Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

constructivism Related Abstracts

16 Constructivism Learning Management in Mathematics Analysis Courses

Authors: Komon Paisal


The purposes of this research were (1) to create a learning activity for constructivism, (2) study the Mathematical Analysis courses learning achievement, and (3) study students’ attitude toward the learning activity for constructivism. The samples in this study were divided into 2 parts including 3 Mathematical Analysis courses instructors of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who provided basic information and attended the seminar and 17 Mathematical Analysis courses students who were studying in the academic and engaging in the learning activity for constructivism. The research instruments were lesson plans constructivism, subjective Mathematical Analysis courses achievement test with reliability index of 0.8119, and an attitude test concerning the students’ attitude toward the Mathematical Analysis courses learning activity for constructivism. The result of the research show that the efficiency of the Mathematical Analysis courses learning activity for constructivism is 73.05/72.16, which is more than expected criteria of 70/70. The research additionally find that the average score of learning achievement of students who engaged in the learning activities for constructivism are equal to 70% and the students’ attitude toward the learning activity for constructivism are at the medium level.

Keywords: constructivism, Learning Management, Learning Activity, mathematics analysis courses

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15 Introducing the Digital Backpack: Looking at Ivory Coast

Authors: Eunice H. Li


This e-Poster presents how the ‘digital backpack’ was introduced to primary school children in Ivory Coast. The idea of a ‘digital backpack’ was initiated by Mr. Thierry N’Doufou in 2012, who later designed and presented to the rest of the world in September 2014. The motivation behind the backpack was to relieve children of the heavy-weight they carry in their school backpacks. Another motivation was to promote Ivory Coast as a country where all children are brought into the digital era. Thierry N’Doufou regards education as the means by which his nation and the entire African Continent can be developed as a prosperous territory. The ‘digital backpack’ contains the entire curriculum for each class and favours a constructivist approach to learning. The children’s notes and exercises are also included in the pack. Additionally, teachers and parents are able to monitor remotely children’s activities while they are working with the ‘backpack’. Teachers are also able to issue homework, assess student’s progress and manage the student’s coursework. This means that teachers should always think the most appropriate pedagogies that can be used to help children to learn. Furthermore, teachers, parents and fellow students are able to have conversations and discussions by using web portals. It is also possible to access more apps if children would like to have additional learning activities. From the presentation in the e-Poster, it seems reasonable to conclude that the ‘digital backpack’ has potential to reach other-level of education. In this way, all will be able to benefit from this new invention.

Keywords: pedagogy, Curriculum, constructivism, Social Constructivism, distance learning environment, ubiquitous learning environment

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14 The Effect of Paper Based Concept Mapping on Students' Academic Achievement and Attitude in Science Education

Authors: Orhan Akınoğlu, Arif Çömek, Ersin Elmacı, Tuğba Gündoğdu


The concept map is known to be a powerful tool to organize the ideas and concepts of an individuals’ mind. This tool is a kind of visual map that illustrates the relationships between the concepts of a certain subject. The effect of concept mapping on cognitive and affective qualities is one of the research topics among educational researchers for last decades. We educators want to utilize it both as an instructional tool or an assessment tool in classes. For that reason, this study aimed to determine the effect of concept mapping as a learning strategy in science classes on students’ academic achievement and attitude. The research employed a randomized pre-test post-test control group design. Data collected from 60 sixth grade students participated in the study from a randomly selected primary school in Turkey. Sixth-grade classes of the school were analyzed according to students’ academic achievement, science attitude, gender, mathematics, science courses grades, and their GPAs before the implementation. Two of the classes found to be equivalent (t=0,983, p>0,05) and one of them was defined as experimental and the other one control group randomly. During a 5-weeks period, the experimental group students (N=30) used the paper-based concept mapping method while the control group students (N=30) were taught with the traditional approach according to the science and technology education curriculum for light and sound subject. Both groups were taught by the same teacher who is experienced using concept mapping in science classes. Before the implementation, the teacher explained the theory of the concept maps and showed how to create paper-based concept mapping individually to the experimental group students for two hours. Then for two following hours she asked them to create some concept maps related to their former science subjects and gave them feedback by reviewing their concept maps to be sure that they can create during the implementation. The data were collected by science achievement test, science attitude scale and personal information form. Science achievement test and science attitude scale were implemented as pre-test and post-test while personal information form was implemented just as once. The reliability coefficient of the achievement test was KR20=0,76 and Cronbach’s Alpha of the attitude scale was 0,89. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. According to the results, there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control group for academic achievement but not for attitude. The experimental group had significantly greater gains from academic achievement test than the control group (t=0,02, p<0,05). The findings showed that the paper-and-pencil concept mapping can be used as an effective method for students’ academic achievement in science classes. The results have implications for further researches.

