Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Conflict Resolution Related Abstracts

13 The Concept of Community Participation and Identified Tertiary Education Problems, Strategies and Methods

Authors: Ada Adoga James

Abstract:

This paper discussed the concept of community participation and identified tertiary education problems; strategies and methods communities could be involved to reduce conflict witnessed in our tertiary institutions of learning due to government inability to fund education. The paper pointed out that community participation through the use of Parent Teachers Association (PTA), age grade, traditional leaders, village based associations, religious and political organs could be sensitized to raise financial resources. The paper identified different sources of conflicts, the outcome of which causes prolonged academic activities, destruction of lives and properties and in some cased render school environment completely insecure for serious academic activities. It recommends involvement of community participation in assisting government, proper handling of tertiary institutions in management, and more democratic procedure in conflict resolution like cordial relationship between staff, students and trade unions in decision making process.

Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Community, Conflict Resolution, tertiary education

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12 Democratising Rivers: Local River Conflicts in Rajasthan

Authors: Renu Sisodia

Abstract:

This paper attempted to explore and explain the local level river water conflicts in the larger context of state - society relations. This study also covered causes of local level river water conflicts in the catchment area of Bandi and Arvari river of Rajasthan. The focus of the study was on the emergence of community driven, decentralised management of river water bodies and strategies used by local communities to protect and manage river water conflicts. The research is conducted through the process of designing a framework based on essential theoretical and practical findings supported by primary and secondary data. Two in depth case study is conducted to understand the phenomenon in depth. The first field site is Bandi River of Pali district, which is about the struggle between textile industries, community and the State government in which water pollution is said to be one of the driving force of the conflict. Finding shows that the state is supporting textile industries in Pali district have not been adherent to the environmental ethics. Present legal infrastructure and local institutions fail to resolve the serious problem of water pollution in Bandi River and its adverse impact on the local community as a result local community resistance against the local administration and the state government. The second case illustrates the plight of Arvari River in Alwar district. Tussle for the ownership of fisheries between local community, the private fish contractor and State government has been the main bone of contestation. To resolve this conflict local community formed conflict management mechanism named as Arvari Parliament. Arvari Parliament has its own principle and rules to resolve water conflicts related to ownership of the river and use of the river water. The research findings also highlight the co-existence between conventional and modern practices in resolving conflicts.

Keywords: Water, Water pollution, Water scarcity, Conflict Resolution, local community, water conflicts

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11 Trust and Conflict Resolution: Relationship Building for Learning

Authors: Jeff Dickie

Abstract:

This research paper combined grounded coding and research questions with the objective to investigate conflict resolution in the classroom. The students’ answers concerning teaching were coded according to phrasal meanings which revealed concepts. These concept codes then became input data into theoretical frameworks. The investigation indicated two conflicts: whether the information was valid and whether to make the study effort which was discussed as perceptions of teacher’s competence in helping to learn. The relevant factors in helping to learn were predominately emotional. These factors were important in the negotiation process to develop relationships. Information validity seemed to be the motivator to begin and participate effectively with the learning process. In effect, confidence in the learning negotiation process with the focus towards relationship building with the subject matter seemed to be the motivator to make the study effort.

Keywords: Coding, Risk, Trust, Conflict Resolution, Competence, confidence, relationship building

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10 Teacher Training Course: Conflict Resolution through Mediation

Authors: Csilla Marianna Szabó

Abstract:

In Hungary, the society has changes a lot for the past 25 years, and these changes could be detected in educational situations as well. The number and the intensity of conflicts have been increased in most fields of life, as well as at schools. Teachers have difficulties to be able to handle school conflicts. What is more, the new net generation, generation Z has values and behavioural patterns different from those of the previous one, which might generate more serious conflicts at school, especially with teachers who were mainly socialising in a traditional teacher – student relationships. In Hungary, the bill CCIV, 2011 declared the foundation of Institutes of Teacher Training in higher education institutes. One of the tasks of the Institutes is to survey the competences and needs of teachers working in public education and to provide further trainings and services for them according to their needs and requirements. This job is supported by the Social Renewal Operative Programs 4.1.2.B. The Institute of Teacher Training at the College of Dunaújváros, Hungary carried out a questionnaire and surveyed the needs and the requirements of teachers working in the Central Transdanubian region. Based on the results, the professors of the Institute of Teacher Training decided to meet the requirements of teachers and launch short courses in spring 2015. One of the courses is going to focus on school conflict management through mediation. The aim of the pilot course is to provide conflict management techniques for teachers presenting different mediation techniques to them. The theoretical part of the course (5 hours) will enable participants to understand the main points and the advantages of mediation, while the practical part (10 hours) will involve teachers in role plays to learn how to cope with conflict situations applying mediation. We hope if conflicts could be reduced, it would influence school atmosphere in a positive way and the teaching – learning process could be more successful and effective.

