environment where cannot be communicated with the consumer face to face are argued in this study’s scope. As a consequence it is thought that to study on this subject because of lacking and also being limited efficiency of researches and outputs. Within this scope suggesting some proposals about how to communicate efficiently with the consumer and also offering the consumers’ demands efficiently is the essential objective of this study.

Keywords: Communication, Consumer, Competition, Online Marketing

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26 Customers' Attitudes towards Marketing Mix Affecting Purchasing Behavior of Starbucks Coffee (Thailand) Customers in Bangkok

Authors: Polamorn Tamprateep, Warapong Thakanun

Abstract:

This researchs' objectives are: 1. To study the customer demographics that affects the purchasing behavior; 2. To study the marketing mix that affects the purchasing behavior; 3. To study the relationship between purchasing behavior and customers’ perception of Brand Equity. Population of this research is Starbucks Coffee (Thailand) customers in Bangkok. The tool used in this study was questionnaire created from concepts, theories and related researches. The study showed that, of 400 respondents, overall opinion received high score (xˉ= 3.77). When each item is considered, it was found that ‘Staff are knowledgeable in providing service.’, ‘ Staff are friendly.’, ‘Staff possess good communication skill with customers.’, ‘Staff know all types of coffee well.’, and ‘Staff are enthusiastic in giving service.’, all these items received high score with a mean of 3.92, 3.87, 3.77, 3.71 and 3.63, respectively.

Keywords: Consumer, Buying Behavior, mix attitude of the product, Starbucks

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25 Dynamics of Marital Status and Information Search through Consumer Generated Media: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Ruchi Agarwal, Shivkumar Krishnamurti

Abstract:

The study examines the influence of marital status on consumers of products and services using blogs as a source of information. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to collect the primary data from the respondents (experiences). Data were collected from one hundred and eighty seven respondents residing in and around the Emirates of Sharjah and Dubai of the United Arab Emirates. The collected data was analyzed with the help of statistical tools such as averages, percentages, factor analysis, student’s t-test and structural equation modeling technique. Objectives of the study are to know the reasons how married and unmarried or single consumers of products and services are motivated to use blogs as a source of information, to know whether the consumers of products and services irrespective of their marital status share their views and experiences with other bloggers and to know the respondents’ future intentions towards blogging. The study revealed the following: Majority of the respondents have the motivation to blog because they are willing to receive comments on what they post about services, convenience of blogs to search for information about services and products, by blogging respondents share information on the symptoms of a disease/ disorder that may be experienced by someone, helps to share information about ready to cook mix products and are keen to spend more time blogging in the future.

Keywords: Information, Consumer, blog, marital status

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24 Consumer Values in the Perspective of Javanese Mataraman Society: Identification, Meaning, and Application

Authors: Anna Triwijayati, Etsa Astridya Setiyati, Titik Desi Harsoyo

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Culture is the important determinant of human behavior and desire. Culture influences the consumer through the norms and values established by the society in which they live and reflect it. The cultural values of Javanese society certainly have united in the Javanese society behavior in consumption. This research is expected to give big enough theoretical benefits in the findings of cultural value in consumption in Javanese society. These can be an incentive in finding the local cultural value in many tribes in Indonesia, so one time, the local cultural value in Indonesia about consumption can be fundamental part in education and consumption practice in Indonesia. The approach used in this research is non positivist research or is known as qualitative approach. The method or type of research used in this research is ethnomethodology. The collection data is done in Central Java region. The research subject or informant is determined by the purposive technique by certain criteria determined by the researcher. The data is collected by deep interview and observation. Before the data analysis, the researcher does the storing method data stage and implements the data validity procedures. Then, the data is analyzed by the theme and interactive analysis technique. The Javanese Mataraman society has such consumption values such as has to be sufficient, be careful, economical, submit to the one who creates the life, the way life flow, and the present problem is thought in the present also. In the financial management for consumption, the consumer should have the simple life principles, has to be sufficient, has to be able to eat, has to be able to self-press, well-managed/diligent/accurate/careful, the open or transparent management, has the struggle effort, like to self-sacrifice and think about the future. The meaning of consumption value in family is centered to the submission and full-trust to God. These consumption values are applied in consumer behavior in self, family, investment and credit need in short term and long term perspective.

