Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 119

Concrete Related Abstracts

119 Observation and Experience of Using Mechanically Activated Fly Ash in Concrete

Authors: Rudolf Hela, Lenka Bodnarova


Paper focuses on experimental testing of possibilities of mechanical activation of fly ash and observation of influence of specific surface and granulometry on final properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Mechanical grinding prepared various fineness of fly ash, which was classed by specific surface in accordance with Blain and their granulometry was determined by means of laser granulometer. Then, sets of testing specimens were made from mix designs of identical composition with 25% or Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R replaced with fly ash with various specific surface and granulometry. Mix design with only Portland cement was used as reference. Mix designs were tested on consistency of fresh concrete and compressive strength after 7, 28, 60, and 90 days.

Keywords: Concrete, fly ash, latent hydraulicity, mechanically activated fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
118 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan


This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: Concrete, fibers, Tensile Strength, compressive strength, flexural strength

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117 Effect of Steel Fibers on Flexural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete

Authors: K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh, M. J. Shannag


An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of hooked-end steel fibers on the flexural behavior of normal and high strength concrete matrices. The fiber content appropriate for the concrete matrices investigated was also determined based on flexural tests on standard prisms. Parameters investigated include: Matrix compressive strength ranging from 45 MPa to 70 MPa, corresponding to normal and high strength concrete matrices respectively; Fiber volume fraction including 0, 0.5%, 0.76%, and 1%, equivalent to 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg/m3 of hooked-end steel fibers respectively. Test results indicated that flexural strength and toughness of normal and high strength concrete matrices were significantly improved with the increase in the fiber content added; Whereas a slight improvement in compressive strength was observed for the same matrices. Furthermore, the test results indicated that the effect of increasing the fiber content was more pronounced on increasing the flexural strength of high strength concrete than that of normal concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Steel Fibers, Toughness, flexural strength

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116 Compatibility of Copolymer-Based Grinding Aids and Sulfonated Acetone-Formaldehyde Superplasticizer

Authors: Zhang Tailong


Compatibility between sulfonated acetone-formalehyde superplasticizer (SAF) and copolymer-based grinding aids (GA) were studied by fluidity, Zeta potential, setting time of cement pasts, initial slump and slump flow of concrete and compressive strength of concrete. ESEM, MIP, and XRD were used to investigate the changing of microstructure of interior concrete. The results indicated that GA could noticeably enhance the dispersion ability of SAF. It was found that better fluidity and slump-keeping ability of cement paste were obtained in the case of GA. In addition, GA and SAF together had a certain retardation effect on hydration of cement paste. With increasing of the GA dosage, the dispersion ability and retardation effect of admixture increased. The compressive strength of the sample made with SAF and GA after 28 days was higher than that of the control sample made only with SAF. The initial slump and slump flow of concrete increased by 10.0% and 22.9%, respectively, while 0.09 wt.% GA was used. XRD examination indicated that new products were not found in the case of GA. In addition, more dense arrangement of hydrates and lower porosity of the specimen were observed by ESEM and MIP, which contributed to higher compressive strength.

Keywords: Concrete, Microstructure, cement, Compatibility, copolymer-based grinding aids, superplasiticizer

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115 Energy Saving Potential with Improved Concrete in Ice Rink Floor Designs

Authors: Ehsan B. Haghighi, Pavel Makhnatch, Jörgen Rogstam


The ice rink floor is the largest heat exchanger in an ice rink. The important part of the floor consists of concrete, and the thermophysical properties of this concrete have strong influence on the energy usage of the ice rink. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be increased by using iron ore as ballast. In this study the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method showed an increase up to 58.2% of thermal conductivity comparing the improved concrete to standard concrete. Moreover, two alternative ice rink floor designs are suggested to incorporate the improved concrete. A 2D simulation was developed to investigate the temperature distribution in the conventional and the suggested designs. The results show that the suggested designs reduce the temperature difference between the ice surface and the brine by 1-4 ˚C, when comparing with convectional designs at equal heat flux. This primarily leads to an increased coefficient of performance (COP) in the primary refrigeration cycle and secondly to a decrease in the secondary refrigerant pumping power. The suggested designs have great potential to reduce the energy usage of ice rinks. Depending on the load scenario in the ice rink, the saving potential lies in the range of 3-10% of the refrigeration system energy usage. This calculation is based on steady state conditions and the potential with improved dynamic behavior is expected to increase the potential saving.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Concrete, iron ore, ice rink

