Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Conductivity Related Abstracts

16 Progressive Changes in Physico-Chemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana

Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom

Abstract:

The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.

Keywords: Rainwater Quality, Conductivity, physicochemical, TDS

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15 An Investigation of New Phase Diagram of Ag2SO4-CaSO4

Authors: Pravin S. Bodke, Shradha S. Binani, Ravi V. Joat, S. S. Wasnik

Abstract:

A phase diagram of the Ag2SO4 - CaSO4 (Silver sulphate – Calcium Sulphate) binaries system using conductivity, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction Technique) and DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) data is constructed. The eutectic reaction (liquid -» a-Ag2SO4 + CaSO4) is observed at 10 mole% CaSO4 and 645°C. Room temperature solid solubility limit up to 5.27 mole % of Ca 2+ in Ag2SO4 is set using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results. All compositions beyond this limit are two-phase mixtures below and above the transition temperature (≈ 416°C). The bulk conductivity, obtained following complex impedance spectroscopy, is found decreasing with increase in CaSO4 content. Amongst other binary compositions, the 80AgSO4-20CaSO4 gave improved sinterability/packing density.

Keywords: Phase Diagram, Conductivity, XRD, Ag2SO4-CaSO4 binaries system, DTA

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14 Laser Induced Transient Current in Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako

Abstract:

Light-induced ultrafast charge transfer in low-dimensional nanostructure has been studied by a model of a few electrons confined in a 1D electrostatic potential coupled to electrodes at both ends and subjected to an ultrashort pulsed laser field. The time-propagation of the one- and two-electron wave packets has been calculated by integrating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation by the symplectic integrator method with uniform Fourier grid. The temporal behavior of the resultant light-induced current in the studied systems has been discussed with respect to the central frequency and pulse width of the applied laser fields.

Keywords: Nanowire, Quantum Dots, Conductivity, pulsed laser field, wave packet

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13 Geostatistical Models to Correct Salinity of Soils from Landsat Satellite Sensor: Application to the Oran Region, Algeria

Authors: Dehni Abdellatif, Lounis Mourad

Abstract:

The new approach of applied spatial geostatistics in materials sciences, agriculture accuracy, agricultural statistics, permitted an apprehension of managing and monitoring the water and groundwater qualities in a relationship with salt-affected soil. The anterior experiences concerning data acquisition, spatial-preparation studies on optical and multispectral data has facilitated the integration of correction models of electrical conductivity related with soils temperature (horizons of soils). For tomography apprehension, this physical parameter has been extracted from calibration of the thermal band (LANDSAT ETM+6) with a radiometric correction. Our study area is Oran region (Northern West of Algeria). Different spectral indices are determined such as salinity and sodicity index, the Combined Spectral Reflectance Index (CSRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), emissivity, Albedo, and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). The approach of geostatistical modeling of electrical conductivity (salinity), appears to be a useful decision support system for estimating corrected electrical resistivity related to the temperature of surface soils, according to the conversion models by substitution, the reference temperature at 25°C (where hydrochemical data are collected with this constraint). The Brightness temperatures extracted from satellite reflectance (LANDSAT ETM+) are used in consistency models to estimate electrical resistivity. The confusions that arise from the effects of salt stress and water stress removed followed by seasonal application of the geostatistical analysis in Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques investigation and monitoring the variation of the electrical conductivity in the alluvial aquifer of Es-Sénia for the salt-affected soil.

Keywords: Conductivity, landsat, geostatistical modelling, brightness temperature

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12 Study of the Adsorption of Metal Ions Ag+ Mg2+, Ni2+ by the Chemical and Electrochemical Polydibenzoether Crown

Authors: Dalila Chouder, Djaafer Benachour

Abstract:

This work concerns the study of the adsorption of metal ions Ag +, Mg +, and Ni2+ in aqueous medium by polydibenzoether-ROWN based on three factors: Temperature, time and concentration. The polydibenzoether crown was synthesized by two means: Chemical and electrochemical. The behavior of the two polymers has been different, and turns out very interesting for chemical polydibenzoether crown has identified conditions. Chemical and électronique polydibenzoether crown have different extraction screw vi property of adsoption of ions fifférents, this study also shows that plyméres doped may have an advantageous electrical conductivity.