Keywords: Consumer, Values, consumption, Ethnomethodology, Javanese Mataraman

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23 Consumer Protection Law For Users Mobile Commerce as a Global Effort to Improve Business in Indonesia

Authors: Rina Arum Prastyanti

Abstract:

Information technology has changed the ways of transacting and enabling new opportunities in business transactions. Problems to be faced by consumers M Commerce, among others, the consumer will have difficulty accessing the full information about the products on offer and the forms of transactions given the small screen and limited storage capacity, the need to protect children from various forms of excess supply and usage as well as errors in access and disseminate personal data, not to mention the more complex problems as well as problems agreements, dispute resolution that can protect consumers and assurance of security of personal data. It is no less important is the risk of payment and personal information of payment dal am also an important issue that should be on the swatch solution. The purpose of this study is 1) to describe the phenomenon of the use of Mobile Commerce in Indonesia. 2) To determine the form of legal protection for the consumer use of Mobile Commerce. 3) To get the right type of law so as to provide legal protection for consumers Mobile Commerce users. This research is a descriptive qualitative research. Primary and secondary data sources. This research is a normative law. Engineering conducted engineering research library collection or library research. The analysis technique used is deductive analysis techniques. Growing mobile technology and more affordable prices as well as low rates of provider competition also affects the increasing number of mobile users, Indonesia is placed into 4 HP users in the world, the number of mobile phones in Indonesia is estimated at around 250.1 million telephones with a population of 237 556. 363. Indonesian form of legal protection in the use of mobile commerce still a part of the Law No. 11 of 2008 on Information and Electronic Transactions and until now there is no rule of law that specifically regulates mobile commerce. Legal protection model that can be applied to protect consumers of mobile commerce users ensuring that consumers get information about potential security and privacy challenges they may face in m commerce and measures that can be used to limit the risk. Encourage the development of security measures and built security features. To encourage mobile operators to implement data security policies and measures to prevent unauthorized transactions. Provide appropriate methods both time and effectiveness of redress when consumers suffer financial loss.

Keywords: Mobile Commerce, Consumer, Effectiveness, Legal Protection

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22 The Consumer's Behavior of Bakery Products in Bangkok

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon

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The objectives of the consumer behavior of bakery products in Bangkok are to study consumer behavior of the bakery product, to study the essential factors that could possibly affect the consumer behavior and to study recommendations for the development of the bakery products. This research is a survey research. Populations are buyer’s bakery products in Bangkok. The probability sample size is 400. The research uses a questionnaire for self-learning by using information technology. The researcher created a reliability value at 0.71 levels of significance. The data analysis will be done by using the percentage, mean, and standard deviation and testing the hypotheses by using chi-square.

Keywords: Behavior, Consumer, standard deviation, bakery

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21 Good Marketing is an Important Factor for the Success of the Institution

Authors: Maamar Moumena

Abstract:

the Follower of the movement of international competition finds that the success of Japanese companies to break into global markets and win a competitive edge and meet the challenges of this competition, due primarily to the adoption of these companies to the modern concept of marketing, and possession of sophisticated marketing systems, with a focus on pricing policy. The institution's ability to produce goods and services be limited unless accompanied by an effective marketing effort. So the satisfaction of the consumer needs efficiently and effectiveness are unwarranted economic and social presence in the market, and ensure the continuity and achieve their goals, and this can only be achieved through marketing activity, where he activity facet which translates the output of the institution and its presence in the form of financial compensation, and that the inclusion of and marketing function within the functions of the institution and awarded each of gravity reflects the extent of their importance in the conduct of the future of the institution, and depending on excellence in performance and a good application of the basic concepts of marketing and primarily make the consumer focus of attention, so the pleasing of the consumer and earn his allegiance reflects the success of an organization.

Keywords: Marketing, Consumer, Competition, institution

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20 Exploring Tourist’s Attitude towards Environmentally Friendly Practices

Authors: René Haarhoff

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Consumers are constantly reminded of their responsibility towards the environment in a world where words such as global warming, carbon footprint, recycling or ‘green’’ everything has become common language. What was previously considered to be ordinary practices are in many instances frowned upon today and consumers are expected to individually contribute towards a greener mother earth. However unused recycle bins, single travelers in luxury cars, busy airports and vast deforested areas for new developments tell another story. The question arises whether the everyday man in the street really takes the responsibility to balance the three pillars of sustainability: the planet, its people and profit. Undeniably our activities impact on the environment where a healthy economy is needed in a fast paced global environment. The situation is further gloomed in instances where the consumer has paid for inclusive services which directly impacts on the environment. A prime example of this is the tourism industry: accommodation establishments or resorts include clean, daily washed towels and bedding, large bath tubs, inclusive use of electricity and water to name a few. This research evaluates environmentally friendly practices consumers follow at home and also when on holiday. Respondents at Bloemfontein airport, often using tourism products were included in the study. Results reveal that the majority of respondents state that they are concerned about the environment yet when questioned on donation towards endangered species, switching off lights in hotel rooms or using water sparingly a significant difference in results are evident. From the research results it is evident that consumers do not practice what they preach towards a greener environment.

