Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Constraints Related Abstracts

11 Assessment Of Factors Affecting Sustainability of Rice (Oryza sativa) Processing and Marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. M. Omoare, W. O. Oyediran, O. O. Sofowora

Abstract:

The study was carried out to assess the factors affecting the sustainability of rice processing and marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while hypotheses were analyzed with Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that most (85%) of the respondents was less than 50 years old and had been in rice business for more than 6 years. The majority (66.67%) of the respondents got their capitals from cooperative societies. All (100%) the respondents used rice as household food security and source of income. However, efficient rice processing and marketing were affected by inadequate manpower capacity development and inputs. There was a positive and significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics and processing techniques (p < 0.05). It is hereby recommended that extension service providers should introduce improved rice processing systems to the rice millers traders in the study area.

Keywords: Marketing, Sustainability, Constraints, rice processing, millers traders

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10 Technical Efficiency and Challenges of Smallholder Horticultural Farmers in Ghana: A Wake-Up Call for Policy Implementers

Authors: Freda E. Asem, R. D. Osei, D. B. Sarpong, J. K. Kuwornu

Abstract:

While market access remains important, Ghana’s major handicap is her inability to sustain export growth on the open market. The causes of these could be attributed to inefficiency, lack of competitiveness and supply-side constraints. This study examined the challenges faced by smallholder horticultural farmers and how it relates to their technical efficiency. The study employed mixed methods to address the problem. Using the Millennium Development Account (MiDA) Farmer Based Organization survey data on farm households in 23 districts in Ghana, the study assessed the technical efficiency of smallholder horticultural farmers (taking into account production risks). Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews were also conducted on smallholder mango, pineapple, and chilli pepper farmers selected districts in Ghana. Results revealed the constraints faced by smallholder horticultural farmers to be marketing, training, funding, accessibility, and affordability of inputs, land, access to credit, and the disconnect between themselves and policy makers and implementers.

Keywords: Gender, Productivity, Policy, Efficiency, Constraints

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9 Energy Management System

Authors: R. Manikandan, S. Periyadharshini, K. Ramkumar, S. Jayalalitha, M. GuruPrasath

Abstract:

This paper presents a formulation and solution for industrial load management and product grade problem. The formulation is created using linear programming technique thereby optimizing the electricity cost by scheduling the loads satisfying the process, storage, time zone and production constraints which will create an impact of reducing maximum demand and thereby reducing the electricity cost. Product grade problem is formulated using integer linear programming technique of optimization using lingo software and the results show that overall increase in profit margin. In this paper, time of use tariff is utilized and this technique will provide significant reductions in peak electricity consumption.

Keywords: Constraints, Integer Programming, objective function, cement industries, optimal formulation

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8 A Survey on the Requirements of University Course Timetabling

Authors: Nurul Liyana Abdul Aziz, Nur Aidya Hanum Aizam

Abstract:

Course timetabling problems occur every semester in a university which includes the allocation of resources (subjects, lecturers and students) to a number of fixed rooms and timeslots. The assignment is carried out in a way such that there are no conflicts within rooms, students and lecturers, as well as fulfilling a range of constraints. The constraints consist of rules and policies set up by the universities as well as lecturers’ and students’ preferences of courses to be allocated in specific timeslots. This paper specifically focuses on the preferences of the course timetabling problem in one of the public universities in Malaysia. The demands will be considered into our existing mathematical model to make it more generalized and can be used widely. We have distributed questionnaires to a number of lecturers and students of the university to investigate their demands and preferences for their desired course timetable. We classify the preferences thus converting them to construct one mathematical model that can produce such timetable.

Keywords: Preferences, Constraints, Integer Programming, university course timetabling problem

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7 Job Shop Scheduling: Classification, Constraints and Objective Functions

Authors: Salwani Abdullah, Majid Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad

Abstract:

The job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an important decision facing those involved in the fields of industry, economics and management. This problem is a class of combinational optimization problem known as the NP-hard problem. JSSPs deal with a set of machines and a set of jobs with various predetermined routes through the machines, where the objective is to assemble a schedule of jobs that minimizes certain criteria such as makespan, maximum lateness, and total weighted tardiness. Over the past several decades, interest in meta-heuristic approaches to address JSSPs has increased due to the ability of these approaches to generate solutions which are better than those generated from heuristics alone. This article provides the classification, constraints and objective functions imposed on JSSPs that are available in the literature.

