Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

construct validity Related Abstracts

10 Reliability and Construct Validity of the Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ)

Authors: A. Zurraini, Syed Alwi Sar, H. Helmy, H. Nazeefah


Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) was developed as a screening tool to detect patients with early dementia in primary care. It was developed based on 20 symptoms of dementia. From a preliminary study, EDQ had been shown to be a promising alternative for screening of early dementia. This study was done to further test on EDQ’s reliability and validity. Using a systematic random sampling, 200 elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Kuching, Sarawak had consented to participate in the study and were administered the EDQ. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to exclude patients with depression. Those who scored >21 MMSE, were retested using the EDQ. Reliability was determined by Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (principle component with varimax rotation). The result showed that the overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was good which was 0.874. Confirmatory factor analysis on 4 factors indicated that the Cronbach’s alpha for each domain were acceptable with memory (0.741), concentration (0.764), emotional and physical symptoms (0.754) and lastly sleep and environment (0.720). Pearson correlation coefficient between the first EDQ score and the retest EDQ score among those with MMSE of >21 showed a very strong, positive correlation between the two variables, r = 0.992, N=160, P <0.001. The results of the validation study showed that Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) is a valid and reliable tool to be used as a screening tool to detect early dementia in primary care.

Keywords: Primary Care, Screening, Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ), construct validity

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9 Reliability and Validity Examinations of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL): One of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang


In this study, three Chinese versions of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales were used to examine adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. These three scales are CBCL, TRF, and YSR. In order to further understand the robustness of these scales, their reliability and construct validity have been examined. Each scale consists of about 113 items plus relevant background variables. These 113 items were further classified into 8 psychological and behavioral problems: emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints, withdrawn, attention problems, aggressive behavior, social problems, thought problems, and association problems. The study explored the item and construct correlation relations and the correlations between the corresponding constructs among three scales. The results indicated that the associations between item and constructs varied. The construct validities were very robust.

Keywords: Reliability, construct validity, ASEBA, psychological and behavioral problems

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8 Developing Critical-Process Skills Integrated Assessment Instrument as Alternative Assessment on Electrolyte Solution Matter in Senior High School

Authors: Sri Rejeki Dwi Astuti, Suyanta


The demanding of the asessment in learning process was impact by policy changes. Nowadays, the assessment not only emphasizes knowledge, but also skills and attitude. However, in reality there are many obstacles in measuring them. This paper aimed to describe how to develop instrument of integrated assessment as alternative assessment to measure critical thinking skills and science process skills in electrolyte solution and to describe instrument’s characteristic such as logic validity and construct validity. This instrument development used test development model by McIntire. Development process data was acquired based on development test step and was analyzed by qualitative analysis. Initial product was observed by three peer reviewer and six expert judgment (two subject matter expert, two evaluation expert and two chemistry teacher) to acquire logic validity test. Logic validity test was analyzed using Aiken’s formula. The estimation of construct validity was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Result showed that integrated assessment instrument has 0,90 of Aiken’s Value and all item in integrated assessment asserted valid according to construct validity.

Keywords: Critical Thinking Skills, construct validity, science process skills, integrated assessment instrument, logic validity

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7 Adapting Depression and Anxiety Questionnaire for Children into Turkish: Reliability and Validity Studies

Authors: İsmail Seçer


Although depression and anxiety disorders are considered to be adult disorders, the evidence obtained from several studies conducted recently shows that the roots of depression and anxiety disorders go back to childhood years. Thus, it is thought that analyzing depressive symptoms and anxiety disorders observed in the childhood is an important necessity. In the direction of the problem status of the study, the purpose of this study is to adapt anxiety and depression questionnaire for children into Turkish culture and analyze the psychometric characteristics of it on clinical and nonclinical samples separately. The study is a descriptive survey research. The study was conducted on two different sample groups, clinical and nonclinical. The clinical sample is formed of 205 individuals and the nonclinical sample is formed of 630 individuals. Through the study, anxiety and depression questionnaire for children, anxiety sensitivity index and obsessive compulsive disorder questionnaire for children were used. Experts’ opinions were asked to provide language validity of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity to analyze construct validity and internal consistency and split-half reliability analyses were done for reliability. In the direction of experts’ opinions, construct validity of the scale was analyzed with simple confirmatory factor analysis and it was determined that the model fit of the two-factor structure of the scale gives good fit on both the clinical and nonclinical samples after determining that the language validity of the scale is provided. In criterion-related validity, it was determined that there are positive and significant relations between anxiety and depression questionnaire for children and anxiety sensitivity and obsessive compulsive disorder. The results of internal consistency and half-split reliability analyses also show that the scale has adequate reliability value. It can be said that depression and anxiety questionnaire for children which was adapted to determine depressive symptoms and anxiety disorders observed in childhood has adequate reliability and validity values and it can be used in future studies. It can be recommended that the psychometric characteristics of the scale can be analyzed and reported on new samples in the future studies.