Keywords: Environment, Tourism, Consumer, Green, sustainable practices

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19 Drivers of Liking: Probiotic Petit Suisse Cheese

Authors: Helena Bolini, Erick Esmerino, Adriano Cruz, Juliana Paixao

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The currently concern for health has increased demand for low-calorie ingredients and functional foods as probiotics. Understand the reasons that infer on food choice, besides a challenging task, it is important step for development and/or reformulation of existing food products. The use of appropriate multivariate statistical techniques, such as External Preference Map (PrefMap), associated with regression by Partial Least Squares (PLS) can help in determining those factors. Thus, this study aimed to determine, through PLS regression analysis, the sensory attributes considered drivers of liking in probiotic petit suisse cheeses, strawberry flavor, sweetened with different sweeteners. Five samples in same equivalent sweetness: PROB1 (Sucralose 0.0243%), PROB2 (Stevia 0.1520%), PROB3 (Aspartame 0.0877%), PROB4 (Neotame 0.0025%) and PROB5 (Sucrose 15.2%) determined by just-about-right and magnitude estimation methods, and three commercial samples COM1, COM2 and COM3, were studied. Analysis was done over data coming from QDA, performed by 12 expert (highly trained assessors) on 20 descriptor terms, correlated with data from assessment of overall liking in acceptance test, carried out by 125 consumers, on all samples. Sequentially, results were submitted to PLS regression using XLSTAT software from Byossistemes. As shown in results, it was possible determine, that three sensory descriptor terms might be considered drivers of liking of probiotic petit suisse cheese samples added with sweeteners (p<0.05). The milk flavor was noticed as a sensory characteristic with positive impact on acceptance, while descriptors bitter taste and sweet aftertaste were perceived as descriptor terms with negative impact on acceptance of petit suisse probiotic cheeses. It was possible conclude that PLS regression analysis is a practical and useful tool in determining drivers of liking of probiotic petit suisse cheeses sweetened with artificial and natural sweeteners, allowing food industry to understand and improve their formulations maximizing the acceptability of their products.

Keywords: Consumer, acceptance, quantitative descriptive analysis, sweetener

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18 Social Networks in a Communication Strategy of a Large Company

Authors: Kherbache Mehdi

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Within the framework of the validation of the Master in business administration marketing and sales in INSIM institute international in management Blida, we get the opportunity to do a professional internship in Sonelgaz Enterprise and a thesis. The thesis deals with the integration of social networking in the communication strategy of a company. The problematic is: How communicate with social network can be a solution for companies? The challenges stressed by this thesis were to suggest limits and recommendations to Sonelgaz Enterprise concerning social networks. The whole social networks represent more than a billion people as a potential target for the companies. Thanks to research and a qualitative approach, we have identified tree valid hypothesis. The first hypothesis allows confirming that using social networks cannot be ignored by any company in its communication strategy. However, the second hypothesis demonstrates that it’s necessary to prepare a strategy that integrates social networks in the communication plan of the company. The risk of this strategy is very limited because failure on social networks is not a restraint for the enterprise, social networking is not expensive and, a bad image which could result from it is not as important in the long-term. Furthermore, the return on investment is difficult to evaluate. Finally, the last hypothesis shows that firms establish a new relation between consumers and brands thanks to the proximity allowed by social networks. After the validation of the hypothesis, we suggested some recommendations to Sonelgaz Enterprise regarding the communication through social networks. Firstly, the company must use the interactivity of social network in order to have fruitful exchanges with the community. We also recommended having a strategy to treat negative comments. The company must also suggest delivering resources to the community thanks to a community manager, in order to have a good relation with the community. Furthermore, we advised using social networks to do business intelligence. Sonelgaz Enterprise can have some creative and interactive contents with some amazing applications on Facebook for example. Finally, we recommended to the company to be not intrusive with “fans” or “followers” and to be open to all the platforms: Twitter, Facebook, Linked-In for example.

Keywords: Communication, Social Network, Interaction, Consumer, web 2.0, Internet Users, Twitter, Facebook, buzz, return on investment

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17 Gender Differences in the Perception of Advertising in Postmodern Era

Authors: J. Zavodny Pospisil, L. S. Zavodna, K. Cerna

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The goal of this paper is to identify the main differences in the way men and women perceive TV ads. This paper is based on a research project conducted partly as a review of relevant papers, which deals with gender influence on the cognitive process and postmodern perception of advertising. In addition to that, qualitative research was conducted by means of interviews and structured questionnaires. Furthermore, data acquired from the research were used to evaluate our objectives and hypotheses. The goal of this paper is to compare women's and men's perception of advertisement. Although women are able to perceive more details than men, men are more susceptible to sexual appeals in advertising. Significant differences were also found in the perception of sexual appeals in the context of gender.

