Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Related Abstracts

8 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA) on Some Reproductive Hormones in Ram

Authors: Behnaz Mahdavi, Hamidreza Khodaei, Leila Karshenas

Abstract:

Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2) and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group) didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 gr and the third group received 1 gram of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 ml syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05). Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

Keywords: testosterone, CLA, ram, DHT, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

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7 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Hormones and Factors Involved in Murine Ovulation

Authors: Leila Karshenas, Hamidreza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi

Abstract:

Ovulation is a physiologic process with an inflammatory response that depends on a coordinated activity of gonadotropins and steroid hormones, as well as inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), etc. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in dairy products, beef and lamb. There is strong evidence that dietary CLA affects mediators involved in ovulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of dietary CLA on systemic and local hormones and factors involved in ovulation. In this case-control study, 80 (50±2-day old) female mice were randomly divided into four groups (C as the controls and T1, T2 and T3 as the treatment groups). There were four replicates in each group and there were five mice in every replicate (20 mice, in total). The mice in the control group were fed with no CLA in their diet but the ones in the treatment group received 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5g/kg of CLA (replacing corn oil in the diet), respectively for 120 days. Later on, blood samples were obtained from the tails of animals that displayed estrus signs and estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, NO, leptin and TNFα were measured. Furthermore, the effects of CLA on the ovarian production of prostaglandins (PGs) and NO were investigated. The data were analyzed by SAS software.CLA significantly decreased serum levels of FSH (p<0.05), LH, estradiol, NO, leptin and TNFα (p<0.01). In addition, CLA decreased progesterone levels but this effect was statistically insignificant. The significantly negative effects of CLA were seen on the ovarian production of PGE2 and PGF2α (p<0.01).It seems that CLA may play an effective role in reducing the ovulation rate in mice as CLA adversely affected female reproduction and it had negative effects on systemic and local hormones involved in ovulation.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, Ovary, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, ovulation, prostaglandin, gonadotropin

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6 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Reproductive Axis of Ram

Authors: Behnaz Mahdavi, Hamidreza Khodaei, Alireza Banitaba

Abstract:

Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2) and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group) did not receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 gr and the third group received 1 gram of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 ml syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05). Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also, the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

Keywords: testosterone, CLA, ram, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

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5 Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Health Benefits and Sources

Authors: Hilal Ahmad Punoo

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with two conjugated double bonds. Of more than a dozen isomers of CLA found naturally in dairy and meat products from ruminants, c-9, t-11 and t-10, c-12 are the two isomers with known physiological importance, including anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antilipogenic, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may influence the onset and severity of several chronic diseases, including various cancers, atherosclerosis, obesity, bone density loss, and diabetes. These findings are of special interest to the agriculture community, because dietary sources of CLA are almost exclusively beef and dairy products. Thus, a better understanding of the specific isomers and mechanisms responsible for these positive effects of CLA on human health would be both prudent and economically beneficial. To date, research related to the advantages of CLA consumption on human health has been conducted using experimental laboratory animals and cell culture systems. These data consistently show that relatively low levels of CLA can influence risk of cancer. Further, very recent investigations suggest that the predominate CLA isoform (cis-9, trans-11 CLA or rumenic acid) found in beef and milk fat possesses anticarcinogenic effects but does not alter body composition; the trans-10, cis-12 CLA has been shown to inhibit lipogenesis. Clearly, further work, especially using human subjects, will be required to characterize the potential benefits of CLA consumption on human health. Moreover, we suggest that foods naturally containing high amounts of CLA (e.g., beef and dairy products) be considered as meeting the definition of functional foods.

Keywords: Humans, Animals, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, potential health benefits, fats

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4 Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Lipid Metabolism and Increased Fat around the Muscle Durability by Reducing the Oxidation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid. Despite the fact that 28 different isomers of CLA have already been identified, but the main isomer found in natural diets more than ninety percent CLA on intake of food constitutes demonstrates. CLA is known to be a substance that readily available by rumen microorganisms in some ruminants such as cattle and sheep would likely be made. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of CLA on lipid metabolism and enhanced fat around the muscle durability by reducing the process of oxidation. In order to implement this research, 80 female mice of the Balb/C, with 55 days of age were employed in the experiment. Treatments include various levels of CLA. Over the course of this study blood samples was also taken from the tail vein of the studied mice. Some other relevant parameters such as serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and liver enzymes were also determined. The oxidative stability of fats TBARS technique was investigated at different intervals. The findings of the research were analyzed by statistical software of SAS 98. The results, CLA had no significant effect on liver enzymes (P > 0.05). However, it showed a statistically significant impact on triglycerides and total cholesterol. Ratio of LDL to HDL declined remarkably. Histological studies demonstrated reduced accumulation of fat in the tissues surrounding muscles.