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
114 Estimation of Slab Depth, Column Size and Rebar Location of Concrete Specimen Using Impact Echo Method

Authors: Y. T. Lee, J. H. Na, S. H. Kim, S. U. Hong


In this study, an experimental research for estimation of slab depth, column size and location of rebar of concrete specimen is conducted using the Impact Echo Method (IE) based on stress wave among non-destructive test methods. Estimation of slab depth had total length of 1800×300 and 6 different depths including 150 mm, 180 mm, 210 mm, 240 mm, 270 mm and 300 mm. The concrete column specimen was manufactured by differentiating the size into 300×300×300 mm, 400×400×400 mm and 500×500×500 mm. In case of the specimen for estimation of rebar, rebar of ∅22 mm was used in a specimen of 300×370×200 and arranged at 130 mm and 150 mm from the top to the rebar top. As a result of error rate of slab depth was overall mean of 3.1%. Error rate of column size was overall mean of 1.7%. Mean error rate of rebar location was 1.72% for top, 1.19% for bottom and 1.5% for overall mean showing relative accuracy.

Keywords: Concrete, estimation, impact echo method, slab depth, column size, rebar location

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
113 Sensitivity Analysis of Principal Stresses in Concrete Slab of Rigid Pavement Made From Recycled Materials

Authors: Aleš Florian, Lenka Ševelová


Complex sensitivity analysis of stresses in a concrete slab of the real type of rigid pavement made from recycled materials is performed. The computational model of the pavement is designed as a spatial (3D) model, is based on a nonlinear variant of the finite element method that respects the structural nonlinearity, enables to model different arrangements of joints, and the entire model can be loaded by the thermal load. Interaction of adjacent slabs in joints and contact of the slab and the subsequent layer are modeled with the help of special contact elements. Four concrete slabs separated by transverse and longitudinal joints and the additional structural layers and soil to the depth of about 3m are modeled. The thickness of individual layers, physical and mechanical properties of materials, characteristics of joints, and the temperature of the upper and lower surface of slabs are supposed to be random variables. The modern simulation technique Updated Latin Hypercube Sampling with 20 simulations is used. For sensitivity analysis the sensitivity coefficient based on the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is utilized. As a result, the estimates of influence of random variability of individual input variables on the random variability of principal stresses s1 and s3 in 53 points on the upper and lower surface of the concrete slabs are obtained.

Keywords: Simulation, Concrete, Pavement, Sensitivity, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
112 Analysis of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacteria Attack on Concrete Based on Waste Materials

Authors: A. Eštoková, M. Kovalčíková, A. Luptáková, A. Sičáková, M. Ondová


Concrete durability as an important engineering property of concrete, determining the service life of concrete structures very significantly, can be threatened and even lost due to the interactions of concrete with external environment. Bio-corrosion process caused by presence and activities of microorganisms producing sulphuric acid is a special type of sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The effects of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on various concrete samples, based on silica fume and zeolite, were investigated in laboratory during 180 days. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the performance of concrete samples in terms of the concrete deterioration influenced by the leaching of calcium and silicon compounds from the cement matrix. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in both solid samples and liquid leachates were measured by using X – ray fluorescence method. Experimental studies confirmed the silica fume based concrete samples were found out to have the best performance in terms of both silicon and calcium ions leaching.

