Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

construction industry Related Abstracts

38 Causes and Impacts of Rework Costs in Construction Projects

Authors: Muhammad Ejaz1


Rework has been defined as: "The unnecessary effort of re-doing a process or activity that was incorrectly implemented the first time." A great threat to the construction industry is rework. By and large due attention has not been given to avoid the causes of reworks, resulting time and cost over runs, in civil engineering projects. Besides these direct consequences, there might also be indirect consequences, such as stress, de-motivation or loss of future clients. When delivered products do not meet the requirements or expectations, work often has to be redone. Rework occurs in various phases of the construction process or in various divisions of a company. Rework can occur on the construction site or in a management department due to for example bad materials management. Rework can also have internal or external origins. Changes in clients’ expectations are an example of an external factor that might lead to rework. Rework can cause many costs to be higher than calculated at the start of the project. Rework events can have many different origins and for this research they have been categorized into four categories; changes, errors, omissions, and damages. The research showed that the major source of reworks were non professional attitude from technical hands and ignorance of total quality management principals by stakeholders. It also revealed that sources of reworks have not major differences among project categories. The causes were further analyzed by interviewing employees. Based on existing literature an extensive list of rework causes was made and during the interviews the interviewees were asked to confirm or deny statements regarding rework causes. The causes that were most frequently confirmed can be grouped into the understanding categories. 56% (max) of the causes are change-related, 30% (max) is error-related and 18% (max) falls into another category. Therefore, by recognizing above mentioned factors, reworks can be reduced to a great extent.

Keywords: Total Quality Management, construction industry, cost overruns, rework, material management, client’s expectations

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37 Integration of LCA and BIM for Sustainable Construction

Authors: Laura Álvarez Antón, Joaquín Díaz


The construction industry is turning towards sustainability. It is a well-known fact that sustainability is based on a balance between environmental, social and economic aspects. In order to achieve sustainability efficiently, these three criteria should be taken into account in the initial project phases, since that is when a project can be influenced most effectively. Thus the aim must be to integrate important tools like BIM and LCA at an early stage in order to make full use of their potential. With the synergies resulting from the integration of BIM and LCA, a wider approach to sustainability becomes possible, covering the three pillars of sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, construction industry, Design Phase, building information modeling (BIM), life cycle assessment (LCA)

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36 Construction Contractor Pre-Qualification Using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory: A Multiplicative Approach

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram, Y. Anu Leena, Y. Anu Neena, M. V. Krishna Rao


The industry is often criticized for inefficiencies in outcomes such as time and cost overruns, low productivity, poor quality and inadequate customer satisfaction. To enhance the chances for construction projects to be successful, selecting an able contractor is one of the fundamental decisions to be made by clients. The selection of the most appropriate contractor is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) process. In this paper, multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) is employed utilizing the multiplicative form of utility function for ranking the prequalified contractors. Performance assessment criteria covering contracting company attributes, experience record, past performance, performance potential, financial stability and project specific criteria are considered for contractor evaluation. A case study of multistoried building for which four contractors submitted bids is considered to illustrate the applicability of multiplicative approach of MAUT to rank the prequalified contractors. The proposed MAUT decision making methodology can also be employed to other decision making situations.

Keywords: construction industry, multi-attribute utility theory, prequalification, contractor

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35 The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation

Authors: R. Hashim, A. J. Bock, S. Cooper


Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative (GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.

Keywords: Environmental, Green Innovation, construction industry, absorptive capacity

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34 Soil Reinforcement by Stone Columns

Authors: Saou Mohamed Amine


The construction industry has been identified as a user of substantial amount of materials and energy resources that has an enormous impact on environment. The energy efficient in refurbishment project is being considered as one of the approaches to achieve sustainability in construction industry. The increasing concern for environment has made building owners and designers to incorporate the energy efficiency features into their building projects.

Keywords: construction industry, design team attributes, energy efficient performance, refurbishment projects characteristics

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33 Self-Compacting White Concrete Mix Design Using the Particle Matrix Model

Authors: Samindi Samarakoon, Ørjan Sletbakk Vie, Remi Kleiven Fjelldal


White concrete facade elements are widely used in construction industry. It is challenging to achieve the desired workability in casting of white concrete elements. Particle Matrix model was used for proportioning the self-compacting white concrete (SCWC) to control segregation and bleeding and to improve workability. The paper presents how to reach the target slump flow while controlling bleeding and segregation in SCWC. The amount of aggregates, binders and mixing water, as well as type and dosage of superplasticizer (SP) to be used are the major factors influencing the properties of SCWC. Slump flow and compressive strength tests were carried out to examine the performance of SCWC, and the results indicate that the particle matrix model could produce successfully SCWC controlling segregation and bleeding.