Keywords: Polymerization, electrochemical, Conductivity, complexing metal ions

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11 Transport Properties of Alkali Nitrites

Authors: Y. Mateyshina, A.Ulihin, N.Uvarov

Abstract:

Electrolytes with different type of charge carrier can find widely application in different using, e.g. sensors, electrochemical equipments, batteries and others. One of important components ensuring stable functioning of the equipment is electrolyte. Electrolyte has to be characterized by high conductivity, thermal stability, and wide electrochemical window. In addition to many advantageous characteristic for liquid electrolytes, the solid state electrolytes have good mechanical stability, wide working range of temperature range. Thus search of new system of solid electrolytes with high conductivity is an actual task of solid state chemistry. Families of alkali perchlorates and nitrates have been investigated by us earlier. In literature data about transport properties of alkali nitrites are absent. Nevertheless, alkali nitrites MeNO2 (Me= Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ and Cs+), except for the lithium salt, have high-temperature phases with crystal structure of the NaCl-type. High-temperature phases of nitrites are orientationally disordered, i.e. non-spherical anions are reoriented over several equivalents directions in the crystal lattice. Pure lithium nitrite LiNO2 is characterized by ionic conductivity near 10-4 S/cm at 180°C and more stable as compared with lithium nitrate and can be used as a component for synthesis of composite electrolytes. In this work composite solid electrolytes in the binary system LiNO2 - A (A= MgO, -Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2, SnO2, SiO2) were synthesized and their structural, thermodynamic and electrical properties investigated. Alkali nitrite was obtained by exchange reaction from water solutions of barium nitrite and alkali sulfate. The synthesized salt was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction technique using D8 Advance X-Ray Diffractometer with Cu K radiation. Using thermal analysis, the temperatures of dehydration and thermal decomposition of salt were determined.. The conductivity was measured using a two electrode scheme in a forevacuum (6.7 Pa) with an HP 4284A (Precision LCR meter) in a frequency range 20 Hz < ν < 1 MHz. Solid composite electrolytes LiNO2 - A A (A= MgO, -Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2, SnO2, SiO2) have been synthesized by mixing of preliminary dehydrated components followed by sintering at 250°C. In the series of nitrite of alkaline metals Li+-Cs+, the conductivity varies not monotonically with increasing radius of cation. The minimum conductivity is observed for KNO2; however, with further increase in the radius of cation in the series, the conductivity tends to increase. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic research, grant #14-03-31442.

Keywords: Transport Properties, Conductivity, alkali nitrites, composite electrolytes

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10 Effects of Li2O Doping on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Bovine Hydroxyapatite Composites (BHA)

Authors: Oguzhan Gunduz, Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Murat Karagoz, Fatih Dumludag, Faik Nuzhet Oktar

Abstract:

Hydroxyapatite (HA) materials have common use in bone repairing due to its ability to accelerate the bone growth around the implant. In spite of being a biocompatible and bioactive material, HA has a limited usage as an implant material because of its weak mechanical properties. HA based composites are required to improve the strength and toughness properties of the implant materials without compromising of biocompatibility. The excellent mechanical properties and higher biocompatibilities are expected from each of biomedical composites. In this study, HA composites were synthesized by using bovine bone reinforced doped with different amount of (wt.%) Li2O. The pressed pellets were sintered at various sintering temperatures between 1000ºC and 1300°C, and mechanical, electrical properties of the obtained products were characterized. In addition to that, in vitro stimulated body fluid (SBF) tests for these samples were conducted. The most suitable composite composition for biomedical applications was discussed among the composites studied.

Keywords: Biocomposites, Biocompatibility, Conductivity, electrical property, mechanical property, sintering temperature

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9 Uranium and Thorium Measurements in the Water along Oum Er-Rabia River (Morocco)

Authors: L. Oufni, M. Amrane

Abstract:

In this work, different river water samples have been collected and analyzed from different locations along Oum Er-Rabia River in Morocco. The uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentrations were investigated in the studied river and dam water samples using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD). Mean activity concentrations of uranium and thorium in water were found to be between 12 – 37 Bq m^-3 and 2-10 Bq m^-3, respectively. The pH measured at all river water samples was slightly alkaline and ranged from 7.5 to 8.75. The electrical conductivity ranged from 2790 to 794 µS cm^-1. It was found that uranium and thorium concentrations were correlated with some chemical parameters in Oum Er-Rabia River water. The uranium concentrations found in river water are insignificant from the radiological point of view. The recommended value for uranium in drinking water based on its toxicity given by the Federal Environment Agency. This corresponds to an activity concentration of 238U of 123.5 mBq L^-1. In none of the samples, the uranium activity exceeds this value.

