Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

constitutional court Related Abstracts

3 Position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the Matter of Restricting Constitutional Rights of Citizens Concerning Banking Secrecy

Authors: A. V. Shashkova

Abstract:

The aim of the present article is to analyze the position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The methodological ground of the present Article represents the dialectic scientific method of the socio-political, legal and organizational processes with the principles of development, integrity, and consistency, etc. The consistency analysis method is used while researching the object of the analysis. Some public-private research methods are also used: the formally-logical method or the comparative legal method, are used to compare the understanding of the ‘secrecy’ concept. The aim of the present article is to find the root of the problem and to give recommendations for the solution of the problem. The result of the present research is the author’s conclusion on the necessity of the political will to improve Russian legislation with the aim of compliance with the provisions of the Constitution. It is also necessary to establish a clear balance between the constitutional rights of the individual and the limit of these rights when carrying out various control activities by public authorities. Attempts by the banks to "overdo" an anti-money laundering law under threat of severe sanctions by the regulators actually led to failures in the execution of normal economic activity. Therefore, individuals face huge problems with payments on the basis of clearing, in addition to problems with cash withdrawals. The Bank of Russia sets requirements for banks to execute Federal Law No. 115-FZ too high. It is high place to attract political will here. As well, recent changes in Russian legislation, e.g. allowing banks to refuse opening of accounts unilaterally, simplified banking activities in the country. The article focuses on different theoretical approaches towards the concept of “secrecy”. The author gives an overview of the practices of Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation basing on the Constitution of the Russian Federation has its special understanding of the issue, which should be supported by further legislative development in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: Money Laundering, constitutional court, restriction of constitutional rights, bank secrecy, control measures, financial control, banking information

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2 The Use of Foreign Law by the Constitutional Court of Taiwan: A Case-By-Case Analysis from 1990 to 2017

Authors: Mingsiang Chen

Abstract:

The increasing transactions among countries worldwide have brought about a trend of comparative law research in the legal community. An important branch of legal research, i.e., constitutional law, is no exception to the trend. The comparative study of constitutional law takes various forms, and one of these is to study the use of foreign law by constitutional courts. There are, in essence, three sources of foreign law usually used by constitutional courts: foreign constitutions, decisions by foreign constitutional courts, and legal theories developed by foreign scholars. There are two types of using foreign law by constitutional courts: citing any of the forenamed sources for reference purpose, ruling based on the contents or logic of any of the forenamed sources. This paper examines all the decisions handed down by the Constitutional Court of Taiwan from 1990 to 2017. Its purpose is to seek out the occasions, the extent, the significance, and the approach of such usage.

Keywords: Judicial Review, constitutional court, comparative constitutional law, Taiwan judiciary

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1 Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Possible Roles of Eternity Clauses in the Member States of the European Union

Authors: Zsuzsa Szakaly

Abstract:

Several constitutions have explicit or implicit eternity clauses in the European Union, their classic roles were analyzed so far, albeit there are new possibilities emerging in relation to the identity of the constitutions of the Member States. The aim of the study is to look at the practice of the Constitutional Courts of the Member States in detail regarding eternity clauses where limiting constitutional amendment has practical bearing, and to examine the influence of such practice on Europeanization. There are some states that apply explicit eternity clauses embedded in the text of the constitution, e.g., Italy, Germany, and Romania. In other states, the Constitutional Court 'unearthed' the implicit eternity clauses from the text of the basic law, e.g., Slovakia and Croatia. By using comparative analysis to examine the explicit or implicit clauses of the concerned constitutions, taking into consideration the new trends of the judicial opinions of the Member States and the fresh scientific studies, the main questions are: How to wield the double-edged sword of eternity clauses? To support European Integration or to support the sovereignty of the Member State? To help Europeanization or to act against it? Eternity clauses can easily find themselves between a rock and a hard place, the law of the European Union and the law of a Member State, with more possible interpretations. As more and more Constitutional Courts started to declare elements of their Member States’ constitutional identities, these began to interfere with the eternity clauses. Will this trend eventually work against Europeanization? As a result of the research, it can be stated that a lowest common denominator exists in the practice of European Constitutional Courts regarding eternity clauses. The chance of a European model and the possibility of this model influencing the status quo between the European Union and the Member States will be examined by looking at the answers these courts have found so far.

Keywords: european integration, constitutional court, constitutional identity, eternity clause

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