Keywords: construction industry, mix design, white concrete, particle matrix model

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32 Anti-Corruption, an Important Challenge for the Construction Industry!

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes, Fritz Gehbauer


The construction industry is perhaps one of the oldest industry of the world. The ancient monuments like the egyptian pyramids, the temples of Greeks and Romans like Parthenon and Pantheon, the robust bridges, old Roman theatres, the citadels and many more are the best testament to that. The industry also has a symbiotic relationship with other . Some of the heavy engineering industry provide construction machineries, chemical industry develop innovative construction materials, finance sector provides fund solutions for complex construction projects and many more. Construction Industry is not only mammoth but also very complex in nature. Because of the complexity, construction industry is prone to various tribulations which may have the propensity to hamper its growth. The comparitive study of this industry with other depicts that it is associated with a state of tardiness and delay especially when we focus on the managerial aspects and the study of triple constraint (time, cost and scope). While some institutes says the complexity associated with it as a major reason, others like lean construction, refers to the wastes produced across the construction process as the prime reason. This paper introduces corruption as one of the prime factors for such delays.To support this many international reports and studies are available depicting that construction industry is one of the most corrupt sectors worldwide, and the corruption can take place throught the project cycle comprising project selection, planning, design, funding, pre-qualification, tendering, execution, operation and maintenance, and even through the reconstrction phase. It also happens in many forms such as bribe, fraud, extortion, collusion, embezzlement and conflict of interest and the self-sufficient. As a solution to cope the corruption in construction industry, the paper introduces the integrity as a key factor and build a new integrity framework to develop and implement an integrity management system for construction companies and construction projects.

Keywords: Corruption, Integrity, construction industry, Lean construction

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31 Acoustic and Thermal Compliance from the Execution Theory

Authors: Saou Mohamed Amine


The construction industry has been identified as a user of substantial amount of materials and energy resources that has an enormous impact on environment. The energy efficient in refurbishment project is being considered as one of the approaches to achieve sustainability in construction industry. The increasing concern for environment has made building owners and designers to incorporate the energy efficiency features into their building projects. However, an overwhelming issue of existing non-energy efficient buildings which exceeds the number of new building could be ineffective if the buildings are not refurbished through the energy efficient measures. Thus, energy efficient in refurbishment project is being considered as one of the approaches to achieve sustainability that offers significant opportunities for reducing global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the quality of design team attributes and the characteristics of the refurbishment building projects have been argued to be the main factors that determine the energy efficiency performance of the building.

Keywords: construction industry, design team attributes, energy efficient performance, refurbishment projects characteristics

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30 Past, Present, and Future of Robotics Technology in Construction Industry (Literature Review)

Authors: Samira Haghbin, Behnam Daryayelaal, Zeinab Amiri


As a result of rapid progress of technology in various industries, the only way to survive in a competitive market of business is to update one's situation along with the said developments. During recent decades, Robotics and automation of the construction operation has emerged as one of the important technologies grabbing the attention of various industries and specially the construction industry. Because of the coming labor shortage of the aging society in the near future, robots will be used in construction fields more than ever. By predicting the condition of Robotics in world's future construction industry, we can make necessary preparations to face with needs imposed by the time and stay ahead. This article takes a library study approach and presents a literature review of existing studies with an aim to investigate the use of robotics in past, present and future of construction industry and make predictions on its' growth and change process. Therefore, to make familiar with this kind of technology and its' requirements in the construction industry, the status of Robotics in construction industry of different countries of the world has been studied and necessary context for its' future progress is expressed. It is hoped that identifying needs and required contexts will facilitate further development of advanced technologies such as robotics industry and lead to more preparation for future.

Keywords: construction industry, Construction Automation, future of robotics, trends of automation

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29 Hidden Critical Risk in the Construction Industry’s Technological Adoption: Cybercrime

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Usman Mohammed Gidado, Muhammad Ahmad Ibrahim


Construction industry is one of the sectors that are eyeing adoption of ICT for its development due to the advancement in technology. Though, many manufacturing sectors had been using it, but construction industry was left behind, especially in the developing nation like Nigeria. On account of that, the objective of this study is to conceptually and quantitatively synthesise whether the slow adoption of ICT by the construction industries can be attributable to cybercrime threats. The result of the investigation found that, the risk of cybercrime, and lack of adequate cyber security policies that can enforce and punish defaulters are among the things that hinder ICT adoption of the Nigerian construction industries. Therefore, there is need for the nations to educate their citizens on cybercrime risk, and to establish cybercrime police units that can be monitoring and controlling all online communications.