Keywords: Conjugated Linoleic Acid, oxidation process, fat metabolism, fat retention

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3 Influence of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Hormones of Axis of Female Reproduction System Involved in Ovulation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand

Abstract:

Ovulation is a physiologic process with an inflammatory response that depends on a coordinated activity of gonadotropins and steroid hormones, and inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), etc. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in dairy products, beef, and lamb. There is strong evidence that dietary CLA affects mediators involved in ovulation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of various doses of dietary CLA on systemic and local hormones and parameters involved in ovulation. In this case-control research, 80 (50 ± 2-day old) female mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (C as control treatment and T1, T2 and T3 are considered as the treatment groups). There were four replicates in each group, and there were five mice in every replicate (20 mice, in total). The mice in the control group were fed with no CLA in their diet, but the ones in the treatment group received 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5g/kg of CLA (replacing corn oil in the diet), respectively for four months. After that, blood samples were obtained from the tails of animals that displayed estrus signs and estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, NO, leptin and TNFα were measured. In addition, the impacts of CLA on the ovarian production of prostaglandins (PGs) and NO were studied. The data were analyzed by SAS software. CLA considerably decreased serum levels of FSH (p < 0.05), LH, estradiol, NO, leptin and TNFα (p < 0.01). In addition, CLA decreased progesterone levels, but this effect was statistically not significant. The significantly adverse effects of CLA were observed in the ovarian production of PGE2 and PGF2α (p < 0.01). It seems that CLA may play an important role in reducing the ovulation rate in mice as CLA negatively affected female reproduction and it had adverse effects on systemic and local hormones involved in ovulation.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, Ovary, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, ovulation, prostaglandin, gonadotropin

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2 Co-Administration Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and L-Carnitine on Weight Gain and Biochemical Profile in Diet Induced Obese Rats

Authors: Maryam Nazari, Majid Karandish, Alihossein Saberi

Abstract:

Obesity as a global health challenge motivates pharmaceutical industries to produce anti-obesity drugs. However, effectiveness of these agents is remained unclear. Because of popularity of dietary supplements, the aim of this study was tp investigate the effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) and L-carnitine (LC) on serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and weight changes in diet induced obese rats. 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: Normal fat diet (n=8), and High fat diet (HFD) (n=32). After eight weeks, the second group which was maintained on HFD until the end of study, was subdivided into four categories: a) 500 mg Corn Oil (as control group), b) 500 mg CLA, c) 200 mg LC, d) 500 mg CLA+ 200 mg LC.All doses are planned per kg body weights, which were administered by oral gavage for four weeks. Body weights were measured and recorded weekly by means of a digital scale. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical markers measurement. SPSS Version 16 was used for statistical analysis. At the end of 8th week, a significant difference in weight was observed between HFD and NFD group. After 12 weeks, LC significantly reduced weight gain by 4.2%. Trend of weight gain in CLA and CLA+LC groups was insignificantly decelerated. CLA+LC reduced triglyceride level significantly, but just CLA had significant influence on total cholesterol and insignificant decreasing effect on FBS. Our results showed that an obesogenic diet in a relative short time led to obesity and dyslipidemia which can be modified by LC and CLA to some extent.

Keywords: Obesity, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, l-carnitine, high fat diet

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1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effect on Body Weight and Body Composition in Women: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hanady Hamdallah, H. Elyse Ireland, John H. H. Williams

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a food supplement that is reported to have multiple beneficial health effects, including being anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity. Animal studies have shown a significant anti-obesity effect of CLA, but results in humans were inconsistent, where some of the studies found an anti-obesity effect while other studies failed to find any decline in obesity markers after CLA supplementation. This meta-analysis aimed to determine if oral CLA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity related markers in women. Pub Med, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were used to identify the eligible trials using two main searching strategies: the first one was to search eligible trials using keywords 'Conjugated linoleic acid', 'CLA', 'Women', and the second strategy was to extract the eligible trials from previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The eligible trials were placebo control trials where women supplemented with CLA mixture in the form of oral capsules for 6 months or less. Also, these trials provided information about body composition expressed as body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), total body fat (TBF), percentage body fat (BF %), and/ or lean body mass (LBM). The quality of each included study was assessed using both JADAD scale and an adapted CONSERT checklist. Meta-analysis of 8 eligible trials showed that CLA supplementation was significantly associated with reduced BW (Mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.26 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.6 ± 0.13kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.76 ± 0.26 kg, p= 0.003) in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks. Subgroup meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in BW (1.29 ± 0.31 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (0.60 ± 0.14 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (0.82 ± 0.28 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials that had recruited overweight-obese women. The second subgroup meta-analysis, that considered the menopausal status of the participants, found that CLA was significantly associated with reduced BW (1.35 ± 0.37 kg, p < 0.001; 1.05 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) and BMI (0.50 ± 0.17 kg/m², p= 0.003; 0.75 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) in both pre and post-menopausal age women, respectively. A reduction in TBF (1.09 ± 0.37 kg, p= 0.003) was only significant in post-menopausal women. Interestingly, CLA supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in BW (1.05 ± 0.35 kg, p< 0.003), BMI (0.73 ± 0.2 kg/m², p < 0.001) and TBF (1.07 ± 0.36 kg, p= 0.003) in the trials without lifestyle monitoring or interventions. No significant effect of CLA on LBM was detected in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis suggests a moderate anti-obesity effect of CLA on BW, BMI and TBF reduction in women, when supplemented over 6-16 weeks, particularly in overweight-obese women and post-menopausal women. However, this finding requires careful interpretation due to several issues in the designs of available CLA supplementation trials. More well-designed trials are required to confirm this meta-analysis results.

Keywords: Body Composition, body mass index, body weight, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

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