Keywords: Mediation, Teacher Training, Conflict Resolution, generation Z

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9 Community Base Peacebuilding in Fragile Context

Authors: Nizar Ahmad

Abstract:

Peace without community participation will remain a vision, so, this study presents the contribution and efforts made by community base organization in views of local conflict affect population in Pakhtun society. A four conflict affected villages of Malakad Division were selected and a sample size of 278 household respondents were determined through online survey system software out of total 982 households. A Chi-square test was applied to ascertain association between various communication base organizations factors with state of peace in the area. It was found that provision of humanitarian aid, rehabilitation of displaced population, rebuilding of trust in government and peace festivals by communication organization had significant association with state of peace in the area. In contrast provision of training, peace education monitoring and reporting of human rights violation in war zone by local organization was non-significantly related to the state of peace in the area. Community base organization play an active role in building peace in the area but lack capacity, linkages with external actors and outside support. National and international organization actors working in the area of peace and conflict resolution need to focus on the capacity, networking and peace initiatives of local organizations working in fragile context.

Keywords: Terrorism, Violence, Conflict Resolution, community base peacebuilding

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8 The Role of KontraS as Track-6 on Multi Track Diplomacy for Conflict Resolution: Case Study Human Rights Crisis in Myanmar in 2015

Authors: Hardi Alunaza, Mauidhotu Rofiq

Abstract:

This research is attempted to describe the role of KontraS as track-6 on multi track diplomacy for conflict resolution in Myanmar in 2015. The researcher took the specific interest on multi track diplomacy and transnational advocacy concepts to analyze the phenomena. Furthermore, this essay is using the descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The data collection technique is literature study consisting of books, journals, and including data from the reliable website in supporting the explanation of this research. The result of this research is divided into two important points in explaining the role of KontraS in cases of human rights crisis in Myanmar. First, KontraS as human rights NGO in Indonesia was able to advocate against human rights violence that occurred in other countries by encouraging Indonesian Government to take part in the resolution of human rights issues affecting the Rohingya people in Burma. Also, KontraS take advantages of transnational advocacy networks as a form of politics and accountabilities responsibility of Non-Governmental Organization against human rights crisis in other countries.

Keywords: Conflict Resolution, transnational advocacy, human rights crisis, multi track diplomacy

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7 West African Insurgents and Religious Conflict(s), Causes, Crimes and Control: An Evaluation of the Role of Economics Community of West African States

Authors: Ehosa Peter Ogbeni

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Religious conflict and insurgency are staying as growing phenomena globally especially within the West African region: this 'new wars’ in this part of the globe has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns for the visitors and international community. This ‘ugly’ trend has also affected the social, economic and political life of the West African region. Over the years, various religious and insurgency groups have raised arms against civilians and the government, the most recent extremist group, Boko Haram continues to expand and commit violent acts, such as sporadic suicide bombings and killing of innocent citizens and foreigners within the West African region especially in countries like Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad etc. It would have been expected that academic research focus on investigating the West African region; this is not the situation as most of the research on religious conflict and insurgencies have focused more on other parts of the World. Insurgencies and Religious Conflict studies in West Africa have fallen short of literature and very limited literature covers the activities of Boko Haram arm struggle. This research therefore, aims to fill the gap by investigating the role of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in managing the growing trend of religious conflicts and insurgency in West African States, by using Boko Haram as a case to review. This research adopted the critical theory paradigm using aspects of qualitative research techniques in carrying out its investigation. The findings of this research will help develop a framework that will aid the (ECOWAS) amongst other stakeholders in managing religious and insurgency motivated conflict.

