Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Constructed Wetlands Related Abstracts

7 A Constructed Wetland as a Reliable Method for Grey Wastewater Treatment in Rwanda

Authors: Hussein Bizimana, Osman Sönmez

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands are current the most widely recognized waste water treatment option, especially in developing countries where they have the potential for improving water quality and creating valuable wildlife habitat in ecosystem with treatment requirement relatively simple for operation and maintenance cost. Lack of grey waste water treatment facilities in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology in Rwanda, causes pollution in the surrounding localities of Rugunga sector, where already a problem of poor sanitation is found. In order to treat grey water produced at Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology, with high BOD concentration, high nutrients concentration and high alkalinity; a Horizontal Sub-surface Flow pilot-scale constructed wetland was designed and can operate in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology. The study was carried out in a sedimentation tank of 5.5 m x 1.42 m x 1.2 m deep and a Horizontal Sub-surface constructed wetland of 4.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.42 m deep. The grey waste water flow rate of 2.5 m3/d flew through vegetated wetland and sandy pilot plant. The filter media consisted of 0.6 to 2 mm of coarse sand, 0.00003472 m/s of hydraulic conductivity and cattails (Typha latifolia spp) were used as plants species. The effluent flow rate of the plant is designed to be 1.5 m3/ day and the retention time will be 24 hrs. 72% to 79% of BOD, COD, and TSS removals are estimated to be achieved, while the nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphate) removal is estimated to be in the range of 34% to 53%. Every effluent characteristic will meet exactly the Rwanda Utility Regulatory Agency guidelines primarily because the retention time allowed is enough to make the reduction of contaminants within effluent raw waste water. Treated water reuse system was developed where water will be used in the campus irrigation system again.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, Constructed Wetlands, grey waste water, cattails

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6 Evaluation of Capacity of Bed Planted with Macrophytes for Wastewater Treatment of Biskra City, Algeria

Authors: Mimeche Leila, Debabeche Mahmoud

Abstract:

It is question to study and to value the possibility of settling the process of purification by plants (constructed wetland) to treat the domestic waste water of Biskra, city in a semi-arid environment with grave problems of. According to the bibliography, the process of treatment by plants is considered as more advantageous than the classic techniques. It is the use of beds with macrophytes where the purification is made by the combined action of plants and micro-organisms in a filtering bed. The micro-organisms which are aerobic bacteria and\or anaerobic have for main function to degrade the polluting materials. Plants in the macrophytes beds have for function to serve as support in the development of bacteria and to favour also their development. In this study, we present a preliminary experimental analysis of the potentialities of treatment of some macrpohytes plants, implanted in basins filled of gravel. Analyses physico chemical and bacteriological of the waste water indicate a good elimination of the polluting materials, and put in evidence the purifier power of these plants, in association with bacteria. The obtained results seem to be interesting and encourage deepening the study for other types of plants in other conditions.

Keywords: wastewater, Sewage treatment, Constructed Wetlands, macrophytes

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5 Interaction of Steel Slag and Zeolite on Ammonium Nitrogen Removal and Its Illumination on a New Carrier Filling Configuration for Constructed Wetlands

Authors: Hongtao Zhu, Dezhi Sun

Abstract:

Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential nutrients for biomass growth. But excessive nitrogen and phosphorus can contribute to accelerated eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Constructed wetland is an efficient and eco-friendly wastewater treatment technology with low operating cost and low-energy consumption. Because of high affinity with ammonium ion, zeolite, as a common substrate, is applied in constructed wetlands worldwide. Another substrate seen commonly for constructed wetlands is steel slag, which has high contents of Ca, Al, or Fe, and possesses a strong affinity with phosphate. Due to the excellent ammonium removal ability of zeolite and phosphate removal ability of steel slag, they were considered to be combined in the substrate bed of a constructed wetland in order to enhance the simultaneous removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. In our early tests, zeolite and steel slag were combined with each other in order to simultaneously achieve a high removal efficiency of ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. However, compared with the results when only zeolite was used, the removal efficiency of ammonia was sharply decreased when zeolite and steel slag were used together. The main objective of this study was to establish an overview of the interaction of steel slag and zeolite on ammonium nitrogen removal. The CaO dissolution from slag, as well as the effects of influencing parameters (i.e. pH and Ca2+ concentration) on the ammonium adsorption onto zeolite, was systematically studied. Modeling results of Ca2+ and OH- release from slag indicated that pseudo-second order reaction had a better fitness than pseudo-first order reaction. Changing pH value from 7 to 12 would result in a drastic reduction of the ammonium adsorption capacity on zeolite, from the peak at pH7. High Ca2+ concentration in solution could also inhibit the adsorption of ammonium onto zeolite. The mechanism for steel slag inhibiting the ammonium adsorption capacity of zeolite includes: on one hand, OH- released from steel slag can react with ammonium ions to produce molecular form ammonia (NH3∙H2O), which would cause the dissociation of NH4+ from zeolite. On the other hand, Ca2+ could replace the NH4+ ions to adhere onto the surface of zeolite. An innovative substrate filling configuration that zeolite and steel slag are placed sequentially was proposed to eliminate the disadvantageous effects of steel slag. Experimental results showed that the novel filling configuration was superior to the other two contrast filling configurations in terms of ammonium removal.