Keywords: Cybercrime, Risk, construction industry, information and communication technology adoption

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28 Promoting the Contructor's Reputation in the Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Abdulkadir Adamu Shehu


Company’s reputation is an elusive asset. The reputation gained by companies must be preserved for sustainability of the company. However, the construction project is still suffering from declination of character due to the factors that affect their reputation. The problem led to the loss of projects, abandoning of the projects and many more. This contributed to negative impact on the contractors in the construction industry. As for today, previous studies have not investigated in this regards yet. For that reason, this paper examines the factors which could promote contractor’s reputation in the construction industry in Nigeria. To achieve this aim, 140 questionnaires were distributed to the Nigerian contractors. Based on the 67% response rate, descriptive analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were the tools applied for the data obtained to be analysed. The result shows that, good communication system and improve quality of output of products are the most significant variables that can promote contractor’s reputation. The homogenous analyses indicate that there are significant different perceptions of respondents in term of the significant effects. The research concluded that contractor’s reputation in construction industry must be maintained and further research was suggested to focus on the qualitative method to have in-depth knowledge on contractor’s reputation in the construction industry.

Keywords: construction industry, Nigeria, contractor’s reputation, effects of delay

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27 Tender Systems and Processes within the Mauritian Construction Industry: Investigating the Predominance of International Firms and the Lack of Absorptive Capacity in Local Firms

Authors: K. Appasamy, P. Paul


Mauritius, a developing small-island-state, is facing a recession which is having a considerable economic impact particularly on its construction sector. Further, the presence of foreign entities, both as companies and workers, within this sector is creating a very competitive environment for local firms. This study investigates the key drivers that allow foreign firms to participate in this sector, in particular looking at the international and local tender processes, and the capacity of local industry to participate. This study also looks at how the current set up may hinder the latter’s involvement. The methodology used included qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with established foreign companies, local companies, and public bodies. Study findings indicate: there is an adequate availability of professional skills and expertise within the Mauritian construction industry but a lack of skilled labour especially at the operative level; projects awarded to foreign firms are either due to their uniqueness and hence lack of local knowledge, or due to foreign firms having lower tender bids; tendering systems and processes are weak, including monitoring and enforcement, which encourages corruption and favouritism; a high level of ignorance of this sector’s characteristics and opportunities exists amongst the local population; local entities are very profit oriented and have short term strategies that discourage long term investment in workforce training and development; but most importantly, stakeholders do not grasp the importance of encouraging youngsters to join this sector, they have no long term vision, and there is a lack of mutual involvement and collaboration between them. Although local industry is highly competent, qualified and experienced, the tendering and procurement systems in Mauritius are not conducive enough to allow for effective strategic planning and an equitable allocation of projects during an economic downturn so that the broadest spread of stakeholders’ benefit. It is of utmost importance that all sector and government entities collaborate to formulate strategies and reforms on tender processes and capacity building to ensure fairness and continuous growth of this sector in Mauritius.

Keywords: construction industry, Mauritius, tender process, international firms, local capacity

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26 Building Information Modeling and Its Application in the State of Kuwait

Authors: Martin Jaeger, Michael Gerges, Ograbe Ahiakwo, Ahmad Asaad


Recent advances of Building Information Modeling (BIM) especially in the Middle East have increased remarkably. Dubai has been taking a lead on this by making it mandatory for BIM to be adopted for all projects that involve complex architecture designs. This is because BIM is a dynamic process that assists all stakeholders in monitoring the project status throughout different project phases with great transparency. It focuses on utilizing information technology to improve collaboration among project participants during the entire life cycle of the project from the initial design, to the supply chain, resource allocation, construction and all productivity requirements. In view of this trend, the paper examines the extent of applying BIM in the State of Kuwait, by exploring practitioners’ perspectives on BIM, especially their perspectives on main barriers and main advantages. To this end structured interviews were carried out based on questionnaires and with a range of different construction professionals. The results revealed that practitioners perceive improved communication and mitigated project risks by encouraged collaboration between project participants. However, it was also observed that the full implementation of BIM in the State of Kuwait requires concerted efforts to make clients demanding BIM, counteract resistance to change among construction professionals and offer more training for design team members. This paper forms part of an on-going research effort on BIM and its application in the State of Kuwait and it is on this basis that further research on the topic is proposed.