Keywords: Advertising, Gender, Consumer, emotion, psychology of advertising

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16 An Intellectual Capital as a Driver for Branding

Authors: Shyam Shukla

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A brand is the identity of a specific product, service or business. A brand can take many forms, including a name, sign, symbol, color, combination or slogan. The word brand began simply as a way to tell one person's identity from another by means of a hot iron stamp. A legally protected brand name is called a trademark. The word brand has continued to evolve to encompass identity - it affects the personality of a product, company or service. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like AIDS awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity1. In this paper, it is tried to explore the significance of an intellectual capital for the branding of an Institution.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Consumer, cultural values, Brand, commodity, zonal cluster

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15 Bridging Consumer Farmer Mobile Application Divide

Authors: Ana Hol

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Technological inventions such as websites, blogs, smartphone applications are on a daily basis influencing our decision making, are improving our productivity and are shaping futures of many consumer and service/product providers. This research identifies that these days both customers and providers heavily rely on smart phone applications. With this in mind, iTunes mobile applications store has been studies. It was identified that food related applications used by consumers can broadly be categorized into purchase apps, diaries, tracking health apps, trip farm location apps and cooking apps. On the other hand, apps used by farmers can be classified as: weather apps, pests / fertilizer app and general Facebook apps. With the aim to blur this farmer-consumer divide our research utilizes Context Specific eTransformation Framework and based on it identifies characteristic of the app that would allow this to happen.

Keywords: Technology, Consumer, Business Innovation, smart phone applications, SME - farmers

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14 Toward an Integrated Safe and Sustainable Food System: A General Overview

Authors: Hasan Vural, Şule Turhan, Erkan Rehber

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It is a fact that food is a vital need of human beings. As a consumer, everyone has the right to access adequate and safe food. There are considerable development to establish quality standards and schemes to have safe foods and sustainable agriculture alternatives to protect natural resources and environment to reach this target. Recently, there is also a remarkable development in integration and combination of these efforts. Food Safety and Sustainable Agriculture Forum organized in 2014, Beijing shows that it is a global awareness more than being an individual view. Eventually, quality standards, assurance systems applied to conventional agriculture has to be applied to sustainable agriculture alternatives to have a holistic sustainable food chain from seed to fork. All actors of the whole food system from farmer to ultimate consumers, along with the state, have to work together meeting this big challenge.

Keywords: Food Safety, Consumer, integrated safe, sustainable food system

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13 Consumer’ Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior on Food Safety Issues Related to Pesticide Residues in Cabbage

Authors: Siegfried Berhimpon, Dekie Rawung, Abdul L. Abadi, Toto Himawan

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A case study on consumer' knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issue related to pesticide residues in cabbage was conducted in the area of Manado and Tomohon city, North Sulawesi. A sample of 150 consumers were selected randomly on location (open market and supermarket) while they were purchasing vegetables. The data on consumers’ perception, knowledge, attitude and behavior on food safety issue regarding pesticide residues were collected using a 5-point, two-section Likert-Scale questionnaire, and the relationship of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issues were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). It was found that, among many food safety issues, the illegal, non-food chemical preservatives were considered the most important one (by more than 35% respondents), followed by high cholesterol content and textile coloring chemical (> 27% respondents). The pesticide residues issue was only in the 4th place. The same results were seen on the issue of quality factors that determine the product selection during purchasing. The pesticide-free and organic products labels were considered much less important quality factors as compared with freshness and nutrition value which were considered the most and the second most important quality factors (almost 65% of respondents). SEM analysis showed that only knowledge and attitude on food safety that had the significant relation (coefficient value of 0.38), whereas those with behaviors were not significant.

Keywords: Food Safety, Consumer, pesticide residues, cabbage

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12 The Practices Perspective in Communication, Consumer and Cultural Studies: A Post-Heideggerian Narrative

Authors: Tony Wilson

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This paper sets out a practices perspective or practices theory, which has become pervasive from business to sociological studies. In doing so, it locates the perspective historically (in the work of the philosopher Heidegger) and provides a contemporary illustration of its application to communication, consumer and cultural studies as central to this conference theme. The structured account of practices (as articulated in eight ‘axioms’) presented towards the conclusion of this paper is an initial statement - planned to encourage further detailed qualitative and systematic research in areas of interest to the conference. Practice theories of equipped and situated construction of participatory meaning (as in media and marketing consuming) are frequently characterized as lacking common ground, or core principles. This paper explores whether by retracing a journey to earlier philosophical underwriting, a shared territory promoting new research can be located as current philosophical hermeneutics. Moreover, through returning to hermeneutic first principles, the paper shows that a series of spatio-temporal metaphors become available - appropriate to analyzing communication as a process across disciplines in which it is considered. Thus one can argue, for instance, that media users engage (enter) digital text from their diverse ‘horizons of expectation’, in a productive enlarging ‘fusion’ of horizons of understanding, thereby ‘projecting’ a new narrative, integrated in a ‘hermeneutic circle’ of meaning. A politics of communication studies may contest a horizon of understanding - so engaging in critical ‘distancing’. Marketing’s consumers can occupy particular places on a horizon of understanding. Media users pass over borders of changing, revised perspectives. Practices research can now not only be discerned in multiple disciplines but equally crosses disciplines. The ubiquitous practice of media use by managers and visitors in a shopping mall - the mediatization of malls - responds to investigating not just with media study expertise, but from an interpretive marketing perspective. How have mediated identities of person or place been changed? Emphasizing understanding of entities in a material environment as ‘equipment’, practices theory enables the quantitative correlation of use and demographic variable as ‘Zeug Score’. Human behavior is fundamentally habitual - shaped by its tacit assumptions - occasionally interrupted by reflection. Practices theory acknowledges such action to be minimally monitored yet nonetheless considers it as constructing narrative. Thus presented in research, ‘storied’ behavior can then be seen to be (in)formed and shaped from a shifting hierarchy of ‘horizons’ or of perspectives - from habituated to reflective - rather than a single seamless narrative. Taking a communication practices perspective here avoids conflating tacit, transformative and theoretical understanding in research. In short, a historically grounded and unifying statement of contemporary practices theory will enhance its potential as a tool in communication, consumer and cultural research, landscaping interpretative horizons of human behaviour through exploring widely the culturally (in)formed narratives equipping and incorporated (reflectively, unreflectively) in people’s everyday lives.