Keywords: Zeolite, Constructed Wetlands, steel slag, ammonium nitrogen

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4 Overview of Constructed Wetlands System for Greywater Treatment: Challenges, Advantages, and Sustainable Analysis

Authors: Iga Maliga

Abstract:

As developing country, Indonesia, retreatment for greywater is an important factor that guaranteeing water sustainability? But, its still not familiar in Indonesian society. Because they still use their old habit for wasting the water without retreatment. Differently, with industry wastewater, effect of domestic wastewater is not directly looked with naked eyes. Domestic wastewater that not gets treatment directly can affect pollution in water body or river. Its affected by accumulation many pollutants that include on water. This paper is trying to analyze the challenges and advantages on greywater treatment system based on Constructed Wetlands (CWs) system in Bandung, one of the biggest cities in Indonesia. Aside that, this paper also is trying to analyze sustainability aspects. There is economic, social and of course environment with two methods. The first, study literature is used to see the advantages and challenges that faced by Indonesia when CWs are applied. Secondly, quantitative method is used to get the society perception about retreatment of greywater. Then, it will get a conclusion that this technique not only good in theoretically but also practically.

Keywords: Challenges, Sustainability analysis, Constructed Wetlands, bandung, advantages, greywater

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3 Valuing Cultural Ecosystem Services of Natural Treatment Systems Using Crowdsourced Data

Authors: Andrea Ghermandi

Abstract:

Natural treatment systems such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilization ponds are increasingly used to treat water and wastewater from a variety of sources, including stormwater and polluted surface water. The provision of ancillary benefits in the form of cultural ecosystem services makes these systems unique among water and wastewater treatment technologies and greatly contributes to determine their potential role in promoting sustainable water management practices. A quantitative analysis of these benefits, however, has been lacking in the literature. Here, a critical assessment of the recreational and educational benefits in natural treatment systems is provided, which combines observed public use from a survey of managers and operators with estimated public use as obtained using geotagged photos from social media as a proxy for visitation rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to characterize the spatial boundaries of 273 natural treatment systems worldwide. Such boundaries are used as input for the Application Program Interfaces (APIs) of two popular photo-sharing websites (Flickr and Panoramio) in order to derive the number of photo-user-days, i.e., the number of yearly visits by individual photo users in each site. The adequateness and predictive power of four univariate calibration models using the crowdsourced data as a proxy for visitation are evaluated. A high correlation is found between photo-user-days and observed annual visitors (Pearson's r = 0.811; p-value < 0.001; N = 62). Standardized Major Axis (SMA) regression is found to outperform Ordinary Least Squares regression and count data models in terms of predictive power insofar as standard verification statistics – such as the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), the mean absolute error of prediction (MAEP), the reduction of error (RE), and the coefficient of efficiency (CE) – are concerned. The SMA regression model is used to estimate the intensity of public use in all 273 natural treatment systems. System type, influent water quality, and area are found to statistically affect public use, consistently with a priori expectations. Publicly available information regarding the home location of the sampled visitors is derived from their social media profiles and used to infer the distance they are willing to travel to visit the natural treatment systems in the database. Such information is analyzed using the travel cost method to derive monetary estimates of the recreational benefits of the investigated natural treatment systems. Overall, the findings confirm the opportunities arising from an integrated design and management of natural treatment systems, which combines the objectives of water quality enhancement and provision of cultural ecosystem services through public use in a multi-functional approach and compatibly with the need to protect public health.