Keywords: construction industry, Building Information Modeling, bim, Kuwait

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25 Evaluation and Analysis of the Regulations of Health and Safety in the Construction Industry: A Case of Study in Skikda, Algeria

Authors: Khorief Ouissem, Sassi Boudmagh Souad, Mahimoud Aissa


The health and safety problem in the construction companies has been a major subject of research in Algeria for many years. The latest statistics of the Algerian National Social Security Fund (CNAS) shows that a third of accidents recorded at the national level are originated from construction activities. It is becoming increasingly essential and urgent to investigate and address its causes in order to find measures to overcome the deficiencies in this area. Thus, this paper takes in investigating this problem through a study conducted in the city of Skikda, Algeria. The study was carried out through questionnaire where twenty construction companies were taking into consideration. First, the study identifies the regulations and the laws related to the health and safety in the construction sector in Algeria. Then it goes on to assess and evaluate the implementation of the identified regulations in the companies selected. The result of the assessment indicates that the majority of the construction companies considered do not meet the health and safety standards and regulations. To extract the main causes of the failure of the system to control this industry, the observations and the evaluation were analyzed using the 5M or Ichikawa diagram method. This method is based on identifying the causes of the problem in terms of purpose, the list of potential causes for families. These families often correspond to 5M (Labor, Material, Methods, Middle, and Management). Finally, having identified the primary motives, the present authors propose a list of actions to move towards a more controlled and effective health and safety system for the construction industry.

Keywords: Performance Measurement, Health and Safety, construction industry, Algeria

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24 External Networking for Innovation in Construction Industry in Malaysia

Authors: NORAINI ISMAIL, Megat Zuhairy, Megat Tajuddin, Hadijah Iberahim


This paper aims to discuss the impact of external networking on innovation and organizational performance in the construction industry. In Malaysia, the construction industry is known to be one of the industries that contribute significantly towards her economic growth. The construction industry is described as a fragmented and complex product system as construction projects implementation requires involvement of varying combination of large and small organizations across the supply chain spectrum. The innovation and performance of Malaysian construction industry are reported to be at underachieving and efforts for its improvement have inspired this study initiative. External networking among industry players is capable in bringing them to work together as a team, reducing the adversarial relationships among them for innovation effort and greater performance. The instrument in measuring innovation and organizational performance specific to the construction industry was developed by adapting measures introduced by several scholars in these fields. Contractors and consulting companies were the sampling frames of this study representing the construction industry in Malaysia. The population lists were developed from the lists provided by CIDB, BEM, BOA and BQSM. The samples were selected based on a stratified sampling method to gauge representation of the different groups in the population. Regression analysis was performed in this quantitative study to assess relationships amongst variables. The results revealed that principally, external networking is significant in influencing both innovation and organizational performance. Nevertheless, external networking with different industry players has a different impact on innovation and organizational performance. The study revealed that external networking with project players is significant on project performance but not on innovation. On the other hand, external networking with government agencies, academic institutions and professional bodies is significant in influencing innovation but not on organizational performance.

Keywords: Innovation, construction industry, organizational performance, external networking

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23 Causes of Construction Delays in Qatar Construction Projects

Authors: Murat Gunduz, Mohanad H. A. AbuHassan


Construction industry mainly focuses on the superstructure, infrastructure, and oil and gas industry. The development of infrastructure projects in developing countries attracted a lot of foreign construction contractors, consultants, suppliers and diversified workforce to interfere and to be evolved in such huge investment. Reducing worksite delays in such projects require knowledge and attention. Therefore, it is important to identify the influencing delay attributes affecting construction projects. The significant project factors affecting construction delays were investigated. Data collection was carried out through an online web survey system to capture significant factors. Significant factors were determined with importance index and relevant recommendations are made. The output of the data analysis would lead the industry experts better assess the impact of construction delays on construction projects.

Keywords: construction industry, delays, importance index, frequency index

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22 Factors Affecting the Wages of Native Workers in Thailand's Construction Industry

Authors: C. Noknoi, W. Boripunt, K. Boomid, S. Suwitphanwong


This research studies the factors influencing the wages of native workers in Thailand's construction industry. The sample used comprised some 156 native construction workers from Songkhla Province, Thailand. The utilized research instrument was a questionnaire, with the data being analyzed according to frequency, percentage, and regression analysis. The results revealed that in general, native Thai construction workers are generally married males aged between 26 and 37 years old. They typically have four to six years of education, are employed as laborers with an average salary of 4,000–9,200 baht per month, and have fewer than five years of work experience. Most Thai workers work five days a week. Each establishment typically has 10–30 employees, with fewer than 10 of these being migrant workers in general. Most Thai workers are at a 20% to 40% risk from work, and they have never changed employer. The average wage of Thai workers was found to be 10,843.03 baht per month with a standard deviation of 4,898.31 baht per month. Hypothesis testing revealed that position, work experience, and the number of times they had switched employer were the factors most affecting the wages of native Thai construction workers. These three factors alone explain the salaries of Thai construction workers at 51.9%.  