Keywords: Concrete, Leaching, Bacteria, biocorrosion

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111 Some Aspects of Study the Leaching and Acid Corrosion of Concrete

Authors: Alena Sicakova, Adriana Estokova


Although properly made concrete is inherently a durable material, there are many physical and chemical forces in the environment which can contribute to its deterioration. This paper deals with two aspects of concrete durability in chemical aggressive environment: degradation effect of particular aggressive exposure and role of particular mineral additives. Results of the study of leaching and acid corrosion processes in samples prepared with specific dosage of microsilica and zeolite are given in the paper. Corrosion progress after 60-day exposition is manifested by increasing rate of both Ca and Si release, what is identified by XRF method. Kind and dosage of additions used in experiment was found to be helpful for stabilization of concrete microstructure. The lowest concentration of mean elements in leachates was observed for mixture V1 (microsilica only) unlike the V2 (microsilica + zeolite). It is surprising in the terms of recommendations of zeolite application for acid exposure. Using microsilica only seems to be more effective.

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, Sustainability, Leaching, acid corrosion

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110 Heat and Radiation Influence on Granite-Galena Concrete for Nuclear Shielding Applications

Authors: Mohamed A. Safan, Walid Khalil, Amro Fathalla


Advances in concrete technology and implementation of new materials made it possible to produce special types of concrete for different structural applications. In this research, granite and galena were incorporated in different concrete mixes to obtain high performance concrete for shielding against gamma radiations in nuclear facilities. Chemically prepared industrial galena was used to replace different volume fractions of the fine aggregate. The test specimens were exposed to different conditions of heating cycles and irradiation. The exposed specimens and counterpart unexposed specimens were tested to evaluate the density, the compressive strength and the attenuation coefficient. The proposed mixes incorporating galena showed better performance in terms of compressive strength and gamma attenuation capacity, especially after the exposure to different heating cycles.

Keywords: Radiation, Concrete, Attenuation, shielding, galena

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
109 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution

Authors: M. S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy, A. I. Al-Negheimish


The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH which are the compounds commonly observed in ordinary portland cement concrete pore solution. In addition to that, commonly used mineral admixtures (silica fume, natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added to the simulated concrete pore solution. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, silica fume has been shown to have a negative influence on the film quality though it has positive effect on the concrete properties. Fly ash and natural pozzolan increase the protective qualities of the passive film. The research data in this area is very limited in the past and needed further investigation.

Keywords: Concrete, EIS, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, Tafel scan, rebar, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
108 Study for Utilization of Industrial Solid Waste, Generated by the Discharge of Casting Sand Agglomeration with Clay, Blast Furnace Slag and Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash in Concrete Composition

Authors: Mario Sergio de Andrade Zago, Javier Mazariegos Pablos, Eduvaldo Paulo Sichieri


This research project accomplished a study on the technical feasibility of recycling industrial solid waste generated by the discharge of casting sand agglomeration with clay, blast furnace slag and sugar cane bagasse ash. For this, the plan proposed a methodology that initially establishes a process of solid waste encapsulation, by using solidification/stabilization technique on Portland cement matrices, in which the residuals act as small and large aggregates on the composition of concrete, and later it presents the possibility of using this concrete in the manufacture of concrete pieces (concrete blocks) for paving. The results obtained in this research achieved the objective set with great success, regarding the manufacturing of concrete pieces (blocks) for paving urban roads, whenever there is special vehicle traffic or demands capable of producing accentuated abrasion effects (surpassing the 50 MPa required by the regulation), which probes the technical practicability of using waste from sand casting agglomeration with clay and blast furnace slag used in this study, unlocking usage possibilities for construction.

Keywords: Concrete, reuse, Industrial solid waste, Portland Cement, solidification/stabilization, bagasse ash in the sugar cane

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
107 Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, M. Avella


Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.

