Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

conduct disorder Related Abstracts

3 Home Environment and Peer Pressure as Predictors of Disruptive Behaviour and Risky Sexual Behaviour of Secondary School Class Two Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Dorothy Ebere Adimora

Abstract:

The study investigated the predictive power of home environment and peer pressure on disruptive behaviour and risky sexual behaviour of Secondary School Class Two Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria. The design of the study is a cross sectional survey of correlational study. The study was carried out in the six Education zones in Enugu state, Nigeria. Enugu State is divided into six education zones, namely Agbani, Awgu, Enugu, Nsukka, Obollo-Afor and Udi. The population for the study was all the 31,680 senior secondary class two adolescents in 285 secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria in 2014/2015 academic session. The target population was students in SSS.2 senior secondary class two. They constitute one-sixth of the entire student population in the state. The sample of the study was 528, a multi stage sampling technique was employed to draw the sample. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The instruments for data collection were an interview session and a structured questionnaire of four clusters, they are; home environment, peer pressure, risky sexual behaviour and disruptive behaviour disorder questionnaires. The instruments were validated by 3 experts, two in psychology and one in measurement and Evaluation in Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability coefficient of the instruments was ascertained by subjection to field trial. The adolescents were asked to complete the questionnaire on their home environment, peer pressure, disruptive behaviour disorder and risky sexual behaviours. The risky sexual behaviours were ascertained based on interview conducted on their actual sexual practice within the past 12 months. The research questions were analyzed using Pearson r and R-square, while the hypotheses were tested using ANOVA and multiple regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The results of this survey revealed that the adolescents are sexually active in very young ages. The mean age at sexual debut for the adolescents covered in this survey is a pointer to the fact that some of them started engaging in sexual activities long ago. It was also found that the adolescents engage in disruptive behaviour as a result of their poor home environment factors and association with negative peers. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the adolescents should be exposed to enhanced home environment such as parents’ responsiveness, organization of the environment, availability of appropriate learning materials, opportunities for daily stimulation and to offer a proper guidance to these adolescents to avoid negative peer influence which could result in risky sexual behaviour and disruptive behaviour disorder.

Keywords: Sexuality, Adolescents, Parenting, peer group, conduct disorder

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2 Characterising the Processes Underlying Emotion Recognition Deficits in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

Authors: Nayra Martin-Key, Erich Graf, Wendy Adams, Graeme Fairchild

Abstract:

Children and adolescents with Conduct Disorder (CD) have been shown to demonstrate impairments in emotion recognition, but it is currently unclear whether this deficit is related to specific emotions or whether it represents a global deficit in emotion recognition. An emotion recognition task with concurrent eye-tracking was employed to further explore this relationship in a sample of male and female adolescents with CD. Participants made emotion categorization judgements for presented dynamic and morphed static facial expressions. The results demonstrated that males with CD, and to a lesser extent, females with CD, displayed impaired facial expression recognition in general, whereas callous-unemotional (CU) traits were linked to specific problems in sadness recognition in females with CD. A region-of-interest analysis of the eye-tracking data indicated that males with CD exhibited reduced fixation times for the eye-region of the face compared to typically-developing (TD) females, but not TD males. Females with CD did not show reduced fixation to the eye-region of the face relative to TD females. In addition, CU traits did not influence CD subjects’ attention to the eye-region of the face. These findings suggest that the emotion recognition deficits found in CD males, the worst performing group in the behavioural tasks, are partly driven by reduced attention to the eyes.

Keywords: Attention, Emotion recognition, Sex Differences, eye-tracking, conduct disorder, callous-unemotional traits, eye-region

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1 Psychosocial Experience of Parents of Children with Conduct Disorder in Thulamela, South Africa

Authors: Constance Singo, Choja Oduaran

Abstract:

Child mental disorders are strongly associated with different forms of challenges, including behavioural problems. The burden of care for children with a mental disorder is high and put primary caregivers, parents in particular, at risk of poor mental wellbeing. Understanding the experience of parents of children with mental disorders is crucial to developing a relevant intervention to assist them to attain optimal mental wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of parents of children with conduct disorder by focussing on the psychological and social stress experience of the parents in raising and caring for their children with conduct disorder. A qualitative research approach, using in-depth interview was utilized in this study. Purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were used to select 9 parents of children with conduct disorder in Thulamela Municipality, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Participants comprising of 2 males and 7 females aged between 30 years and 49 years were interviewed individually at scheduled appointment in-home setting. Interviews were conducted in both English and Setswana language. Data collected in Setswana language were translated to English by 'expert in language translation'. Ethical approval was obtained from appropriate authority before data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyse the collected data. The findings identified anger, fear, depressive symptoms, denial, and suicidal ideation as predominant psychological experiences of the parents. Furthermore, deteriorated interpersonal relationships with family and community members, financial stress, and stigma emerged as social problems being the experience of the parents. It was concluded that parents of children with conduct disorder are highly traumatized by the challenges of caring for their children. We recommend professional engagement in terms of counselling service to support the parents. There is also a need for massive enlightenment programmes for members of the community in order to support the parents of children with child mental disorders.

Keywords: Parents, South Africa, conduct disorder, psychosocial experiences

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