Keywords: Communication, Consumer, hermeneutics, cultural practices

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11 Interpretation of Medical Negligence under Consumer Laws

Authors: Ashfaq M. Naikwadi

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Decided cases of medical negligence, mostly are not settled in the lower courts. Majority of them reach up to the apex courts. This is mostly due to different interpretations of the term medical negligence. After studying various cases of medical negligence it is found that in most of the cases the doctors/hospitals are not held liable. There are different interpretations of law concerning medical services. Globally the principles deciding medical negligence are same, viz. Legal duty of care - breach of that duty - direct causation resulting in damages. Since ordinary negligence is not punishable by law, doctors/hospitals have defenses to save themselves from liability. Complaints of negligence come to the courts whose judges mostly are not oriented with medical services or health sciences. Matters of medical negligence are decided on the basic principles of reasonableness and prudence or by relying on the expert’s opinion. Deciding reasonableness or prudence is a complex issue in case of medical services. Again expert opinion is also questionable as an expert in case of medical negligence is appointed from the same field and same faculty. There is a chance of favoritism to the doctor/hospital. The concept of vicarious liability is not widely applied to in many of the medical negligence cases. Established cases used as precedents were studied to understand the basic principles in deciding medical negligence. This paper evaluates the present criteria in interpreting medical negligence and concludes with suggesting reforms required to be made in deciding matters of medical negligence under the consumer laws.

Keywords: Consumer, Laws, doctors, medical negligence

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10 Consumer Preferences towards Sorbets: A Questionnaire Study

Authors: Iwona Cieślik, Kinga Topolska, Ewa Cieślik, Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Adam Florkiewicz, Daria Chechelska

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Food choice is a complex human behaviour, that is influenced by many interrelating factors. It is important to understand what consumers really want to eat. Nowadays, the growing popularity of frozen desserts is observed. Among them, sorbets are of the special interest. They are made primarily of fruit juice or fruit purée, water and sugar. A questionnaire study was done to evaluate the consumer preferences towards sorbets. A hundred respondents were included in the study. The respondents answered the questions concerning, inter alia, on the favourite taste of sorbets, additional ingredients (pieces of fruits, nuts etc.), the reason for choosing the product and also the opinion about potential purchasing or not the new product. Women, more frequently than men, indicated strawberry sorbet or the product on the basis of citrus fruits as a favourite one. In turn, 14% of men chose the apple taste. Pieces of chocolate were chosen by most of respondents. Men, more often than women, regarded raisins, alcohol and nuts as the most desirable additional ingredients of sorbets. The candied fruits and spices were indicated more frequently by women. Most of respondents indicated the taste as the major reason for sorbet buying. In turn, for 20% women the most important determinant was the care for their figure. It was observed that more than a half of women regarded sorbets as healthier than traditional ice creams. Answering the question: 'If you had the opportunity to try a new sorbet, containing the ingredient with proven healthy properties, would you buy it?', significantly more men than women answered 'yes, because I like novelty'. Meanwhile, for 14% respondents (independently of gender) it would be only a publicity stunt. Knowing what the consumers desire in selecting a product, is a very important information to design and offer them a new one. Sorbets could be an interesting alternative to ice creams.

Keywords: Consumer, Preferences, sorbets, questionnaire study

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9 Factors Affecting Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Chicken Meat from Biosecure Farms

Authors: Asmuddin Natsir, Veronica Sri Lestari, Hasmida Karim, Ian Patrick

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The research aimed at investigating the factors affecting consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms. The research was conducted in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Samples were taken using random sampling technique in two supermarkets namely Lotte Mart and Gelael. Total samples were 50 respondents which comprised the chicken meat consumers. To find out the consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from the biosecure farms, the contingent valuation method was utilized. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Probit Logistic was estimated to examine the factors affecting the consumers’ willingness to pay for at the premium price for chicken meat from the biosecure farms. The research indicates that the education and income affect significantly the consumers’ willingness to pay for chicken meat from the biosecure farms (P < 0.05). The results of the study will be beneficial for the policy makers, producers, consumers and those conducting research.