Keywords: Concrete, Nano Materials, Corrosion, zeolites, bactericides, biogenic sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulphide

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106 Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid (BSA) on the Concrete Structures of Sewerage Systems: Chemical Tests

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, O. Rojas


The research studies of the kinetics of the corrosion process that attacks concrete and occurs within sewerage systems agree on the amount of variables that interfere in the process. This study aims to check the impact of the pH levels of the corrosive environment and the concrete surface, the concentrations of chemical sulfuric acid, and in turn, measure the resistance of concrete to this attack under controlled laboratory conditions; it also aims to contribute to the development of further research related to the topic, in order to compare the impact of biogenic sulfuric acid and chemical sulfuric acid involvement on concrete structures, especially in scenarios such as sewerage systems.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, acid sulfuric, biogenic

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105 The Effect of Urmia-Lake Water on Tensional Strength Concrete with Various Admixtures

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei


In this paper, the effect of admixtures on the tensional strength of concrete in Urmia-lake water have been investigated. We made different types of concretes with the ratio of w/c and replaced different percentages of micro-silica, air-entraining, super plasticizer, corrosion-inhibiting, and caulk with two types of cement I and II as well as investigating in both ordinary water and Urmia-lake water. The tensional strength was investigated on these samples.

Keywords: Concrete, Admixtures, Urmia-lake water, tensional strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
104 The Effect of Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars

Authors: M.S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy


The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH. In addition to that, commonly used supplementary cementitious materials (natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, natural pozzolans has been shown to have a highly positive influence on the film quality. Fly ash also increases the protective qualities of the passive film.

Keywords: Concrete, EIS, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, Tafel scan, rebar, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
103 Suitability of Quarry Dust as Replacement of Sand in Medium Grade Concrete

Authors: Popoola M. Oyenola


Concrete plays the important role and a huge percentage of concrete is being utilized in every construction practices. Natural river sand is one of the major ingredients of concrete, is becoming expensive due to excessive cost of accessibility from sources. Also large scale depletion of sources creates environmental problems. Therefore, there is a need of economic alternative materials. Quarry dust is a waste obtained during quarrying process. It has been rampantly used in different construction practices and could be used as an effective fine aggregate instead of river sand. Partial and total replacement of fine aggregate in conventional concrete with quarry dust has been empirically conducted with the view to examining primarily the compressive strength of the resulting composite and possible total utilization of quarry dust as fine aggregate in the production of medium grade concrete. The results of the study showed that its specific gravity, porosity and water absorption showed satisfactory performance. The percentage replacement of natural river sand with quarry dust for a designed strength of 25N/mm2 varied at intervals of 10% up to a maximum value of 100%. A total of 132 cubes of 150 x 150 x 150mm were cast and tested at 7, 14 and 28 days of hydration. Compressive strength increases with curing age in all the mixes. Compressive strength decreases with increase in percentage of quarry dust. Generally the compressive strength of concrete incorporating quarry dust attained strength of 22.47 N/mm2 after 28 days which makes it a suitable aggregate for the production medium grade concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Aggregates, compressive strength, quarry dust

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
102 Modeling of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Concrete for Filling Trenches in Radioactive Waste Management

Authors: Ilija Plecas, Dalibor Arbutina


The leaching rate of 60Co from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source, an equation for diffusion coupled to a first order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Keywords: Waste, Concrete, Radioactivity, Leaching, cement, Permeability, immobilization

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101 Recycling of Aggregates from Construction Demolition Wastes in Concrete: Study of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: M. Saidi, F. Ait Medjber, B. Safi, M. Samar


This work is focused on the study of valuation of recycled concrete aggregates, by measuring certain properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened state. In this study, rheological tests and physic-mechanical characterization on concretes and mortars were conducted with recycled concrete whose geometric properties were identified aggregates. Mortars were elaborated with recycled fine aggregate (0/5mm) and concretes were manufactured using recycled coarse aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm). First, a study of the mortars was conducted to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the workability of these and their action deflocculating of the fine recycled sand. The rheological behavior of mortars based on fine aggregate recycled was characterized. The results confirm that the mortars composed of different fractions of recycled sand (0/5) have a better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) compared to normal mortar. Also, the mechanical strengths of concretes made with recycled aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm), are comparable to those of conventional concrete with conventional aggregates, provided that the implementation can be improved by the addition of a superplasticizer.