Keywords: Conflict Resolution, Religious Conflict, Insurgencies, Peace Building, Boko Haram, ECOWAS (economics community of West African states)

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6 Repositioning Religion as a Catalyst for Conflict Resolution in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel A. Muyiwa

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Religious chauvinism has attained an alarming status in Contemporary Nigerian society. Arguably, Nigeria is the largest economy and most populous nation in Africa with over 182 million people, the advantages offer by vibrant economy and high population have been sacrificed on the altar of religion. Tolerance, sacrifice, humility, compassion, love, justice, trustworthiness, dedication to the well-being of others, and unity are the universal spiritual principles that lie at the heart of any religion either Christianity or Islam even traditional. Whereas traditional religious practices foreground the beliefs, norms and ritual that are related to the sacred being God because of its quick and immediate consequence of its effect, the new-found religious sentiments have deviated from the norms, thus undermining cosmic harmony in Nigeria because of its long-time consequence of its effect. Religion, which is expected to accelerate growth and motivate people to develop spiritual nuances for the betterment of their communities, has, however occasioned conflict and violence in Nigeria socio-political cosmo. Therefore, this study examines the content of religion in the promotion of peace and unity and its contextual missing link in the promotion of conflict and violence in Nigeria.

Keywords: Conflict, Conflict Resolution, Nigeria, religion chauvinism

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5 Using Kalosara Tradition for Conflict Resolution in Tolaki's People, Southeast Sulawesi

Authors: S. S. Ramis Rauf

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This study will be explained the role of local wisdom in Tolakinese customary law on customs offense. The scope of this study was the informants who have a conflict located in Southeast Sulawesi. Then, their conflicts were resolved by using Kalosara tradition. The method of this study was a qualitative research by applying the techniques of deep interviews, revealing experiences and stories from informants, interviews customary leaders who are skilled and experienced in the customary settlement process of Kalosara tradition. Kalosara, as Tolakinese local wisdom, has contained in Tolakinese customary law. Kalosara was the application of customary law which was guided by Tolaki’s people when there was a problem. Knowledge and understanding of the customs have been conceived as something that comes from the ancestors. They created custom rules based on the law of Allah SWT for the elderly to do with full of awareness. Then, it was hereditary obeying by their children from generation to generation. The conflict occurred because of several things, namely bad words, aspersion, and other violations (such as harassment and affair). In custom settlement process, kalosara was done by using the enforcement of Tolakinese customary law that managed within an institution. It was called as Sara Wonua. It led by someone who was called as Pu'utobu that serves as a customary leader.

Keywords: Diversity, Conflict Resolution, tradition, unity, kalosara

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4 Dynamics of Norms and Identities Facilitate Countries to Resolve Their Conflicts: A Case Study of ASEAN

Authors: Chander Shekhar Kohli

Abstract:

In the field of international relations, countries have been experiencing distinct nature of conflicts. But, in the case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for a long time, the members have witnessed conflicts, small and large. These conflicts, as a result, have given catastrophic outcomes, such as killings and destroying properties. For the resolution of such conflicts, nonetheless, efforts likewise have been made, simultaneously, in terms of establishing peace and security. In this background, the ASEAN presents a significant example as before it had faced several wars, like Vietnam War, Cambodia conflicts, and so on. This research paper, therefore, strives to examine the ASEAN as a case with the help of both primary and secondary sources. It likewise will be dealt with how changing norms and identity building facilitate the ASEAN countries to deal with their conflicts both internal and external. This paper also will discuss how internal developments within countries affect conflict resolution process as each member of ASEAN is guided by its national interest. It is then argued that conflict resolution in the ASEAN is moving from its existing power-based solution to norms and identity-based solution as member countries have become more dependent on other countries. The research, therefore, is concluded by saying that the conflicts could only be resolved through building norms and common identities, which of course are recognized crucial mechanisms among the ASEAN countries with some exceptions.

Keywords: Peace and Security, Conflict Resolution, ASEAN, norms and identities

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3 Barriers to the Implementation of Peace Education in Secondary Schools, South Africa

Authors: Ntokozo Dennis Ndwandwe

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to explore the barriers facing the implementation of peace education as a strategy to combat violence in selected secondary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The problem that motivated this enquiry was the absence of stable peace and the increase of incidents of violence in schools. A qualitative approach was followed when conducting the study, and small samples of three case studies of secondary schools were used. Method used in collecting data consisted of semi-structured interviews; focus group interviews and observation. The participants consisted of the program manager for Quaker for Peace Centre (QPC), three principals, nine teachers, and fifteen learners. Data were analysed by transcribing, organising, marking by hand and coding that produced labels that allowed key points to be highlighted. Findings revealed that the effective implementation of peace education was being constrained by factors such as financial constraints, inadequate time allocated, lack of parental involvement, over work-loaded teachers, negative attitude and other societal influences. It is recommended that teachers should receive an ongoing training for peace education. Therefore, the government should prioritise and provide funds for peace education. In addition, parental involvement should be improved in order to enhance the implementation of peace education in selected secondary schools.

