Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

condensate Related Abstracts

2 Developing of Ecological Internal Insulation Composite Boards for Innovative Retrofitting of Heritage Buildings

Authors: J. N. Nackler, K. Saleh Pascha, W. Winter

Abstract:

WHISCERS™ (Whole House In-Situ Carbon and Energy Reduction Solution) is an innovative process for Internal Wall Insulation (IWI) for energy-efficient retrofitting of heritage building, which uses laser measuring to determine the dimensions of a room, off-site insulation board cutting and rapid installation to complete the process. As part of a multinational investigation consortium the Austrian part adapted the WHISCERS system to local conditions of Vienna where most historical buildings have valuable stucco facades, precluding the application of an external insulation. The Austrian project contribution addresses the replacement of commonly used extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) with renewable materials such as wood and wood products to develop a more sustainable IWI system. As the timber industry is a major industry in Austria, a new innovative and more sustainable IWI solution could also open up new markets. The first approach of investigation was the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to define the performance of wood fibre board as insulation material in comparison to normally used XPS-boards. As one of the results the global-warming potential (GWP) of wood-fibre-board is 15 times less the equivalent to carbon dioxide while in the case of XPS it´s 72 times more. The hygrothermal simulation program WUFI was used to evaluate and simulate heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components of the developed IWI solution. The results of the simulations prove in examined boundary conditions of selected representative brickwork constructions to be functional and usable without risk regarding vapour diffusion and liquid transport in proposed IWI. In a further stage three different solutions were developed and tested (1 - glued/mortared, 2 - with soft board, connected to wall with gypsum board as top layer, 3 - with soft board and clay board as top layer). All three solutions presents a flexible insulation layer out of wood fibre towards the existing wall, thus compensating irregularities of the wall surface. From first considerations at the beginning of the development phase, three different systems had been developed and optimized according to assembly technology and tested as small specimen in real object conditions. The built prototypes are monitored to detect performance and building physics problems and to validate the results of the computer simulation model. This paper illustrates the development and application of the Internal Wall Insulation system.

Keywords: monitoring, Clay, internal insulation, wood fibre, hygrothermal simulations, condensate

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1 Commissioning, Test and Characterization of Low-Tar Biomass Gasifier for Rural Applications and Small-Scale Plant

Authors: M. Mashiur Rahman, Ulrik Birk Henriksen, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Maria Puig Arnavat

Abstract:

Using biomass gasification to make producer gas is one of the promising sustainable energy options available for small scale plant and rural applications for power and electricity. Tar content in producer gas is the main problem if it is used directly as a fuel. A low-tar biomass (LTB) gasifier of approximately 30 kW capacity has been developed to solve this. Moving bed gasifier with internal recirculation of pyrolysis gas has been the basic principle of the LTB gasifier. The gasifier focuses on the concept of mixing the pyrolysis gases with gasifying air and burning the mixture in separate combustion chamber. Five tests were carried out with the use of wood pellets and wood chips separately, with moisture content of 9-34%. The LTB gasifier offers excellent opportunities for handling extremely low-tar in the producer gas. The gasifiers producer gas had an extremely low tar content of 21.2 mg/Nm³ (avg.) and an average lower heating value (LHV) of 4.69 MJ/Nm³. Tar content found in different tests in the ranges of 10.6-29.8 mg/Nm³. This low tar content makes the producer gas suitable for direct use in internal combustion engine. Using mass and energy balances, the average gasifier capacity and cold gas efficiency (CGE) observed 23.1 kW and 82.7% for wood chips, and 33.1 kW and 60.5% for wood pellets, respectively. Average heat loss in term of higher heating value (HHV) observed 3.2% of thermal input for wood chips and 1% for wood pellets, where heat loss was found 1% of thermal input in term of enthalpy. Thus, the LTB gasifier performs better compared to typical gasifiers in term of heat loss. Equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.29 to 0.41 gives better performance in terms of heating value and CGE. The specific gas production yields at the above ER range were in the range of 2.1-3.2 Nm³/kg. Heating value and CGE changes proportionally with the producer gas yield. The average gas compositions (H₂-19%, CO-19%, CO₂-10%, CH₄-0.7% and N₂-51%) obtained for wood chips are higher than the typical producer gas composition. Again, the temperature profile of the LTB gasifier observed relatively low temperature compared to typical moving bed gasifier. The average partial oxidation zone temperature of 970°C observed for wood chips. The use of separate combustor in the partial oxidation zone substantially lowers the bed temperature to 750°C. During the test, the engine was started and operated completely with the producer gas. The engine operated well on the produced gas, and no deposits were observed in the engine afterwards. Part of the producer gas flow was used for engine operation, and corresponding electrical power was found to be 1.5 kW continuously, and maximum power of 2.5 kW was also observed, while maximum generator capacity is 3 kW. A thermodynamic equilibrium model is good agreement with the experimental results and correctly predicts the equilibrium bed temperature, gas composition, LHV of the producer gas and ER with the experimental data, when the heat loss of 4% of the energy input is considered.

Keywords: Engine, Biomass Gasification, condensate, low-tar biomass gasifier, tar elimination, deposits

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