Keywords: Science Education, Academic Achievement, constructivism, Concept Mapping, science attitude

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13 Dynamics of India's Nuclear Identity

Authors: Smita Singh


Through the constructivist perspective, this paper explores the transformation of India’s nuclear identity from an irresponsible nuclear weapon power to a ‘de-facto nuclear power’ in the emerging international nuclear order From a nuclear abstainer to a bystander and finally as a ‘de facto nuclear weapon state’, India has put forth its case as a unique and exceptional nuclear power as opposed to Iran, Iraq and North Korea with similar nuclear ambitions, who have been snubbed as ‘rogue states’ by the international community. This paper investigates the reasons behind international community’s gradual acceptance of India’s nuclear weapons capabilities and nuclear identity after the Indo-U.S. Nuclear Deal. In this paper, the central concept of analysis is the inter-subjective nature of identity in the nuclear arena. India’s nuclear behaviour has been discursively constituted by India through evolving images of the ‘self’ and the ‘other.’ India’s sudden heightened global status is not solely the consequence of its 1998 nuclear tests but a calibrated projection as a responsible stakeholder in other spheres such as economic potential, market prospects, democratic credentials and so on. By examining India’s nuclear discourse this paper contends that India has used its material and discursive power in presenting a n striking image as a responsible nuclear weapon power (though not yet a legal nuclear weapon state as per the NPT). By historicising India’s nuclear trajectory through an inter-subjective analysis of identities, this paper moves a step ahead in providing a theoretical interpretation of state actions and nuclear identity construction.

Keywords: constructivism, India, nuclear identity, international stakeholder

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12 Extent of Constructivist Learning in Science Classes of the College Department of Southville International School and Colleges: Implication to Effective College Teaching

Authors: Mark Edward S. Paulo


This study was conducted to determine the extent of constructivist learning in science classes of the college department of Southville International School and Colleges. This explores the students’ assessment of their learning when professors would give lecture and various activities in the classroom and at the same time their perception on how their professors maintain a constructivist learning environment. In this study, a total of 185 students participated. These students were enrolled in Science courses offered in the first semester of AY 2014 to 2015. Descriptive correlational method was used in this study while simple random sampling technique was utilized in getting the number of target population. The results revealed that student often observed that their professors apply constructivist approach when teaching sciences. A positive correlation was found between students’ level of learning and extent of constructivism.

Keywords: pedagogy, constructivism, college teaching, student-centered approach

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11 Teachers' and Learners' Experiences of Learners' Writing in English First Additional Language

Authors: Jane-Francis A. Abongdia, Thandiswa Mpiti


There is an international concern to develop children’s literacy skills. In many parts of the world, the need to become fluent in a second language is essential for gaining meaningful access to education, the labour market and broader social functioning. In spite of these efforts, the problem still continues. The level of English language proficiency is far from satisfactory and these goals are unattainable by others. The issue is more complex in South Africa as learners are immersed in a second language (L2) curriculum. South Africa is a prime example of a country facing the dilemma of how to effectively equip a majority of its population with English as a second language or first additional language (FAL). Given the multilingual nature of South Africa with eleven official languages, and the position and power of English, the study investigates teachers’ and learners’ experiences on isiXhosa and Afrikaans background learners’ writing in English First Additional Language (EFAL). Moreover, possible causes of writing difficulties and teacher’s practices for writing are explored. The theoretical and conceptual framework for the study is provided by studies on constructivist theories and sociocultural theories. In exploring these issues, a qualitative approach through semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis were adopted. This data is analysed by critical discourse analysis (CDA). The study identified a weak correlation between teachers’ beliefs and their actual teaching practices. Although the teachers believe that writing is as important as listening, speaking, reading, grammar and vocabulary, and that it needs regular practice, the data reveal that they fail to put their beliefs into practice. Moreover, the data revealed that learners were disturbed by their home language because when they do not know a word they would write either the isiXhosa or the Afrikaans equivalent. Code-switching seems to have instilled a sense of “dependence on translations” where some learners would not even try to answer English questions but would wait for the teacher to translate the questions into isiXhosa or Afrikaans before they could attempt to give answers. The findings of the study show a marked improvement in the writing performance of learners who used the process approach in writing. These findings demonstrate the need for assisting teachers to shift away from focusing only on learners’ performance (testing and grading) towards a stronger emphasis on the process of writing. The study concludes that the process approach to writing could enable teachers to focus on the various parts of the writing process which can give more freedom to learners to experiment their language proficiency. It would require that teachers develop a deeper understanding of the process/genre approaches to teaching writing advocated by CAPS. All in all, the study shows that both learners and teachers face numerous challenges relating to writing. This means that more work still needs to be done in this area. The present study argues that teachers teaching EFAL learners should approach writing as a critical and core aspect of learners’ education. Learners should be exposed to intensive writing activities throughout their school years.