Keywords: construction industry, Thailand, wages, native workers

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21 Empirical Study on Causes of Project Delays

Authors: Khan Farhan Rafat, Riaz Ahmed


Renowned offshore organizations are drifting towards collaborative exertion to win and implement international projects for business gains. However, devoid of financial constraints, with the availability of skilled professionals, and despite improved project management practices through state-of-the-art tools and techniques, project delays have become a norm these days. This situation calls for exploring the factor(s) affecting the bonding between project management performance and project success. In the context of the well-known 3M’s of project management (that is, manpower, machinery, and materials), machinery and materials are dependent upon manpower. Because the body of knowledge inveterate on the influence of national culture on men, hence, the realization of the impact on the link between project management performance and project success need to be investigated in detail to arrive at the possible cause(s) of project delays. This research initiative was, therefore, undertaken to fill the research gap. The unit of analysis for the proposed research excretion was the individuals who had worked on skyscraper construction projects. In reverent studies, project management is best described using construction examples. It is due to this reason that the project oriented city of Dubai was chosen to reconnoiter on causes of project delays. A structured questionnaire survey was disseminated online with the courtesy of the Project Management Institute local chapter to carry out the cross-sectional study. The Construction Industry Institute, Austin, of the United States of America along with 23 high-rise builders in Dubai were also contacted by email requesting for their contribution to the study and providing them with the online link to the survey questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was warranted using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.70. The appropriateness of sampling adequacy and homogeneity in variance was ensured by keeping Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity in the range ≥ 0.60 and < 0.05, respectively. Factor analysis was used to verify construct validity. During exploratory factor analysis, all items were loaded using a threshold of 0.4. Four hundred and seventeen respondents, including members from top management, project managers, and project staff, contributed to the study. The link between project management performance and project success was significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed), and 0.05 level (2-tailed) for Pearson’s correlation. Before initiating the moderator analysis test for linearity, multicollinearity, outliers, leverage points and influential cases, test for homoscedasticity and normality were carried out which are prerequisites for conducting moderator review. The moderator analysis, using a macro named PROCESS, was performed to verify the hypothesis that national culture has an influence on the said link. The empirical findings, when compared with Hofstede's results, showed high power distance as the cause of construction project delays in Dubai. The research outcome calls for the project sponsors and top management to reshape their project management strategy and allow for low power distance between management and project personnel for timely completion of projects.

Keywords: Construction Management, construction industry, causes of construction project delays, power distance

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20 Knowledge Management Challenges within Traditional Procurement System

Authors: M. Takhtravanchi, C. Pathirage


In the construction industry, project members are conveyor of project knowledge which is, often, not managed properly to be used in future projects. As construction projects are temporary and unique, project members are willing to be recruited once a project is completed. Therefore, poor management of knowledge across construction projects will lead to a considerable amount of knowledge loss; the ignoring of which would be detrimental to project performance. This issue is more prominent in projects undertaken through the traditional procurement system, as this system does not incentives project members for integration. Thus, disputes exist between the design and construction phases based on the poor management of knowledge between those two phases. This paper aims to highlight the challenges of the knowledge management that exists within the traditional procurement system. Expert interviews were conducted and challenges were identified and analysed by the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach in order to summarise the relationships among them. Two identified key challenges are the Culture of an Organisation and Knowledge Management Policies. A knowledge of the challenges and their relationships will help project manager and stakeholders to have a better understanding of the importance of knowledge management.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Challenges, construction industry, traditional procurement system

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19 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Taki Eddine Seghier, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi


Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: Prevention, construction industry, Safety measures, accident

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18 The Learning Impact of a 4-Dimensional Digital Construction Learning Environment

Authors: Chris Landorf, Stephen Ward


This paper addresses a virtual environment approach to work integrated learning for students in construction-related disciplines. The virtual approach provides a safe and pedagogically rigorous environment where students can apply theoretical knowledge in a simulated real-world context. The paper describes the development of a 4-dimensional digital construction environment and associated learning activities funded by the Australian Office for Learning and Teaching. The environment was trialled with over 1,300 students and evaluated through questionnaires, observational studies and coursework analysis. Results demonstrate a positive impact on students’ technical learning and collaboration skills, but there is need for further research in relation to critical thinking skills and work-readiness.