Keywords: classification, Constraints, job-shop scheduling, objective functions

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6 Motivation and Constraints of Athletes’ Migration: Foreign Players in Korean Volleyball League (V-League)

Authors: Young Ik Suh, Sanghak Lee, Tywan G. Martin

Abstract:

An increasing number of athletes, across all sports, are moving from their home countries to play in foreign countries. The migration of athletes, coaches, managers, and administrators within and between nations is an important aspect of the social and cultural changes taking place in modern, global sports. It is especially important to understand the context of these migrations as they are critical factors in the successful development of sports policies. In previous decades, efforts have been made to understand the motives of migrating athletes from a variety of sports, including rugby, cricket, baseball, and soccer. These studies focused on the athletes’ motivations, experiences as migrants, and recruit process. However, few studies have been conducted in order to understand athletes’ constraints of migration. The concept of constraints in leisure studies refers to the barriers that exist between an individual’s desire for participation and an individual’s real participation. The study of constraints is not a new topic in the fields of sports and recreation. In addition to understanding the motives that drive athletes to work or play in foreign countries, it is also important to recognize that negative dimensions exist that stop some athletes from migrating. Furthermore, little research has explored what makes athletes consider playing in small and unknown volleyball markets, such as the Korean Volleyball League (V-League). The V-League is a professional men’s and women’s volleyball league, started in 2005. It consists of seven men’s clubs, and six women’s clubs and each team has one foreign player. In addition, several limitations are placed on the foreign players, such as on height, position, and salary to play in the V-League. Thus, the main focus of the present research is to understand why foreign athletes (e.g., European, American, Brazil, etc.) are attracted to the V-League, which has a smaller market compared to its neighbors (i.e., China, Japan, and The Philippines). In addition, the current study seeks to identify the negative factors that prevent athletes from playing in the V-League. The participants for this study will be foreign volleyball players participating in the V-League. The investigators will provide a brief introduction to this study and inform the potential participants that they can choose whether to participate in this study. In terms of theoretical saturation, at least 12 participants are generally an adequate number to reach saturation, if they belong to a relatively homogenous group based on culture and ethnicity. This study utilizes a qualitative approach in order to understand the migration experiences foreign volleyball athletes playing in the V-League. The proposed study represents ongoing research to support work conducted by the investigators to understand the possible motivations and constraints for foreign volleyball players playing in the V-League. In addition, significant contributions to scholarship in the field of sports, psychology, and coaching studies will be an outcome of this study along with additions to the body of knowledge in several disciplines, including psychology, sociology, and social work.

Keywords: Motivation, Constraints, Volleyball, athletes’ migration

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5 Awareness and Utilization of Social Network Tools among Agricultural Science Students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebowale Olukayode Efunnowo

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess the awareness and utilization of Social Network Tools (SNTs) among agricultural science students in Colleges of Education in Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select 280 respondents from the study area. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that the majority (71.8%) of the respondents were single, with a mean age of 20 years. Almost all (95.7%) the respondents were aware of Facebook and 2go as a Social Network Tools (SNTs) while 85.0% of the respondents were not aware of Blackplanet, LinkedIn, MyHeritage and Bebo. Many (41.1%) of the respondents had views that using SNTs can enhance extensive literature survey, increase internet browsing potential, promote teaching proficiency, and update on outcomes of researches. However, 51.4% of the respondents perceived that SNTs usage as what is meant for the lecturers/adults only while 16.1% considered it as mainly used by internet fraudsters. Findings revealed that about 50.0% of the respondents browsed Facebook and 2go daily while more than 80% of the respondents used Blackplanet, MyHeritage, Skyrock, Bebo, LinkedIn and My YearBook as the need arise. Major constraints to the awareness and utilization of SNTs were high cost and poor quality of ICTs facilities (77.1%), epileptic power supply (75.0%), inadequate telecommunication infrastructure (71.1%), low technical know-how (62.9%) and inadequate computer knowledge (61.1%). The result of PPMC analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between constraints and utilization of SNTs at p < 0.05. It can be concluded that constraints affect efficient and effective utilization of SNTs in the study area. It is hereby recommended that management of colleges of education and agricultural institutes should provide good internet connectivity, computer facilities, and alternative power supply in order to increase the awareness and utilization of SNTs among students.

Keywords: Utilization, awareness, students, Constraints, social network tools

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4 Implementation of Congestion Management Strategies on Arterial Roads: Case Study of Geelong

Authors: L. Hitihamillage, S. Moridpour, A. Das

Abstract:

Natural disasters are inevitable to the biodiversity. Disasters such as flood, tsunami and tornadoes could be brutal, harsh and devastating. In Australia, flooding is a major issue experienced by different parts of the country. In such crisis, delays in evacuation could decide the life and death of the people living in those regions. Congestion management could become a mammoth task if there are no steps taken before such situations. In the past to manage congestion in such circumstances, many strategies were utilised such as converting the road shoulders to extra lanes or changing the road geometry by adding more lanes. However, expansion of road to resolving congestion problems is not considered a viable option nowadays. The authorities avoid this option due to many reasons, such as lack of financial support and land space. They tend to focus their attention on optimising the current resources they possess and use traffic signals to overcome congestion problems. Traffic Signal Management strategy was considered a viable option, to alleviate congestion problems in the City of Geelong, Victoria. Arterial road with signalised intersections considered in this paper and the traffic data required for modelling collected from VicRoads. Traffic signalling software SIDRA used to model the roads, and the information gathered from VicRoads. In this paper, various signal parameters utilised to assess and improve the corridor performance to achieve the best possible Level of Services (LOS) for the arterial road.