Keywords: Writing, constructivism, English second language, language of learning and teaching

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10 Online Language Learning and Teaching Pedagogy: Constructivism and Beyond

Authors: Zeineb Deymi-Gheriani


In the last two decades, one can clearly observe a boom of interest for e-learning and web-supported programs. However, one can also notice that many of these programs focus on the accumulation and delivery of content generally as a business industry with no much concern for theoretical underpinnings. The existing research, at least in online English language teaching (ELT), has demonstrated a lack of an effective online teaching pedagogy anchored in a well-defined theoretical framework. Hence, this paper comes as an attempt to present constructivism as one of the theoretical bases for the design of an effective online language teaching pedagogy which is at the same time technologically intelligent and theoretically informed to help envision how education can best take advantage of the information and communication technology (ICT) tools. The present paper discusses the key principles underlying constructivism, its implications for online language teaching design, as well as its limitations that should be avoided in the e-learning instructional design. Although the paper is theoretical in nature, essentially based on an extensive literature survey on constructivism, it does have practical illustrations from an action research conducted by the author both as an e-tutor of English using Moodle online educational platform at the Virtual University of Tunis (VUT) from 2007 up to 2010 and as a face-to-face (F2F) English teaching practitioner in the Professional Certificate of English Language Teaching Training (PCELT) at AMIDEAST, Tunisia (April-May, 2013).

Keywords: Active Learning, constructivism, Piaget, Experiential Learning, Vygotsky

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9 Enhancement of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Teacher Trainers by Fun Game Learning Approach

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Gananathan M. Nadarajah, Saraswathy Vellasamy, Evelyn Gnanam William George


The purpose of the study is to explore how the fun game-learning approach enhances teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills. Two-day fun filled fun game learning-approach was introduced to teacher trainers as a Continuous Professional Development Program (CPD). 26 teacher trainers participated in this Transformation of Teaching and Learning Fun Way Program, organized by Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia. Qualitative research technique was adopted as the researchers observed the participants’ higher order thinking skills developed during the program. Data were collected from observational checklist; interview transcriptions of four participants and participants’ reflection notes. All the data were later analyzed with NVivo data analysis process. The finding of this study presented five main themes, which are critical thinking, hands on activities, creating, application and use of technology. The studies showed that the teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills were enhanced after the two-day CPD program. Therefore, Institute of Teacher Education will have more success using the fun way game-learning approach to develop higher order thinking skills among its teacher trainers who can implement these skills to their trainee teachers in future. This study also added knowledge to Constructivism learning theory, which will further highlight the prominence of the fun way learning approach to enhance higher order thinking skills.

Keywords: constructivism, teacher trainer, game-learning approach, higher order thinking skill

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8 A Constructionist View of Projects, Social Media and Tacit Knowledge in a College Classroom: An Exploratory Study