Keywords: Concrete, Mechanical Strength, workability, demolition wastes, recycled coarse aggregate, porosity/water absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
100 Utilization of Waste Crushed Tile as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Harkaranjit Singh, Arun Kumar


Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and industrialization involving construction of infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, bricks, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viable substitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing of crushed tiles as a coarse aggregate. The waste crushed tiles can be used as coarse aggregates with the replacement ratio of 0, 50, 75 and 100% were used. Mechanical and physical tests were conducted on specimens. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, and flexure.

Keywords: Concrete, compressive strength, flexural strength, waste crushed tile

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99 Ingenious Use of Hypo Sludge in M25 Concrete

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill


Paper mill sludge is one of the major economic and environmental problems for paper and board industry, million tonnes quantity of sludge is produced in the world. It is essential to dispose these wastes safely without affecting health of human being, environment, fertile land; sources of water bodies, economy as it adversely affect the strength, durability and other properties of building materials based on them. Moreover, in developing countries like India where there is low availability of non-renewable resources and large need of building material like cement therefore it is essential to develop eco-efficient utilization of paper sludge. Primarily in functional terms paper sludge comprises of cellulose fibers, calcium carbonate, china clay, low silica, residual chemical bonds with water. The material is sticky and full of moisture content which is hard to dry. The manufacturing of paper usually produce loads of solid waste. These paper fibers are recycled in paper mills to limited number of times till they become weak to produce high quality paper. Thereafter, these left out small and weak pieces called as low quality paper fibers are detached out to become paper sludge. The material is by-product of de-inking and re-pulping of paper. This hypo sludge includes all kinds of inks, dyes, coating etc inscribed on the paper. This paper presents an overview of the published work on the use of hypo sludge in M25 concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material exploring its properties such as compressive strength, splitting and parameters like modulus of elasticity, density, applications and most importantly investigation of low cost concrete by using hypo sludge are presented.

Keywords: Concrete, sludge waste, hypo sludge, supplementary cementitious material

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98 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: Concrete, Behaviour, Geo-polymer, bond strength

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97 Partial Replacement of GGBS in Concrete for Prevention of Natural Resources

Authors: M. Murmu, Govardhan, J. Satya Eswari


Concrete is the most common and widely used building material. Concrete is basically made of aggregates, both fine and coarse, glued by a cement paste which is made of cement and water. Each one of these constituents of concrete has a negative environmental impact and gives rise to different sustainability issues. The current concrete construction practice is unsustainable because, not only it consumes enormous quantities of stones, sand, and drinking water, but also one billion tons a year of cement, which is not an environment friendly material. Preventing the reduction of natural resources and enhancing the usage of waste materials has become a challenge to the scientist and engineers. A number of studies have been conducted concerning the protection of natural resources, prevention of environmental pollution and contribution to the economy by using this waste material. This paper outlines the influence of Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) as partial replacement of fine aggregate on mechanical properties of concrete. The strength of concrete is determined having OPC binder, replaced the fine aggregate with15%, 30%, 45% respectively. For this purpose, characteristics concrete mix of M25 with partial replacement of cement with GGBS is used and the strength of concrete cubes and cylinder have determined. The strength of concrete specimens has been compared with the reference specimen. Also X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tests have been performed to examine the hydration products and the microstructure of the tested specimens. A correlation has been established between the developmental strength concrete with and without GGBS through analysis of hydration products and the microstructure.

Keywords: Concrete, Sand, workability, GGBS

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96 Study on the Strength and Durability Properties of Ternary Blended Concrete

Authors: Athira Babu, M. Nazeer


Concrete is the most common and versatile construction material used in any type of civil engineering structure. The durability and strength characteristics of concrete make it more desirable among any other construction materials. The manufacture and use of concrete produces wide range of environmental and social consequences. The major component in concrete, cement accounts for roughly 5 % of global CO2 emissions. In order to improve the environmental friendliness of concrete, suitable substitutes are added to concrete. The present study deals with GGBS and silica fume as supplementary cementitious materials. The strength and durability studies were conducted in this ternary blended concrete. Several mixes were adopted with varying percentages of Silica Fume i.e., 5%, 10% and 15%. Binary mix with 50% GGBS was also prepared. GGBS content has been kept constant for the rest of mixes. There is an improvement in compressive strength with addition of Silica Fume.Maximum workability, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and impact resistance are obtained for GGBS binary blend. For durability studies, maximum sulphate resistance,carbonation resistance andresistance to chloride ion penetration are obtained for ternary blended concrete. Partial replacement of GGBS and Silica Fume reduces the environmental effects, produces economical and eco-friendly concrete. The study showed that for strength characteristics, binary blended concrete showed better performance while for durability study ternary blend performed better.