Keywords: construction industry, Immersive Learning, architectural education, digital learning environments

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17 Establishing a Sustainable Construction Industry: Review of Barriers That Inhibit Adoption of Lean Construction in Lesotho

Authors: Tsepiso Mofolo, Luna Bergh


The Lesotho construction industry fails to embrace environmental practices, which has then lead to excessive consumption of resources, land degradation, air and water pollution, loss of habitats, and high energy usage. The industry is highly inefficient, and this undermines its capability to yield the optimum contribution to social, economic and environmental developments. Sustainable construction is, therefore, imperative to ensure the cultivation of benefits from all these intrinsic themes of sustainable development. The development of a sustainable construction industry requires a holistic approach that takes into consideration the interaction between Lean Construction principles, socio-economic and environmental policies, technological advancement and the principles of construction or project management. Sustainable construction is a cutting-edge phenomenon, forming a component of a subjectively defined concept called sustainable development. Sustainable development can be defined in terms of attitudes and judgments to assist in ensuring long-term environmental, social and economic growth in society. The key concept of sustainable construction is Lean Construction. Lean Construction emanates from the principles of the Toyota Production System (TPS), namely the application and adaptation of the fundamental concepts and principles that focus on waste reduction, the increase in value to the customer, and continuous improvement. The focus is on the reduction of socio-economic waste, and protestation of environmental degradation by reducing carbon dioxide emission footprint. Lean principles require a fundamental change in the behaviour and attitudes of the parties involved in order to overcome barriers to cooperation. Prevalent barriers to adoption of Lean Construction in Lesotho are mainly structural - such as unavailability of financing, corruption, operational inefficiency or wastage, lack of skills and training and inefficient construction legislation and political interferences. The consequential effects of these problems trigger down to quality, cost and time of the project - which then result in an escalation of operational costs due to the cost of rework or material wastage. Factor and correlation analysis of these barriers indicate that they are highly correlated, which then poses a detrimental potential to the country’s welfare, environment and construction safety. It is, therefore, critical for Lesotho’s construction industry to develop a robust governance through bureaucracy reforms and stringent law enforcement.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, construction industry, Lean construction, sustainable construction industry, barriers to sustainable construction

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16 The Sustainability of Human Resource Planning for Construction Projects

Authors: Adegbenga Ashiru, Adebimpe L. Ashiru


The construction industry is considered to work by diversifying personnel. Hence managing human resource is an issue considered to be a highly challenging task. Nonetheless, HR planning for the construction project is a very critical aspect of managing human resource within an expanding nature of construction industry, and there are rising concerns over the failure of construction planning to achieve its goals in spite of the substantial resources allocated to it and as a result of different planning strategies. To justify the above statement, this research was carried out to examine the sustainability of HR planning for construction project. Based on the researcher’s experience, a quantitative approach was adopted that provided a broader understanding of the research and was analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to obtain the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. However, research findings showed that literature sources agreed with varying challenges of HR planning on construction projects which were justified by empirical findings. Also, the paper identified four major factors and the key consideration for Project HR Planning (Organisation’s structure with right individuals at right positions and evaluation current resources) will lead to the efficient utilisation implementation of new HR Planning technique and tools for a construction project. Essentially the main reoccurring theme identified was that management of the construction organisations needs to look into the essential factors needed to be considered at the strategic level. Furthermore, leaders leading a construction project team should consider those essential factors needed at the operational level to clarify the numerous functions of HRM in the construction organisations and avoid inconsistencies among several practices on construction projects. The Sustainability of HR planning for construction project policy was indicated and recommendations were made for further future research.

Keywords: construction industry, HRM planning in construction, SHRM in construction, HR planning in construction

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15 The Impact of High Labour Turnover on Sustainable Housing Delivery in South Africa

Authors: Madifedile Thasi, Azola Agrienette Mayeza


Due to the contractual nature of jobs and employment opportunities in the construction industry and the seeming surplus of potential employees in South Africa, there is a little interest on the part of employers to put in place policies to retain experienced workers. Ironically these are the workers that the companies have expended significant resources on, in terms of training and capabilities development. The construction industry has been experiencing high materials wastages and health and safety issues to score very low on the sustainability agenda as regards resources management and safety. This study carried out an assessment of the poor retention of experienced workers in the construction industry on the capacity to deliver sustainable housing in South Africa. It highlights the economic, safety and resources conservation and other benefits accruable from a high retention of key employees to the South African construction industry towards the delivery of sustainable housing. It presents data that strongly support the hypothesis that high turnover of skilled employees as a result of the industry belief of zero incentive to retain employees beyond the contractual period, is responsible for the high wastages of resources in the industry and the safety issues. A high turnover of experienced employees in the construction industry was found to impact on the industry performance in terms of timely, cost effective and quality delivery of construction projects, particularly when measured against the government sustainable housing agenda. It also results in unplanned expenses required to train replacing employees during project executions as well as company goodwill which ultimately has a huge impact on sustainable housing delivery in South Africa.