Keywords: Management, Constraints, congestion, LOS

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3 A Constrained Model Predictive Control Scheme for Simultaneous Control of Temperature and Hygrometry in Greenhouses

Authors: Soumia El Hani, Ayoub Moufid, Najib Bennis

Abstract:

The objective of greenhouse climate control is to improve the culture development and to minimize the production costs. A greenhouse is an open system to external environment and the challenge is to regulate the internal climate despite the strong meteorological disturbances. The internal state of greenhouse considered in this work is defined by too relevant and coupled variables, namely inside temperature and hygrometry. These two variables are chosen to describe the internal state of greenhouses due to their importance in the development of plants and their sensitivity to external climatic conditions, sources of weather disturbances. A multivariable model is proposed and validated by considering a greenhouse as black-box system and the least square method is applied to parameters identification basing on collected experimental measures. To regulate the internal climate, we propose a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme. This one considers the measured meteorological disturbances and the physical and operational constraints on the control and state variables. A successful feasibility study of the proposed controller is presented, and simulation results show good performances despite the high interaction between internal and external variables and the strong external meteorological disturbances. The inside temperature and hygrometry are tracking nearly the desired trajectories. A comparison study with an On/Off control applied to the same greenhouse confirms the efficiency of the MPC approach to inside climate control.

Keywords: Optimization, Identification, Greenhouse, Constraints, Model Predictive Control, Climate Control

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2 Teaching and Doing Research in Higher Education Settings: An Exploratory Study of Vietnamese Overseas-Trained Returnees

Authors: Bao Trang Thi Nguyen, Stephen Moore

Abstract:

A large number of Vietnamese lecturers leave their home institutions every year to pursue an education in Australia and in other countries and most of whom return home to careers back in the Vietnamese work context. However, to the authors’ best knowledge, there is little empirical knowledge about these Vietnamese returnees. Much less is about how these overseas-trained returnees continue doing research while taking a lecturing role, though research has recently received growing heightened attention in Vietnamese Higher Education institutions and returnees are an important source of human resources. The research is mixed-methods in nature with questionnaires and interviews as the main instruments of data collection. Seven-six Vietnamese returnees working from a broad range of disciplines from different higher education institutions in central Vietnam completed a questionnaire on their perceived constraints and affordances in teaching and continuing doing research upon return from their overseas education. Twenty-five of these returnees took part in a subsequent in-depth interview which lasted from 30 minutes to an hour, which further seeks understanding of their lived individual experiences and stories. The overall results show that time constraint, heavy teaching loads, and varied administrative and familial roles are among inhibiting factors. However, these factors were more constraining for some returnees more than others. Their motivations to do research varied, from passion to work pressure and self-perceived responsibilities. Above all, these were mediated by personal, institutional and disciplinary contexts. The paper argues for a nuanced understanding of returnee academics’ life as complex and layered with the multiple identities they associated themselves with and the differing trajectories they embarked on as to what they perceived important as a university lecturer. Implications for Higher Education management and administration and professional development are addressed.

Keywords: Teaching, Higher Education, Constraints, Affordances, Vietnamese overseas-trained returnees, doing research

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1 Effect of Good Agriculture Management Practices and Constraints on Grape Farming: A Case Study in Mirbachakot, Kalakan and Shakardara Districts Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Mirwais Yusufi

Abstract:

Skillful management is one of the most important success factors for today’s farms. When a farm is well managed, it can generate funds for its sustainability. Grape is one of the most diffused fruits in the world and one of the most important cash crops with high potential of production in Afghanistan as well. While there are several organizations intervening for improvement of this cash crop, the quality and quantity are still not satisfactory for producers and external markets. The situation has not changed over the years. Therefore, a survey was conducted in 2017 with 60 grape growers, supported by questionnaires in Mirbachakot, Kalakan and Shakardara districts of Kabul province. The purpose was to get an understanding of the current socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, management methods, constraints, farm size, yield and contribution of grape farming to household income. Findings indicate that grape farming was predominant 83.3% male, 16.6% female and small-scale farmers were the main grape producers, 60% < 1 ha of land under grape production. Likewise, 50% had more than > 10 years and 33.3% between 1-5 years’ experience in grape farming. The high level of illiteracy and diseases had significant digit effect on growth, yield and quality of grapes. The results showed that vineyard management operations to protect grapes from mechanical damage are very poor or completely absent. Comparing developed countries, table grape is one of the fruits with the highest input of technology, while in developing countries the cost of labor is low but the purchase of the equipment is very high due to financial situation. Hence the low quality and quantity of grape are influenced by poor management methods, such as non-availability of experts and lack of technical guidance in the study site. Thereby, the study suggested that improved agricultural extension services and managerial skills could contribute to addressing the problems.

Keywords: Management, Constraints, effect, Kabul

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