Keywords: Consumer, Chicken, farms, biosecure, willingness-to-pay

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8 The Relationship between Environmental Factors and Purchasing Decisions in the Residential Market in Sweden

Authors: Agnieszka Zalejska-Jonsson

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The Swedish Green Building Council (SGBC) was established in 2009. Since then, over 1000 buildings have been certified, of which approximately 600 are newly produced and 340 are residential buildings. During that time, approximately 2000 apartment buildings have been built in Sweden. This means that over a five- year period 17% of residential buildings have been certified according to the environmental building scheme. The certification of the building is not a guarantee of environmental progress but it gives us an indication of the extent of the progress. The overarching aim of this study is to investigate the factors behind the relatively slow evolution of the green residential housing market in Sweden. The intention is to examine stated willingness to pay (WTP) for green and low energy apartments, and to explore which factors have a significant effect on stated WTP among apartment owners. A green building was defined as a building certified according to the environmental scheme and a low energy building as a building designed and constructed with high energy efficiency goals. Data for this study were collected through a survey conducted among occupants of comparable apartment buildings: two green and one conventional. The total number of received responses was 429: green A (N=160), response rate 42%; green B (N=138) response rate 35%, and conventional (N=131) response rate 43%. The study applied a quasi-experimental method. Survey responses regarding factors affecting purchase of apartment, stated WTP and environmental literacy have been analysed using descriptive statistics, the Mann–Whitney (rank sum) test and logistic models. Comments received from respondents have been used for further interpretation of results. Results indicate that environmental education has a significant effect on stated WTP. Occupants who declared higher WTP showed a higher level of environmental literacy and indicated that energy efficiency was one of the important factors that affected their decision to buy an apartment. Generally, the respondents were more likely to pay more for low energy buildings than for green buildings. This is to a great extent a consequence of rational customer behaviour and difficulty in apprehending the meaning of green building certification. The analysis shows that people living in green buildings indicate higher WTP for both green and low energy buildings, the difference being statistically significant. It is concluded that growth in the green housing market in Sweden might be achieved if policymakers and developers engage in active education in the environmental labelling system. The demand for green buildings is more likely to increase when the difference between green and conventional buildings is easily understood and information is not only delivered by the estate agent, but is part of an environmental education programme.

Keywords: Environmental education, Consumer, Housing market, Sweden, stated WTP

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7 The Study of Thai Consumer Behavior toward Buying Goods on the Internet

Authors: Pichamon Chansuchai

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The study of Thai consumer behavior toward buying goods on the Internet is a survey research. The five-level rating scale and open-ended questionnaire are applied for this research procedure, which has more than 400 random sampling of Thai people aged between 15-40 years old. The summary findings are: The analysis of respondents profile were female 55.3% and male 44.8% , 35.3% aged between 20-30 years old, had been employed 29.5% with average income up to 11,000 baht/month 50.2% and expenditure more than 11,000 baht per month 29.3%. The internet usage behavior of respondents mostly found that objectives of the internet usage are: 1) Communication 93.3% 2) the categories of websites usage was trading 42.8% 3) The marketing mix effected to trading behavior via internet which can be analyzed in term of marketing factor as following: Product focused on product quality was the most influenced factor with average value 4.75. The cheaper price than overview market was the most effect factor to internet shopping with mean value 4.53. The average value 4.67 of the available place that could reduce spending time for shopping. The effective promotion of the buy 1 get 1 was the stimulus factor for internet shopping with mean value 4.60. For hypothesis testing, the different sex has relationship with buying decision. It presented that male and female have vary purchasing decision via internet with value of significant difference 0.05. Furthermore, the variety occupations of respondents related to the use of selected type of website. It also found that the vary of personal occupation effected to the type of website selection dissimilar with value of significant difference 0.05.

Keywords: Internet, Behavior, Consumer, goods

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6 Customer Satisfaction for Integrated Marketing Communication in Department Store Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Peeraya Somsak, Teerapong Chaisen, Pornpan Puttaraksa, Chayanit Chitchai, Rinyaphat Kecharananta

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This paper aims to study integrated marketing communication (IMC) of department store in Chiang Mai with the object to understand how department stores manage communication in order to inform customer and how customers react to the received information. We study the example of 300 customers both Thai and foreigners who received the given information from the department stores and the reactions of these customers. This paper shows Central festival is the top destination to visit for Thai customers. On the other hand, Central Plaza is favored by foreign customers. However, all department stores need to use more IMC to make awareness for customer.