Keywords: construction industry, Sustainable Housing, housing delivery, South Africa, labour turnover, materials wastage

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14 The Sustainability of Health and Safety on Construction Sites in Zamfara State

Authors: Ismaila Oladunni Muhammed, Adegbenga Raphael Ashiru


Construction industry has been attributed to be the engine growth of Nigerian economic and infrastructural development. It promotes infrastructural development and grows an average output of Nigerian Gross Domestic Profit. However, from this great prospect, yearly reports show that consistent accidents on construction sites in Zamfara State has affected a substantial number of workers as they become temporarily or permanently disabled, thereby making many construction sites a death trap. This posed a great threat to the industry’s sustainability, de- motivate workers from working in the industry, and further have negative impact on the economy as well. It is as a result of high construction site accident currently experiencing in Zamfara state that this research was carried out to appraise the sustainability of health and safety of construction workers on sites. The proper practice and compliance to Construction Health and safety laws are very vital to the output and growth of Zamfara State construction sector. However, a quantitative approach was adopted to justify the aforesaid statement which will provide a broader understanding of the study. Descriptive statistical analysis was obtained through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20). Furthermore, the findings from the research highlighted that the performance and output of construction workers on construction sites depends on the proper practice of health and safety. The research findings also recommended ways to enhance employers and employee’s compliance with existing laws guiding health and safety on Zamfara State construction sites. Nevertheless, the purpose of the paper is to appraise the sustainability of Health and Safety on Zamfara State construction sites. This study further provided thorough information for resolving challenges of construction sites accidents to improve construction firm productivity and also ensured construction worker’s safety on site.

Keywords: construction industry, Health and Safety Regulations, causes of accident, construction safety practices

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13 An Investigation of Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Supply Chain Management for Construction Industry in Thailand by Interpretive Structural Model Approach

Authors: Shaolan Zou, Kullapa Soratana


Construction industry faces tremendous challenges in sustainability issue in recent years. Building materials, generally, are non-recyclable with short service life time, leading to economic loss. Building sites also cause social issues, e.g. noise, hazardous substances, and particulate matters. Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has been recognized as an appropriate method to balance three pillars of sustainability: environment, economy, and society. However, most of construction companies cannot successfully adopt SSCM due to numerous challenges. In this study, a list of challenges in implementing SSCM was collected from peer-reviewed literature on sustainable implementation. A building materials company in Thailand, which has successfully adopted SSCM for almost two decades and established the sustainable development committee since 1995, was used as a case study. Management-level representatives in sustainability department of the company were interviewed, mainly, to examine which challenges on the list complies with the company’s condition when adopting SSCM. The interview result was analyzed by interpretive structural model (ISM) with sustainability experts’ opinions to identify top 5 influential challenges. The results could assist a building construction company in assigning appropriate strategies to overcome most influential barriers, as well as in using as a reference or guidance for other construction companies adopting SSCM.

Keywords: Challenges, construction industry, Sustainable Supply Chain Management, interpretive structural model

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12 Managing Construction Wastes in Nigeria for Sustainable Development

Authors: Ezekiel Ejiofor Nnadi


Nigeria construction industry is known for its active construction activities. This has earmarked the industry to be the key to economic growth of the nation. It has largest employer of labour and gives sustenance to other industries like manufacturing industry. While this is a sign of growth and prosperity; the waste generated by the industry has always been a problem and a serious concern. It results in wastage of economic gain and has resultant health effect on the populace apart from injury being sustained on sites. This work provides a platform to learn more about construction waste, its management strategy and how to reduce waste production in Nigeria construction industry. Construction sites, waste management authority and public health institutions in Lagos as the centre of most construction activities in Nigeria were selected, and a set of questionnaire was administered to using the systematic sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and relative importance index (RII) technique were employed for the analysis of the data gathered. The findings of the analysis show that excessive wastes reduce contractors’ profit margin and also that some construction wastes contain hazardous and toxic elements such as lead, asbestos or radioactive materials which required proper handling and effective disposal. The conclusion was drawn that the check on waste on construction sites starts with the designers to the contractors who execute on site.