Keywords: Water, Uranium, Conductivity, thorium, SSNTD

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8 Electrical and Structural Properties of Polyaniline-Fullerene Nanocomposite

Authors: M. Z. Kurian, M. Nagaraja, H. M. Mahesh, K. Rajanna, J. Manjanna

Abstract:

In recent years, composites of conjugated polymers with fullerenes (C60) has attracted considerable scientific and technological attention in the field of organic electronics because they possess a novel combination of electrical, optical, ferromagnetic, mechanical and sensor properties. These properties represent major advances in the design of organic electronic devices. With the addition of C60 in the conjugated polymer matrix, the primary photo-excitation of the conjugated polymer undergoes an ultrafast electron transfer, and it has been demonstrated that fullerene molecules may serve as efficient electron acceptors in polymeric solar cells. The present paper includes the systematic studies on the effect of electrical, structural and sensor properties of polyaniline (PANI) matrix by the presence of C60. Polyaniline-fullerene (PANI/C60) composite is prepared by the introduction of fullerene during polymerization of aniline with ammonium persulfate and dodechyl benzene sulfonic acid as oxidant and dopant respectively. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the interaction between PANI and C60. X-ray diffraction proved the formation of a PANI/C60 complex. SEM image shows the highly branched chain structure of the PANI in the presence of C60. The conductivity of the PANI/C60 was found to be more than ten orders of magnitude over the pure PANI.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Fullerene, Conductivity, polyaniline

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7 Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications

Authors: George Eduful, Kingsford J. A. Atanga

Abstract:

Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known, but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.

Keywords: grounding, Conductivity, copper clad steel wire, skin effect

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6 Supramolecular Approach towards Novel Applications: Battery, Band Gap and Gas Separation

Authors: Sudhakara Naidu Neppalli, Tejas S. Bhosale

Abstract:

It is well known that the block copolymer (BCP) can form a complex molecule, through non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bond, ionic bond and co-ordination bond, with low molecular weight compound as well as with macromolecules, which provide vast applications, includes the alteration of morphology and properties of polymers. Hence we covered the research that, the importance of non-covalent bonds in increasing the non-favourable segmental interactions of the blocks was well examined by attaching and detaching the bonds between the BCP and additive. We also monitored the phase transition of block copolymer and effective interaction parameter (χeff) for Li-doped polymers using small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The effective interaction parameter (χeff) between two block components was evaluated using Leibler theory based on the incompressible random phase approximation (RPA) for ionized BCP in a disordered state. Furthermore, conductivity experiments demonstrate that the ionic conductivity in the samples quenched from the different structures is morphology-independent, while it increases with increasing ion salt concentration. Morphological transitions, interaction parameter, and thermal stability also examined in quarternized block copolymer. D-spacing was used to estimate effective interaction parameter (χeff) of block components in weak and strong segregation regimes of ordered phase. Metal-containing polymer has been the topic of great attention in recent years due to their wide range of potential application. Similarly, metal- ligand complex is used as a supramolecular linker between the polymers giving rise to a ‘Metallo-Supramolecule assembly. More precisely, functionalized polymer end capped with 2, 2’:6’, 2”- terpyridine ligand can be selectively complexed with wide range of transition metal ions and then subsequently attached to other terpyridine terminated polymer block. In compare to other supramolecular assembly, BCP involved metallo-supramolecule assembly offers vast applications such as optical activity, electrical conductivity, luminescence and photo refractivity.

Keywords: Phase Transition, Conductivity, block copolymer, interaction parameter, band gap

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5 Effect of Realistic Lubricant Properties on Thermal Electrohydrodynamic Lubrication Behavior in Circular Contacts

Authors: Punit Kumar, Puneet Katyal

Abstract:

A great deal of efforts has been done in the field of thermal effects in electrohydrodynamic lubrication (TEHL) during the last five decades. The focus was primarily on the development of an efficient numerical scheme to deal with the computational challenges involved in the solution of TEHL model; however, some important aspects related to the accurate description of lubricant properties such as viscosity, rheology and thermal conductivity in EHL point contact analysis remain largely neglected. A few studies available in this regard are based upon highly complex mathematical models difficult to formulate and execute. Using a simplified thermal EHL model for point contacts, this work sheds some light on the importance of accurate characterization of the lubricant properties and demonstrates that the computed TEHL characteristics are highly sensitive to lubricant properties. It also emphasizes the use of appropriate mathematical models with experimentally determined parameters to account for correct lubricant behaviour.