Keywords: Peace, Violence, Conflict, Implementation, Conflict Resolution, Peace Education, barriers

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2 Political Antinomy and Its Resolution in Islam

Authors: Abdul Nasir Zamir

Abstract:

After the downfall of Ottoman Caliphate, it scattered into different small Muslim states. Muslim leaders, intellectuals, revivalists as well as modernists started trying to boost up their nation. Some Muslims are also trying to establish the caliphate. Every Muslim country has its own political system, i.e., kingship, dictatorship or democracy, etc. But these are not in their original forms as the historian or political science discussed in their studies. The laws and their practice are mixed, i.e., others with Islamic laws, e.g., Saudi Arabia (K.S.A) and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, etc. There is great conflict among the revivalist Muslim parties (groups) and governments about political systems. The question is that the subject matter is Sharia or political system? Leaders of Modern Muslim states are alleged as disbelievers due to neglecting the revelation in their laws and decisions. There are two types of laws; Islamic laws and management laws. The conflict is that the non-Islamic laws are in practice in Muslim states. Non-Islamic laws can be gradually changed with Islamic laws with a legal and peaceful process according to the practice of former Muslim leaders and scholars. The bloodshed of Muslims is not allowed in any case. Weak Muslim state is a blessing than nothing. The political system after Muhammad and guided caliphs is considered as kingship. But during this period Muslims not only developed in science and technology but conquered many territories also. If the original aim is in practice, then the Modern Muslim states can be stabled with different political systems. Modern Muslim states are the hope of survival, stability, and development of Muslim Ummah. Islam does not allow arm clash with Muslim army or Muslim civilians. The caliphate is based on believing in one Allah Almighty and good deeds according to Quran and Sunnah. As faith became weak and good deeds became less from its standard level, caliphate automatically became weak and even ended. The last weak caliphate was Ottoman Caliphate which was a hope of all the Muslims of the world. There is no caliphate or caliph present in the world. But every Muslim country or state is like an Amarat (a part of caliphate or small and alternate form of the caliphate) of Muslims. It is the duty of all Muslims to stable these modern Muslim states with tolerance.

Keywords: Political conflicts, Tolerance, Conflict Resolution, Caliphate, Political Systems, modern Muslim state

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1 Rural Farmers-Herdsmen Conflicts, State Mediation Failure and Prospects of Traditional Institutions’ Intervention in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Grace Adebo

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Rural Farmers-herdsmen conflicts have resulted in a large number of causalities in many parts of Nigeria. Herds of cattle have died, while farmers recorded inestimable losses of their crops and harvests. The overall consequences have impacted negatively on food security across the country. There are divided opinions by scholars, agricultural experts and conflict analysts on the root causes of the conflicts and why traditional institutional interventions are ineffective in resolving the crisis. The study, therefore, aims to investigate the fundamentality of the conflicts’ causes in Southwest Nigeria and the correlates between traditional institutional authorities’ intervention and farmers-herdsmen conflicts in Southwest Nigeria. A structured interview schedule and focus group discussion were employed to elicit information from 180 farmers and 48 herdsmen selected through a multistage sampling procedure from the conflict zones in Southwest Nigeria. Collected data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, means and the Relative Importance Index (RII). The study found that climate change effects, farmland encroachment, crop damage, theft, and competition for land and water resources and pollution were the root causes of the violent herders-rural farmer’s clashes. The quest for wealth acquisition by some traditional rulers and some notable individuals in the conflict neighborhoods, occasioned tribal-mix herds possession and, thus undermining local institutional interventions and perverting justice through weak conflict resolution strategies, therefore, fueling further conflicts. Most farmers in the conflict zones have abandoned their farms for fear of death. This coupled with physical, social, economic and psychological consequences have deepened food insecurity and impaired the economic conditions of the herdsmen and the farmers. Currently, there are no mutually established mediation mechanisms as most states are opposed to the enactment of grazing laws to protect territorial encroachments of lands and subsequent multiplication of the herdsmen. It is suggested that government and Non-Governmental Organisation (NGOs) should encourage a functional stakeholder's forum for sustainable conflict resolution and establish a compensation scheme for losses incurred while extension agents are equipped with knowledge on conflict management strategies for peace attainment with the envisioned goal of achieving sustainable livelihoods and food security in Southwest Nigeria.

Keywords: Food Security, Conflict Resolution, traditional institutions, sustainable livelihoods, herdsmen-farmers conflict

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