Authors: John Zanetich


Designing an educational activity that encourages inquiry and collaboration is key to engaging students in meaningful learning. Educational Information and Communications Technology (EICT) plays an important role in facilitating cooperative and collaborative learning in the classroom. The EICT also facilitates students’ learning and development of the critical thinking skills needed to solve real world problems. Projects and activities based on constructivism encourage students to embrace complexity as well as find relevance and joy in their learning. It also enhances the students’ capacity for creative and responsible real-world problem solving. Classroom activities based on constructivism offer students an opportunity to develop the higher–order-thinking skills of defining problems and identifying solutions. Participating in a classroom project is an activity for both acquiring experiential knowledge and applying new knowledge to practical situations. It also provides an opportunity for students to integrate new knowledge into a skill set using reflection. Classroom projects can be developed around a variety of learning objects including social media, knowledge management and learning communities. The construction of meaning through project-based learning is an approach that encourages interaction and problem-solving activities. Projects require active participation, collaboration and interaction to reach the agreed upon outcomes. Projects also serve to externalize the invisible cognitive and social processes taking place in the activity itself and in the student experience. This paper describes a classroom project designed to elicit interactions by helping students to unfreeze existing knowledge, to create new learning experiences, and then refreeze the new knowledge. Since constructivists believe that students construct their own meaning through active engagement and participation as well as interactions with others. knowledge management can be used to guide the exchange of both tacit and explicit knowledge in interpersonal interactions between students and guide the construction of meaning. This paper uses an action research approach to the development of a classroom project and describes the use of technology, social media and the active use of tacit knowledge in the college classroom. In this project, a closed group Facebook page becomes the virtual classroom where interaction is captured and measured using engagement analytics. In the virtual learning community, the principles of knowledge management are used to identify the process and components of the infrastructure of the learning process. The project identifies class member interests and measures student engagement in a learning community by analyzing regular posting on the Facebook page. These posts are used to foster and encourage interactions, reflect a student’s interest and serve as reaction points from which viewers of the post convert the explicit information in the post to implicit knowledge. The data was collected over an academic year and was provided, in part, by the Google analytic reports on Facebook and self-reports of posts by members. The results support the use of active tacit knowledge activities, knowledge management and social media to enhance the student learning experience and help create the knowledge that will be used by students to construct meaning.

Keywords: Social Media, Knowledge Management, constructivism, tacit knowledge

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7 Augmented Reality Sandbox and Constructivist Approach for Geoscience Teaching and Learning

Authors: Muhammad Nawaz, Farha Sattar, Sandeep N. Kundu


Augmented reality sandbox adds new dimensions to education and learning process. It can be a core component of geoscience teaching and learning to understand the geographic contexts and landform processes. Augmented reality sandbox is a useful tool not only to create an interactive learning environment through spatial visualization but also it can provide an active learning experience to students and enhances the cognition process of learning. Augmented reality sandbox can be used as an interactive learning tool to teach geomorphic and landform processes. This article explains the augmented reality sandbox and the constructivism approach for geoscience teaching and learning, and endeavours to explore the ways to teach the geographic processes using the three-dimensional digital environment for the deep learning of the geoscience concepts interactively.

Keywords: Geoscience, Deep learning, constructivism, augmented reality sandbox

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6 Students' Ability to Solve Complex Accounting Problems Using a Framework-Based Approach

Authors: Karen Odendaal


Accounting transactions are becoming more complex, and more extensive accounting guidance is provided on a continuous basis. It is widely perceived that conceptual teaching of accounting contributes to lifelong learning. Such a conceptual teaching approach also contributes to effective accounting problem-solving. This framework-based approach is rooted in educational psychologies such as constructivism and Ausubel’s subsumption theory. This study aimed at investigating the ability of students to solve complex accounting problems by using only concepts underlying the Conceptual Framework. An assignment was administered to pre-graduate students at a South African university and this study made use of an interpretative research design which implemented multiple research instruments to investigate the ability of students to solve complex accounting problems using only concepts underlying the Conceptual Framework. Student perceptions were analysed and were aided by a related reflective questionnaire. The importance of the study indicates the necessity of Accounting educators to enhance a conceptual understanding among students as a mechanism for problem-solving of accounting issues. The results indicate that the ability of students to solve accounting problems effectively using only the Conceptual Framework depends on the complexity of the scenario and the students’ familiarity with the problem. The study promotes a balanced and more conceptual (rather than only technical) preference to the problem-solving of complex accounting problems. The study indubitably promotes considerable emphasis on the importance of the Conceptual Framework in accounting education and the promotion of life-long learning in the subject field.