Keywords: Ecological Engineering, Constructed Wetlands, cultural ecosystem services, waste stabilization ponds

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2 Crowdsourced Economic Valuation of the Recreational Benefits of Constructed Wetlands

Authors: Andrea Ghermandi

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands have long been recognized as sources of ancillary benefits such as support for recreational activities. To date, there is a lack of quantitative understanding of the extent and welfare impact of such benefits. Here, it is shown how geotagged, passively crowdsourced data from online social networks (e.g., Flickr and Panoramio) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques can: (1) be used to infer annual recreational visits to 273 engineered wetlands worldwide; and (2) be integrated with non-market economic valuation techniques (e.g., travel cost method) to infer the monetary value of recreation in these systems. Counts of social media photo-user-days are highly correlated with the number of observed visits in 62 engineered wetlands worldwide (Pearson’s r = 0.811; p-value < 0.001). The estimated, mean willingness to pay for access to 115 wetlands ranges between $5.3 and $374. In 50% of the investigated wetlands providing polishing treatment to advanced municipal wastewater, the present value of such benefits exceeds that of the capital, operation and maintenance costs (lifetime = 45 years; discount rate = 6%), indicating that such systems are sources of net societal benefits even before factoring in benefits derived from water quality improvement and storage. Based on the above results, it is argued that recreational benefits should be taken into account in the design and management of constructed wetlands, as well as when such green infrastructure systems are compared with conventional wastewater treatment solutions.

Keywords: Social Media, Ecological Engineering, Constructed Wetlands, cultural ecosystem services

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1 Constructed Wetlands with Subsurface Flow for Nitrogen and Metazachlor Removal from Tile Drainage: First Year Results

Authors: P. Fucik, J. Vymazal, M. Seres

Abstract:

Pollution from agricultural drainage is a severe issue for water quality, and it is a major reason for the failure in accomplishment of 'good chemical status' according to Water Framework Directive, especially due to high nitrogen and pesticide burden of receiving waters. Constructed wetlands were proposed as a suitable measure for removal of nitrogen from agricultural drainage in the early 1990s. Until now, the vast majority of constructed wetlands designed to treat tile drainage were free-surface constructed wetlands. In 2018, three small experimental constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow were built in Czech Highlands to treat tile drainage from 15.73 ha watershed. The wetlands have a surface area of 79, 90 and 98 m² and were planted with Phalaris arundinacea and Glyceria maxima in parallel bands. The substrate in the first two wetlands is gravel (4-8 mm) mixed with birch woodchips (10:1 volume ratio). In one of those wetlands, the water level is kept 10 cm above the surface; in the second one, the water is kept below the surface. The third wetland has 20 cm layer of birch woodchips on top of gravel. The drainage outlet, as well as wetland outlets, are equipped with automatic discharge-gauging devices, temperature probes, as well as automatic water samplers (Teledyne ISCO). During the monitored period (2018-2019), the flows were unexpectedly low due to a drop of the shallow ground water level, being the main source of water for the monitored drainage system, as experienced at many areas of the Czech Republic. The mean water residence time was analyzed in the wetlands (KBr), which was 16, 9 and 27 days, respectively. The mean total nitrogen concentration eliminations during one-year period were 61.2%, 62.6%, and 70.9% for wetlands 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average load removals amounted to 0.516, 0.323, and 0.399 g N m-2 d-1 or 1885, 1180 and 1457 kg ha-1 yr-1 in wetlands 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The plant uptake and nitrogen sequestration in aboveground biomass contributed only marginally to the overall nitrogen removal. Among the three variants, the one with shallow water on the surface was revealed to be the most effective for removal of nitrogen from drainage water. In August 2019, herbicide Metazachlor was experimentally poured in time of 2 hours at drainage outlet in a concentration of 250 ug/l to find out the removal rates of the aforementioned wetlands. Water samples were taken the first day every six hours, and for the next nine days, every day one water sample was taken. The removal rates were as follows 94, 69 and 99%; when the most effective wetland was the one with the longest water residence time and the birch woodchip-layer on top of gravel.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Constructed Wetlands, metazachlor, tile drainage

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