Keywords: Economic growth, construction industry, construction cost, materials wastes

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11 An Effective Approach to Knowledge Capture in Whole Life Costing in Constructions Project

Authors: Ndibarafinia Young Tobin, Simon Burnett


In spite of the benefits of implementing whole life costing technique as a valuable approach for comparing alternative building designs allowing operational cost benefits to be evaluated against any initial cost increases and also as part of procurement in the construction industry, its adoption has been relatively slow due to the lack of tangible evidence, ‘know-how’ skills and knowledge of the practice, i.e. the lack of professionals in many establishments with knowledge and training on the use of whole life costing technique, this situation is compounded by the absence of available data on whole life costing from relevant projects, lack of data collection mechanisms and so on. This has proved to be very challenging to those who showed some willingness to employ the technique in a construction project. The knowledge generated from a project can be considered as best practices learned on how to carry out tasks in a more efficient way, or some negative lessons learned which have led to losses and slowed down the progress of the project and performance. Knowledge management in whole life costing practice can enhance whole life costing analysis execution in a construction project, as lessons learned from one project can be carried on to future projects, resulting in continuous improvement, providing knowledge that can be used in the operation and maintenance phases of an assets life span. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an effective approach which can be utilised in capturing knowledge in whole life costing practice in a construction project. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature review was first conducted on the concept of knowledge management and whole life costing. This was followed by a semi-structured interview to explore the existing and good practice knowledge management in whole life costing practice in a construction project. The data gathered from the semi-structured interview was analyzed using content analysis and used to structure an effective knowledge capturing approach. Findings: From the results obtained in the study, it shows that the practice of project review is the common method used in the capturing of knowledge and should be undertaken in an organized and accurate manner, and results should be presented in the form of instructions or in a checklist format, forming short and precise insights. The approach developed advised that irrespective of how effective the approach to knowledge capture, the absence of an environment for sharing knowledge, would render the approach ineffective. Open culture and resources are critical for providing a knowledge sharing setting, and leadership has to sustain whole life costing knowledge capture, giving full support for its implementation. The knowledge capturing approach has been evaluated by practitioners who are experts in the area of whole life costing practice. The results have indicated that the approach to knowledge capture is suitable and efficient.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, construction industry, knowledge capture, whole life costing, project review

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10 Maturity Level of Knowledge Management in Whole Life Costing in the UK Construction Industry: An Empirical Study

Authors: Ndibarefinia Tobin


The UK construction industry has been under pressure for many years to produce economical buildings which offer value for money, not only during the construction phase, but more importantly, during the full life of the building. Whole life costing is considered as an economic analysis tool that takes into account the total investment cost in and ownership, operation and subsequent disposal of a product or system to which the whole life costing method is being applied. In spite of its importance, the practice is still crippled by the lack of tangible evidence, ‘know-how’ skills and knowledge of the practice i.e. the lack of professionals with the knowledge and training on the use of the practice in construction project, this situation is compounded by the absence of available data on whole life costing from relevant projects, lack of data collection mechanisms and so on. The aforementioned problems has forced many construction organisations to adopt project enhancement initiatives to boost their performance on the use of whole life costing techniques so as to produce economical buildings which offer value for money during the construction stage also the whole life of the building/asset. The management of knowledge in whole life costing is considered as one of the many project enhancement initiative and it is becoming imperative in the performance and sustainability of an organisation. Procuring building projects using whole life costing technique is heavily reliant on the knowledge, experience, ideas and skills of workers, which comes from many sources including other individuals, electronic media and documents. Due to the diversity of knowledge, capabilities and skills of employees that vary across an organisation, it is significant that they are directed and coordinated efficiently so as to capture, retrieve and share knowledge in order to improve the performance of the organisation. The implementation of knowledge management concept has different levels in each organisation. Measuring the maturity level of knowledge management in whole life costing practice will paint a comprehensible picture of how knowledge is managed in construction organisations. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify knowledge management maturity in UK construction organisations adopting whole life costing in construction project. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a survey method and conducted by distributing questionnaires to large construction companies that implement knowledge management activities in whole life costing practice in construction project. Four level of knowledge management maturity was proposed on this study. Findings: From the results obtained in the study shows that 34 contractors at the practiced level, 26 contractors at managed level and 12 contractors at continuously improved level.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge, construction industry, whole life costing

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9 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui


Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun

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