Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

conformation Related Abstracts

3 High-Pressure Polymorphism of 4,4-Bipyridine Hydrobromide

Authors: Michalina Aniola, Andrzej Katrusiak


4,4-Bipyridine is an important compound often used in chemical practice and more recently frequently applied for designing new metal organic framework (MoFs). Here we present a systematic high-pressure study of its hydrobromide salt. 4,4-Bipyridine hydrobromide monohydrate, 44biPyHBrH₂O, at ambient-pressure is orthorhombic, space group P212121 (phase a). Its hydrostatic compression shows that it is stable to 1.32 GPa at least. However, the recrystallization above 0.55 GPa reveals a new hidden b-phase (monoclinic, P21/c). Moreover, when the 44biPyHBrH2O is heated to high temperature the chemical reactions of this compound in methanol solution can be observed. High-pressure experiments were performed using a Merrill-Bassett diamond-anvil cell (DAC), modified by mounting the anvils directly on the steel supports, and X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on a KUMA and Excalibur diffractometer equipped with an EOS CCD detector. At elevated pressure, the crystal of 44biPyHBrH₂O exhibits several striking and unexpected features. No signs of instability of phase a were detected to 1.32 GPa, while phase b becomes stable at above 0.55 GPa, as evidenced by its recrystallizations. Phases a and b of 44biPyHBrH2O are partly isostructural: their unit-cell dimensions and the arrangement of ions and water molecules are similar. In phase b the HOH-Br- chains double the frequency of their zigzag motifs, compared to phase a, and the 44biPyH+ cations change their conformation. Like in all monosalts of 44biPy determined so far, in phase a the pyridine rings are twisted by about 30 degrees about bond C4-C4 and in phase b they assume energy-unfavorable planar conformation. Another unusual feature of 44biPyHBrH2O is that all unit-cell parameters become longer on the transition from phase a to phase b. Thus the volume drop on the transition to high-pressure phase b totally depends on the shear strain of the lattice. Higher temperature triggers chemical reactions of 44biPyHBrH2O with methanol. When the saturated methanol solution compound precipitated at 0.1 GPa and temperature of 423 K was required to dissolve all the sample, the subsequent slow recrystallization at isochoric conditions resulted in disalt 4,4-bipyridinium dibromide. For the 44biPyHBrH2O sample sealed in the DAC at 0.35 GPa, then dissolved at isochoric conditions at 473 K and recrystallized by slow controlled cooling, a reaction of N,N-dimethylation took place. It is characteristic that in both high-pressure reactions of 44biPyHBrH₂O the unsolvated disalt products were formed and that free base 44biPy and H₂O remained in the solution. The observed reactions indicate that high pressure destabilized ambient-pressure salts and favors new products. Further studies on pressure-induced reactions are carried out in order to better understand the structural preferences induced by pressure.

Keywords: Polymorphism, high-pressure, conformation, negative area compressibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
2 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: Polymer Materials, Single molecule, conformation, super-resolution techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1 Principal Component Analysis of Body Weight and Morphometric Traits of New Zealand Rabbits Raised under Semi-Arid Condition in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Abayomi Rotimi


Context: Rabbits production plays important role in increasing animal protein supply in Nigeria. Rabbit production provides a cheap, affordable, and healthy source of meat. The growth of animals involves an increase in body weight, which can change the conformation of various parts of the body. Live weight and linear measurements are indicators of growth rate in rabbits and other farm animals. Aims: This study aimed to define the body dimensions of New Zealand rabbits and also to investigate the morphometric traits variables that contribute to body conformation by the use of principal component analysis (PCA). Methods: Data were obtained from 80 New Zealand rabbits (40 bucks and 40 does) raised in Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsinma. Data were taken on body weight (BWT), body length (BL), ear length (EL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG) and abdominal circumference (AC). Data collected were subjected to multivariate analysis using SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Key results: The descriptive statistics showed that the mean BWT, BL, EL, TL, HG, and AC were 0.91kg, 27.34cm, 10.24cm, 8.35cm, 19.55cm and 21.30cm respectively. Sex showed significant (P<0.05) effect on all the variables examined, with higher values recorded for does. The phenotypic correlation coefficient values (r) between the morphometric traits were all positive and ranged from r = 0.406 (between EL and BL) to r = 0.909 (between AC and HG). HG is the most correlated with BWT (r = 0.786). The principal component analysis with variance maximizing orthogonal rotation was used to extract the components. Two principal components (PCs) from the factor analysis of morphometric traits explained about 80.42% of the total variance. PC1 accounted for 64.46% while PC2 accounted for 15.97% of the total variances. Three variables, representing body conformation, loaded highest in PC1. PC1 had the highest contribution (64.46%) to the total variance, and it is regarded as body conformation traits. Conclusions: This component could be used as selection criteria for improving body weight of rabbits.

Keywords: multicollinearity, conformation, multivariate, rabbits and principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 4