Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

conductance Related Abstracts

3 Assessing the Effect of Freezing and Thawing of Coverzone of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Concrete

Authors: Abdulkarim Mohammed Iliyasu, Mahmud Abba Tahir

Abstract:

Freezing and thawing are considered to be one of the major causes of concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This study aimed at assessing the freezing and thawing of concrete within the cover zone by monitoring the formation of ice and melting at different temperatures using electrical measurement technique. A multi-electrode array system was used to obtain the resistivity of ice formation and melting at discrete depths within the cover zone of the concrete. A total number of four concrete specimens (250 mm x 250 mm x 150 mm) made of ordinary Portland cement concrete and ordinary Portland cement replaced by 65% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is investigated. Water/binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.65 were produced and ponded with water to ensure full saturation and then subjected to freezing and thawing process in a refrigerator within a temperature range of -30 0C and 20 0C over a period of time 24 hours. The data were collected and analysed. The obtained results show that the addition of GGBS changed the pore structure of the concrete which resulted in the decrease in conductance. It was recommended among others that, the surface of the concrete structure should be protected as this will help to prevent the instantaneous propagation of ice trough the rebar and to avoid corrosion and subsequent damage.

Keywords: Concrete, deterioration, conductance, freezing and thawing

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
2 Nondestructive Electrochemical Testing Method for Prestressed Concrete Structures

Authors: Tomoko Fukuyama, Osamu Senbu

Abstract:

Prestressed concrete is used a lot in infrastructures such as roads or bridges. However, poor grout filling and PC steel corrosion are currently major issues of prestressed concrete structures. One of the problems with nondestructive corrosion detection of PC steel is a plastic pipe which covers PC steel. The insulative property of pipe makes a nondestructive diagnosis difficult; therefore a practical technology to detect these defects is necessary for the maintenance of infrastructures. The goal of the research is a development of an electrochemical technique which enables to detect internal defects from the surface of prestressed concrete nondestructively. Ideally, the measurements should be conducted from the surface of structural members to diagnose non-destructively. In the present experiment, a prestressed concrete member is simplified as a layered specimen to simulate a current path between an input and an output electrode on a member surface. The specimens which are layered by mortar and the prestressed concrete constitution materials (steel, polyethylene, stainless steel, or galvanized steel plates) were provided to the alternating current impedance measurement. The magnitude of an applied electric field was 0.01-volt or 1-volt, and the frequency range was from 106 Hz to 10-2 Hz. The frequency spectrums of impedance, which relate to charge reactions activated by an electric field, were measured to clarify the effects of the material configurations or the properties. In the civil engineering field, the Nyquist diagram is popular to analyze impedance and it is a good way to grasp electric relaxation using a shape of the plot. However, it is slightly not suitable to figure out an influence of a measurement frequency which is reciprocal of reaction time. Hence, Bode diagram is also applied to describe charge reactions in the present paper. From the experiment results, the alternating current impedance method looks to be applicable to the insulative material measurement and eventually prestressed concrete diagnosis. At the same time, the frequency spectrums of impedance show the difference of the material configuration. This is because the charge mobility reflects the variety of substances and also the measuring frequency of the electric field determines migration length of charges which are under the influence of the electric field. However, it could not distinguish the differences of the material thickness and is inferred the difficulties of prestressed concrete diagnosis to identify the amount of an air void or a layer of corrosion product by the technique.

Keywords: Prestressed Concrete, Capacitance, conductance, susceptance

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1 Study of the Adhesive Bond Effect on Electro-Mechanical Behaviour of Coupled Piezo Structural System

Authors: Rahul S. Raj

Abstract:

Electro-mechanical impedance technique is a recently developed non-destructive method for structural health monitoring. This system comprises of piezo electric patch, bonded to the structure using an adhesive/epoxy and electrically excited to determine the health of the component. The subjected electric field actuates the PZT patch harmonically and imparts a force on the host structure. The structural response thus produced by the host component is in the form of peaks and valleys which further shows the admittance signatures of the structure for the given excitation frequency. Adhesives have the capability to change the structural signatures, in EMI technique, by transforming conductance and susceptance signatures. The static approximation provide a justifiable result where adhesive bond lines are thin and stiff. The epoxy adhesive bonds limits design flexibility due to poor bond strengths, hence to enhance the performance of the joints, a new technique is developed for joining PZT, i.e. the alloy bonding technique. It is a metallic joining compound which contains many active elements including Titanium, that reacts with the tenacious surface films of the ceramic and composites to create excellent bonds. This alloy-based bonding technique will be used for better strain interaction and rigorous stress transfer between PZT patch and the host structure.

Keywords: admittance, conductance, susceptance, EMI technique, alloy bonding

Procedia PDF Downloads 1