Keywords: Childhood Depression, construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis, scale adapting

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6 Construction and Validation of Allied Bank-Teller Aptitude Test

Authors: Muhammad Kashif Fida


In the bank, teller’s job (cash officer) is highly important and critical as at one end it requires soft and brisk customer services and on the other side, handling cash with integrity. It is always challenging for recruiters to hire competent and trustworthy tellers. According to author’s knowledge, there is no comprehensive test available that may provide assistance in recruitment in Pakistan. So there is a dire need of a psychometric battery that could provide support in recruitment of potential candidates for the teller’ position. So, the aim of the present study was to construct ABL-Teller Aptitude Test (ABL-TApT). Three major phases have been designed by following American Psychological Association’s guidelines. The first phase was qualitative, indicators of the test have been explored by content analysis of the a) teller’s job descriptions (n=3), b) interview with senior tellers (n=6) and c) interview with HR personals (n=4). Content analysis of above yielded three border constructs; i). Personality, ii). Integrity/honesty, iii). Professional Work Aptitude. Identified indicators operationalized and statements (k=170) were generated using verbatim. It was then forwarded to the five experts for review of content validity. They finalized 156 items. In the second phase; ABL-TApT (k=156) administered on 323 participants through a computer application. The overall reliability of the test shows significant alpha coefficient (α=.81). Reliability of subscales have also significant alpha coefficients. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) performed to estimate the construct validity, confirms four main factors comprising of eight personality traits (Confidence, Organized, Compliance, Goal-oriented, Persistent, Forecasting, Patience, Caution), one Integrity/honesty factor, four factors of professional work aptitude (basic numerical ability and perceptual accuracy of letters, numbers and signature) and two factors for customer services (customer services, emotional maturity). Values of GFI, AGFI, NNFI, CFI, RFI and RMSEA are in recommended range depicting significant model fit. In third phase concurrent validity evidences have been pursued. Personality and integrity part of this scale has significant correlations with ‘conscientiousness’ factor of NEO-PI-R, reflecting strong concurrent validity. Customer services and emotional maturity have significant correlations with ‘Bar-On EQI’ showing another evidence of strong concurrent validity. It is concluded that ABL-TAPT is significantly reliable and valid battery of tests, will assist in objective recruitment of tellers and help recruiters in finding a more suitable human resource.

Keywords: Reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity, content validity, teller aptitude test, objective recruitment

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5 Development of an Instrument: The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS)

Authors: Camille Rault, Mark Bahr


The aim of the present study was to develop a contemporaneous instrument measuring adolescent’s subjective well-being (SWB). The instrument development underwent a three-phase pilot study. Phase one (N = 31) used a qualitative approach to generate domains of SWB relevant to adolescents. During the second phase (N = 22), items were tested targeting these domains. Finally, the third phase (N = 22) assisted in addition, deletion and refinement according to the first two phases of the pilot. A total of 49 items were retained for the final version of the instrument. The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS) was administered to 1071 school children (599 girls) aged between ten to 18 years old (M = 14,70; SD = 1.45) from Queensland, Australia. Results confirmed the seven-factor construct hypothesized and explained 45% of the variance. The questionnaire pertained to seven domains of adolescent’s SWB, namely; Overall life satisfaction; Bullying; Body image; Social connectedness; Activities; Control appraisal; and Negative feelings. Reliability was shown to be acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .58 to .89. Future research should refine the CAWBS and investigate the psychometric properties of this instrument.

Keywords: adolescence, subjective well-being, construct validity, instrument

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4 Validation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) among Adolescents in Vietnam

Authors: Anh Nguyen, Jane Fisher, Thach Tran, Anh T. T. Tran


Trait Emotional Intelligence is the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes an individual has about their own and other people’s emotions. It is believed that trait emotional intelligence is a component of personality. Petrides’ Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is well regarded and well-established, with validation data about its functioning among adults from many countries. However, there is little data yet about its use among Asian populations, including adolescents. The aims were to translate and culturally verify the Trait Emotional Intelligence Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) and investigate content validity, construct validity, and reliability among adolescents attending high schools in Vietnam. Content of the TEIQue-ASF was translated (English to Vietnamese) and back-translated (Vietnamese to English) in consultation with bilingual and bicultural health researchers and pilot tested among 51 potential respondents. Phraseology and wording were then adjusted and the final version is named the VN-TEIQue-ASF. The VN-TEIQue-ASF’s properties were investigated in a cross-sectional elf-report survey among high school students in Central Vietnam. In total 1,546 / 1,573 (98.3%) eligible students from nine high schools in rural, urban, and coastline areas completed the survey. Explanatory Factor Analysis yielded a four-factor solution, including some with facets that loaded differently compared to the original version: Well-being, Emotion in Relationships, Emotion Self-management, and Emotion Sensitivity. The Cronbach’s alpha of the global score for the VN-TEIQue-ASF was .77. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is comprehensible and has good content and construct validity and reliability among adolescents in Vietnam. The factor structure is only partly replicated the original version. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is recommended for use in school or community surveys and professional study in education, psychology, and public health to investigate the trait emotional intelligence of adolescents in Vietnam.