Keywords: Accounting Education, constructivism, problem-solving, conceptual teaching, framework-based

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5 Constructivist Design Approaches to Video Production for Distance Education in Business and Economics

Authors: C. von Essen


This study outlines and evaluates a constructivist design approach to the creation of educational video on postgraduate business degree programmes. Many online courses are tapping into the educational affordances of video, as this form of online learning has the potential to create rich, multimodal experiences. And yet, in many learning contexts video is still being used to transmit instruction to passive learners, rather than promote learner engagement and knowledge creation. Constructivism posits the notion that learning is shaped as students make connections between their experiences and ideas. This paper pivots on the following research question: how can we design educational video in ways which promote constructivist learning and stimulate analytic viewing? By exploring and categorizing over two thousand educational videos created since 2014 for over thirty postgraduate courses in business, economics, mathematics and statistics, this paper presents and critically reflects on a taxonomy of video styles and features. It links the pedagogical intent of video – be it concept explanation, skill demonstration, feedback, real-world application of ideas, community creation, or the cultivation of course narrative – to specific presentational characteristics such as visual effects including diagrammatic and real-life graphics and aminations, commentary and sound options, chronological sequencing, interactive elements, and presenter set-up. The findings of this study inform a framework which captures the pedagogical, technological and production considerations instructional designers and educational media specialists should be conscious of when planning and preparing the video. More broadly, the paper demonstrates how learning theory and technology can coalesce to produce informed and pedagogical grounded instructional design choices. This paper reveals how crafting video in a more conscious and critical manner can produce powerful, new educational design.

Keywords: Instructional Design, Business Education, constructivism, educational video

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4 Inductive Grammar, Student-Centered Reading, and Interactive Poetry: The Effects of Teaching English with Fun in Schools of Two Villages in Lebanon

Authors: Talar Agopian


Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) is a common practice in many Lebanese schools. However, ESL teaching is done in traditional ways. Methods such as constructivism are seldom used, especially in villages. Here lies the significance of this research which joins constructivism and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in ESL classes in Lebanese villages. The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of applying constructivist student-centered strategies in teaching grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry on students in elementary ESL classes in two villages in Lebanon, Zefta in South Lebanon and Boqaata in Mount Lebanon. 20 English teachers participated in a training titled “Teaching English with Fun”, which focused on strategies that create a student-centered class where active learning takes place and there is increased learner engagement and autonomy. The training covered three main areas in teaching English: grammar, reading comprehension, and poetry. After participating in the training, the teachers applied the new strategies and methods in their ESL classes. The methodology comprised two phases: in phase one, practice-based research was conducted as the teachers attended the training and applied the constructivist strategies in their respective ESL classes. Phase two included the reflections of the teachers on the effects of the application of constructivist strategies. The results revealed the educational benefits of constructivist student-centered strategies; the students of teachers who applied these strategies showed improved engagement, positive attitudes towards poetry, increased motivation, and a better sense of autonomy. Future research is required in applying constructivist methods in the areas of writing, spelling, and vocabulary in ESL classrooms of Lebanese villages.

Keywords: Active Learning, constructivism, Learner Engagement, student-centered strategies

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3 Cognitive Stereotype Behaviors and Their Imprinting on the Individuals with Autism

Authors: Li-Ju Chen, Hsiang-Lin Chan, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng, Hui-Ju Chen


Stereotype behavior is one of the maladaptive syndromes of the individuals with autism. Most of the previous researches focused on the stereotype behavior with stimulating type, while less on the stereotype behavior about cognition (This research names it cognitive stereotype behavior; CSB). This research explored CSB and the rationality to explain CSB with imprinting phenomenon. After excluding the samples without CSB described, the data that came from 271 individuals with autism were recruited and analyzed with quantitative and qualitative analyses. This research discovers that : (1) Most of the individuals with autism originally came out CSB at 3 years old and more than a half of them appeared before 4 years old; The average age which firstly came out CSB was 6.10 years old, the average time insisting or ossifying CSB was 31.71 minutes each time and the average longest time which they last was 358.35 minutes (5.97 hours). (2) CSB demonstrates various aspects, this research classified them into 4 fields with 26 categories. They were categorized into sudden CSB or habitual CSB by imprinting performance. (3) Most of the autism commented that their CSBs were not necessary but they could not control them well. One-third of them appeared CSB suddenly and the first occurrence accompanied a strong emotional or behavioral response. (4) Whether respondent is the person with autism himself/herself or not was the critical element: on the awareness of the severity degree, disturbance degree, and the emotional /behavioral intensity at the first-time CSB happened. This study concludes imprinting could reasonably explain the phenomenon CSB forms. There are implications leading the individuals with autism and their family to develop coping strategies to promote individuals with autism having a better learning accomplishment and life quality in their future.