Keywords: Consumer, Integrated Marketing Communication, satisfaction, department store

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5 Promotional Mix as a Determinant of Consumer Buying Decision in the Food and Beverages Industry: A Case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc., Asejire Ibadan

Authors: Adedeji S. Adegoke, Olakunle N. Popoola

Abstract:

Promotion is indispensible and inestimable property of marketing through which different organizations persuade their prospective customers. The idea of passing information about a product to the consumer at outside the world is known as promotional activities. A study was determined whether there was relationship between promotional mix and consumer buying decision, that is may be customers were influenced by promotion. It was investigated to determine whether promotion can be used to influence competitors’ activities in the market and also research was conducted to determine if there was any problem encountered by Nigeria bottling company plc, in promoting its beverages products. The various forms of promotional mix available for an organization were examined and recommended the appropriate promotional mix that company can adopt to boost the company sales. The research design was depended on the primary and secondary data. The primary data were information collected from the subjects using methods of data collection, that is through the use of questionnaire, interview, direct observation, etc. The secondary data consist of information that already exists having been collected for another purpose by some researchers. These include internal and external sources. The questionnaire was designed and administered to the staff of production and marketing department of Nigeria bottling company plc., which served as the population of this study, out of which sample was drawn randomly from the population, using sample random technique. It was deduced that 90% of the respondents opined that advertising influenced competition in the market and that there was a good sale after they started advert while 10% of them were not sure. At advertising level, 85% of the respondents chose 81-100% as the increase in the percentage recorded in their sales level, while 10% of them agreed that increase in the percentage recorded in their sales was within 61-80% and 5% of them chose 45-60% as the percentage increase in their sales record. Due to unstable economic condition of the Nigeria, many business organizations adopted the promotional strategies. Apart from advertising, it was discovered through research that sales promotion served as an incentive to consumers of Nigeria bottling company plc at a time offer gifts and prizes to consumers which drastically increased their level of sales. Since advertising and sales promotion increased the level of sales, more money should be allocated for this purpose to maintain market share and thereby increase profit.

Keywords: Marketing, Organization, Consumer, promotional mix

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4 Examination of How Do Smart Watches Influence the Market of Luxury Watches with Particular Regard of the Buying-Reasons

Authors: Christopher Benedikt Jakob

Abstract:

In our current society, there is no need to take a look at the wristwatch to know the exact time. Smartphones, the watch in the car or the computer watch, inform us about the time too. Over hundreds of years, luxury watches have held a fascination for human beings. Consumers buy watches that cost thousands of euros, although they could buy much cheaper watches which also fulfill the function to indicate the correct time. This shows that the functional value has got a minor meaning with reference to the buying-reasons as regards luxury watches. For a few years, people have an increased demand to track data like their walking distance per day or to track their sleep for example. Smart watches enable consumers to get information about these data. There exists a trend that people intend to optimise parts of their social life, and thus they get the impression that they are able to optimise themselves as human beings. With the help of smart watches, they are able to optimise parts of their productivity and to realise their targets at the same time. These smart watches are also offered as luxury models, and the question is: how will customers of traditional luxury watches react? Therefore this study has the intention to give answers to the question why people are willing to spend an enormous amount of money on the consumption of luxury watches. The self-expression model, the relationship basis model, the functional benefit representation model and the means-end-theory are chosen as an appropriate methodology to find reasons why human beings purchase specific luxury watches and luxury smart watches. This evaluative approach further discusses these strategies concerning for example if consumers buy luxury watches/smart watches to express the current self or the ideal self and if human beings make decisions on expected results. The research critically evaluates that relationships are compared on the basis of their advantages. Luxury brands offer socio-emotional advantages like social functions of identification and that the strong brand personality of luxury watches and luxury smart watches helps customers to structure and retrieve brand awareness which simplifies the process of decision-making. One of the goals is to identify if customers know why they like specific luxury watches and dislike others although they are produced in the same country and cost comparable prices. It is very obvious that the market for luxury watches especially for luxury smart watches is changing way faster than it has been in the past. Therefore the research examines the market changing parameters in detail.

Keywords: Consumer, Brand management, smart watch, buying-behaviour, luxury watch

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3 Examination of the Self-Expression Model with Reference to Luxury Watches with Particular Regard of the Buying-Reasons

Authors: Christopher Benedikt Jakob

Abstract:

Human beings are intrigued by luxury watches for decades. It is fascinating that customers pay an enormous amount of money for specific wristwatch models. It is fascinating that customers of the luxury watch industry accept a yearly price increase. This behavior increases their desirability even more. Luxury watches are perceived as status symbols, but they are additionally accepted as a currency without the disadvantage of currency fluctuations. It is obvious that the symbolic value is more important as the functional value with reference to the buying-reasons as regards luxury watches. Nowadays human beings do not need a wristwatch to read the time. Tablets, notebooks, smartphones, the watch in the car and watches on public places are used to inform people about the current time. This is one of the reasons why there is a trend that people do not wear wristwatches anymore. Due to these facts, this study has the intention to give answers to the question why people invest an enormous amount of money on the consumption of luxury watches and why those watches are seen as a status symbol. The study examines why the luxury watch industry records significant growth rates. The self-expression model is used as an appropriate methodology to find reasons why human beings purchase specific luxury watches. This evaluative approach further discusses if human beings are aware of their current self and their ideal self and how they express them. Furthermore, the research critically evaluates the people’s social self and their ideal social self. One of the goals is to identify if customers know why they like specific luxury watches and dislike others although they have the same quality and cost comparable prices.

Keywords: Consumer, Brand Awareness, self-expression, buying-behaviour, luxury watch

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2 Consumer Over-Indebtedness in Germany: An Investigation of Key Determinants

Authors: Xiaojing Wang, Ann-Marie Ward, Tony Wall

Abstract:

The problem of over-indebtedness has increased since deregulation of the banking industry in the 1980s, and now it has become a major problem for most countries in Europe, including Germany. Consumer debt issues have attracted not only the attention of academics but also government and debt counselling institutions. Overall, this research aims to contribute to the knowledge gap regarding the causes of consumer over-indebtedness in Germany and to develop predictive models for assessing consumer over-indebtedness risk at consumer level. The situation of consumer over-indebtedness is serious in Germany. The relatively high level of social welfare support in Germany suggests that consumer debt problems are caused by other factors, other than just over-spending and income volatility. Prior literature suggests that the overall stability of the economy and level of welfare support for individuals from the structural environment contributes to consumers’ debt problems. In terms of cultural influence, the conspicuous consumption theory in consumer behaviour suggests that consumers would spend more than their means to be seen as similar profiles to consumers in a higher socio-economic class. This results in consumers taking on more debt than they can afford, and eventually becoming over-indebted. Studies have also shown that financial literacy is negatively related to consumer over-indebtedness risk. Whilst prior literature has examined structural and cultural influences respectively, no study has taken a collective approach. To address this gap, a model is developed to investigate the association between consumer over-indebtedness and proxies for influences from the structural and cultural environment based on the above theories. The model also controls for consumer demographic characteristics identified as being of influence in prior literature, such as gender and age, and adverse shocks, such as divorce or bereavement in the household. Benefiting from SOEP regional data, this study is able to conduct quantitative empirical analysis to test both structural and cultural influences at a localised level. Using German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study data from 2006 to 2016, this study finds that social benefits, financial literacy and the existence of conspicuous consumption all contribute to being over-indebted. Generally speaking, the risk of becoming over-indebted is high when consumers are in a low-welfare community, have little awareness of their own financial situation and always over-spend. In order to tackle the problem of over-indebtedness, countermeasures can be taken, for example, increasing consumers’ financial awareness, and the level of welfare support. By analysing causes of consumer over-indebtedness in Germany, this study also provides new insights on the nature and underlying causes of consumer debt issues in Europe.

Keywords: Consumer, Financial Literacy, Debt, socio-economic

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1 Microbial Assessment of Dairy Byproducts in Albania as a Basis for Consumer Safety

Authors: Klementina Puto, Ermelinda Nexhipi, Evi Llaka

Abstract:

Dairy by-products are a fairly good environment for microorganisms due to their composition for their growth. Microbial populations have a significant impact in the production of cheese, butter, yogurt, etc. in terms of their organoleptic quality and at the same time some also cause their breakdown. In this paper, the microbiological contamination of soft cheese, butter and yogurt produced in the country (domestic) and imported is assessed, as an indicator of hygiene with impact on public health. The study was extended during September 2018-June 2019 and was divided into three periods, September-December, January-March, and April-June. During this study, a total of 120 samples were analyzed, of which 60 samples of cheese and butter locally produced, and 60 samples of imported soft cheese and butter productions. The microbial indicators analyzed are Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Analyzes have been conducted at the Food Safety Laboratory (FSIV) in Tirana in accordance with EU Regulation 2073/2005. Sampling was performed according to the specific international standards for these products (ISO 6887 and ISO 8261). Sampling and transport of samples were done under sterile conditions. Also, coding of samples was done to preserve the anonymity of subjects. After the analysis, the country's soft cheese products compared to imports were more contaminated with S. aureus and E. coli. Meanwhile, the imported butter samples that were analyzed, resulted within norms compared to domestic ones. Based on the results, it was concluded that the microbial quality of samples of cheese, butter and yogurt analyzed remains a real problem for hygiene in Albania. The study will also serve business operators in Albania to improve their work to ensure good hygiene on the basis of the HACCP plan and to provide a guarantee of consumer health.

Keywords: Health, Microbial, Consumer, Dairy, by-products

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