Keywords: Adolescents, Factor Analysis, Vietnam, construct validity, content validity, questionnaire validity, trait emotional intelligence

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3 An Investigation of Construct Validity of GAT as a High-Stake Test Used for MS/MPhil English Admissions in Pakistan

Authors: Anam Nawaz


The study attempts to investigate the ‘construct validity’ of GAT general test; a high-stake test (any assessment whose outcome has life-changing implications for the test taker, used by most of the government and private sector universities in Pakistan as an admission requirement). Participants need at least 50 marks to qualify the test which consists of verbal, quantitative and analytical sections. 10 participants from English department of International Islamic University Islamabad were conveniently selected and asked to attempt a sample of GAT test in a limited time. Afterwards, they were requested to fill a brief questionnaire and were further asked a few questions regarding the relevance and significance of GAT test. The study revealed some insights about the construct validity of GAT tests from the test takers’ perspectives. It has been unanimously reported that the mathematics queries in the quantitative part had little or nothing to do with the concept of English proficiency and were, therefore, unnecessary. The participants also reported facing issues while attempting the analytical part of the test for a couple of reasons; mainly because the questions needed more time to be solved and were scarcely relevant to the language proficiency being more of intelligence questions. In a nutshell, the study concluded that GAT tests suffer from both construct under-representation and construct-irrelevant problems. Consequently, it has been suggested that GAT tests (with the present format) should not continue to be a requirement for MS/MPhil admissions and more relevant alternatives should be developed.

Keywords: construct validity, GAT General, high-stake tests, National Testing Service (NTS), qualitative paradigm of construct validation

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2 Psychological Capital: Convergent and Discriminant Validity of a Reconfigured Measure

Authors: Anton Grobler


Background: Psychological capital (PsyCap), consisting of Hope, Optimism, Resilience, and Self-efficacy, is a popular positive organisational behaviour construct utilised in the studying employee work and behavioral attitudes. Various scholars believe however that further validity research should be conducted on the PsyCap questionnaire (PCQ), outside of the founding research team and in more diverse settings, for the purpose of this paper, within the diverse South African (SA) context. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the PCQ with specific reference to its psychometric properties within the diverse SA context. Setting: The sample includes a total of 1 749 respondents, ± 60 each from 30 organisations in South Africa. Method: This study utilised a cross-sectional design and quantitative analysis. The sample is relatively representative (in terms of race, gender) of the South African workforce. A multi-factorial model was statistically explored and confirmed (with exploratory factor analysis [EFA] and confirmatory factor analysis [CFA] respectively). Results: The study yielded a three-factor solution, with Hope and Optimism as a combined factor and Resilience and Self-efficacy made up of a reconfigured set of substantively justifiable items. Three items of the original 24 items were found not to be suitable. The three factors showed good psychometric properties, good fit (in support of construct validity) and acceptable levels of convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusion: The results support the original conceptualisation of PsyCap, although with a unique structural configuration. This resonates with the notion of scholars that further research should be conducted within diverse settings. This is necessary to ensure the valid measurement of the construct, which is considered to be one of the four criteria for a construct to be categorised as a positive organisational behaviour construct.

Keywords: Resilience, Self-efficacy, hope, construct validity, psychological capital, optimism, positive organisational behaviour

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1 Development of Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire for Diabetes Management in Thailand and Lao People Democratic Republic

Authors: Phoutsathaphone Sibounheuang, Phayom Sookaneknun Olson, Chanuttha Ploylearmsang, Santiparp Sookaneknun, Chanthanom Manithip


Patient satisfaction is an outcome that can be measured and used to improve diabetes care and management. There are limited instruments for assessing patient satisfaction covering the whole process of diabetes management. In this study, the questionnaire was developed with items pooled from a systematic review of qualitative studies of patients’ and healthcare providers’ perspectives in diabetes management. The questionnaire consists of 11 domains with 45 items. The Thai version was translated to Lao and then checked by back-translating it into Thai. We tested the questionnaire on 150 diabetes patients in Thailand and 150 in Lao People Democratic Republic (PDR). Validity was performed by factor analysis and Pearson correlation. Internal consistency reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The study was approved by the Mahasarakham University Ethics Committee, and the National Ethics Committee for Health Research, Lao PDR. The Thai and Lao versions showed the construct validity by principal component analysis. This consisted of 11 domains which account for 71.23% of the variance (Thai version) and 71.66% of the variance (Lao version) in the total patient satisfaction scores. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures were 0.85 for the Thai version and 0.75 for the Lao version. The Bartlett tests of sphericity of both versions were significant (p < 0.001). The factor loadings of all items in both versions were > 0.40. The convergent validity of the Thai and Lao versions was 93.63% and 79.54% respectively. The discriminant validity for the Thai and Lao versions was 92.68% and 88.68% respectively. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 in both versions. The Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) in both versions had acceptable properties. This study has yielded evidence supporting the validity and reliability of both versions.

Keywords: Reliability, Diabetes Management, construct validity, patient satisfaction, questionnaire development

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