Keywords: autism, constructivism, stereotype, cognitive stereotype behavior, imprinting

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2 Examining Terrorism through a Constructivist Framework: Case Study of the Islamic State

Authors: Shivani Yadav


The Study of terrorism lends itself to the constructivist framework as constructivism focuses on the importance of ideas and norms in shaping interests and identities. Constructivism is pertinent to understand the phenomenon of a terrorist organization like the Islamic State (IS), which opportunistically utilizes radical ideas and norms to shape its ‘politics of identity’. This ‘identity’, which is at the helm of preferences and interests of actors, in turn, shapes actions. The paper argues that an effective counter-terrorism policy must recognize the importance of ideas in order to counter the threat arising from acts of radicalism and terrorism. Traditional theories of international relations, with an emphasis on state-centric security problematic, exhibit several limitations and problems in interpreting the phenomena of terrorism. With the changing global order, these theories have failed to adapt to the changing dimensions of terrorism, especially ‘newer’ actors like the Islamic State (IS). The paper observes that IS distinguishes itself from other terrorist organizations in the way that it recruits and spreads its propaganda. Not only are its methods different, but also its tools (like social media) are new. Traditionally, too, force alone has rarely been sufficient to counter terrorism, but it seems especially impossible to completely root out an organization like IS. Time is ripe to change the discourse around terrorism and counter-terrorism strategies. The counter-terrorism measures adopted by states, which primarily focus on mitigating threats to the national security of the state, are preoccupied with statist objectives of the continuance of state institutions and maintenance of order. This limitation prevents these theories from addressing the questions of justice and the ‘human’ aspects of ideas and identity. These counter-terrorism strategies adopt a problem-solving approach that attempts to treat the symptoms without diagnosing the disease. Hence, these restrictive strategies fail to look beyond calculated retaliation against violent actions in order to address the underlying causes of discontent pertaining to ‘why’ actors turn violent in the first place. What traditional theories also overlook is that overt acts of violence may have several causal factors behind them, some of which are rooted in the structural state system. Exploring these root causes through the constructivist framework helps to decipher the process of ‘construction of terror’ and to move beyond the ‘what’ in theorization in order to describe ‘why’, ‘how’ and ‘when’ terrorism occurs. Study of terrorism would much benefit from a constructivist analysis in order to explore non-military options while countering the ideology propagated by the IS.

Keywords: constructivism, Counter terrorism, Islamic State, politics of identity

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1 Efficacy of the Use of Different Teaching Approaches of Math Teachers

Authors: Elymar Pascual, Nilda San Miguel


The main focus of this study is exploring the effective approaches in teaching Mathematics that is being applied in public schools, s.y. 2018-2019. This research was written as connected output to the district-wide School Learning Action Cell (DISLAC) on Math teaching approaches which was recently conducted in Victoria, Laguna. Fifty-four math teachers coming from 17 schools in Victoria became the respondents of this study. Qualitative method of doing research was applied. Teachers’ responses to the following concerns were gathered, analyzed and interpreted: (1) evaluation of the recently conducted DISLAC, (2) status of the use of different approaches, (3) perception on the effective use of approaches, (4) preference of approach to explore in classroom sessions, (5) factors affecting the choice of approach, (6) difficulties encountered, (7) and perceived benefit to learners. Results showed that the conduct of DISLAC was very highly satisfactory (mean 4.41). Teachers looked at collaborative approach as very highly effective (mean 4.74). Fifty-two percent of the teachers is using collaborative approach, 17% constructivist, 11% integrative, 11% inquiry-based, and 9% reflective. Reflective approach was chosen to be explored by most of the respondents (29%) in future sessions. The difficulties encountered by teachers in using the different approaches are: (1) learners’ difficulty in following instructions, (2) lack of focus, (3) lack of willingness and cooperation, (4) teachers’ lack of mastery in using different approaches, and (5) lack of time of doing visual aids because of time mismanagement. Teachers deemed the use of various teaching approaches can help the learners to have (1) mastery of competency, (2) increased communication, (3) improved confidence, (4) facility in comprehension, and (5) better academic output. The result obtained from this study can be used as an input for SLACs. Recommendations at the end of the study were given to school/district heads and future researchers.

Keywords: Collaborative, approaches, Integrative, constructivism, reflective, inquiry-based

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