Keywords: Rheology, Conductivity, shear thinning, TEHL

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4 Investigation on the Changes in the Chemical Composition and Ecological State of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Metodi Mladenov

Abstract:

Heavy metals contamination of soils is a big problem mainly as a result of industrial production. From this point of view, this is of interests the processes for decontamination of soils for crop of production with low content of heavy metals and suitable for consumption from the animals and the peoples. In the current article, there are presented data for established changes in chemical composition and ecological state on soils contaminated from non-ferrous metallurgy manufacturing, for seven years time period. There was done investigation on alteration of pH, conductivity and contain of the next elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn and Al. Also, there was done visual observations under the processes of recovery of root-inhabitable soil layer and reforestation. Obtained data show friendly changes for the investigated indicators pH and conductivity and decreasing of content of some form analyzed elements. Visual observations show augmentation of plant cover areas and change in species structure with increase of number of shrubby and wood specimens.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Chemical Composition, Conductivity, contamination of soils, inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, visual observation

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3 Measuring of the Volume Ratio of Two Immiscible Liquids Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Jiří Primas, Michal Malík, Darina Jašíková, Václav Kopecký, Michal Kotek

Abstract:

Authors of this paper discuss the measuring of volume ratio of two immiscible liquids in the homogenous mixture using the industrial Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) system ITS p2+. In the first part of the paper, the principle of EIT and the basic theory of conductivity of mixture of two components are stated. In the next part, the experiment with water and olive oil mixed with Rushton turbine is described, and the measured results are used to verify the theory. In the conclusion, the results are discussed in detail, and the accuracy of the measuring method and its advantages are also mentioned.

Keywords: Conductivity, electrical impedance tomography, homogenous mixture, mixing process

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2 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong

Abstract:

Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: Mobility, Conductivity, perovskite, TCO film

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1 Realization and Characterizations of Conducting Ceramics Based on ZnO Doped by TiO₂, Al₂O₃ and MgO

Authors: Abdelhadi Kassiba, Qianying Sun, Guorong Li

Abstract:

ZnO with wurtzite structure is a well-known semiconducting oxide (SCO), being applied in thermoelectric devices, varistors, gas sensors, transparent electrodes, solar cells, liquid crystal displays, piezoelectric and electro-optical devices. Intrinsically, ZnO is weakly n-type SCO due to native defects (Znⱼ, Vₒ). However, the substitutional doping by metallic elements as (Al, Ti) gives rise to a high n-type conductivity ensured by donor centers. Under CO+N₂ sintering atmosphere, Schottky barriers of ZnO ceramics will be suppressed by lowering the concentration of acceptors at grain boundaries and then inducing a large increase in the Hall mobility, thereby increasing the conductivity. The presented work concerns ZnO based ceramics, which are fabricated with doping by TiO₂ (0.50mol%), Al₂O₃ (0.25mol%) and MgO (1.00mol%) and sintering in different atmospheres (Air (A), N₂ (N), CO+N₂(C)). We obtained uniform, dense ceramics with ZnO as the main phase and Zn₂TiO₄ spinel as a secondary and minor phase. An important increase of the conductivity was shown for the samples A, N, and C which were sintered under different atmospheres. The highest conductivity (σ = 1.52×10⁵ S·m⁻¹) was obtained under the reducing atmosphere (CO). The role of doping was investigated with the aim to identify the local environment and valence states of the doping elements. Thus, Electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) determines the concentration of defects and the effects of charge carriers in ZnO ceramics as a function of the sintering atmospheres. The relation between conductivity and defects concentration shows the opposite behavior between these parameters suggesting that defects act as traps for charge carriers. For Al ions, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used to identify the involved local coordination of these ions. Beyond the six and forth coordinated Al, an additional NMR signature of ZnO based TCO requires analysis taking into account the grain boundaries and the conductivity through the Knight shift effects. From the thermal evolution of the conductivity as a function of the sintering atmosphere, we succeed in defining the conditions to realize ZnO based TCO ceramics with an important thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) which is promising for electrical safety of devices.

Keywords: Ceramics, Defects, Conductivity, ZnO, TCO

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