Keywords: Concrete, silica fume, GGBS, ternary blend

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95 Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Cement Replacement Materials in Concrete Industry

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami, Parisa Hayati


One of the most important industries and building operations causing carbon dioxide emission is the cement and concrete related industries so that cement production (including direct fuel for mining and transporting raw material) consumes approximately 6 million Btus per metric-ton, and releases about 1 metric-ton of CO2. Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), limestone, natural pozzolans, etc. these materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication that were used for activation of two types of SCMs.

Keywords: Concrete, NanoFabrication, activation, cement replacement materials

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94 Reuse of Refractory Brick Wastes (RBW) as a Supplementary Cementitious Materials in a High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: B. Safi, B. Amrane, M. Saidi


The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the reuse of refractory brick wastes (RBW) as a supplementary cementitious materials (by a total replacement of silica fume) to produce a high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (HPFRC). This work presents an experimental study on the formulation and physico-mechanical characterization of ultra high performance fiber reinforced concretes based on three types of refractory brick wastes. These have been retrieved from the manufacturing unit of float glass MFG (Mediterranean Float Glass) after their use in the oven basin (ie d. they are considered waste unit). Three compositions of concrete (HPFRC) were established based on three types of refractory brick wastes (finely crushed), with the dosage of each type of bricks is kept constant, similar the dosage of silica fume used for the control concrete. While all the other components and the water/binder ratio are maintained constant with the same quantity of the superplasticizer. The performance of HPFRC, were evaluated by determining the essential characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Fiber, Tensile Strength, compressive strength, refractory bricks, fluidity

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93 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: Plastic, Concrete, Toughness, compressive strength, shrinkage cracking, RF recycled fibers, flexural strength, polypropylene PP fibers

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92 Influence of Yield Stress and Compressive Strength on Direct Shear Behaviour of Steel Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Bensaid Boulekbache, Mostefa Hamrat, Mohamed Chemrouk, Sofiane Amziane


This study aims in examining the influence of the paste yield stress and compressive strength on the behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) versus direct shear. The parameters studied are the steel fibre contents, the aspect ratio of fibres and the concrete strength. Prismatic specimens of dimensions 10x10x35cm made of concrete of various yield stress reinforced with steel fibres hooked at the ends with three fibre volume fractions (i.e. 0, 0.5, and 1%) and two aspects ratio (65 and 80) were tested to direct shear. Three types of concretes with various compressive strength and yield stress were tested, an ordinary concrete (OC), a self-compacting concrete (SCC) and a high strength concrete (HSC). The concrete strengths investigated include 30 MPa for OC, 60 MPa for SCC and 80 MPa for HSC. The results show that the shear strength and ductility are affected and have been improved very significantly by the fibre contents, fibre aspect ratio and concrete strength. As the compressive strength and the volume fraction of fibres increase, the shear strength increases. However, yield stress of concrete has an important influence on the orientation and distribution of the fibres in the matrix. The ductility was much higher for ordinary and self-compacting concretes (concrete with good workability). The ductility in direct shear depends on the fibre orientation and is significantly improved when the fibres are perpendicular to the shear plane. On the contrary, for concrete with poor workability, an inadequate distribution and orientation of fibres occurred, leading to a weak contribution of the fibres to the direct shear behaviour.

Keywords: Concrete, Orientation, Strength, fibre, direct shear, yield stress

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91 Improvement of Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Concrete Using Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Omar Asad Ahmad, Mohammed Awwad


Concrete is one of the essential elements that used in different types of construction these days, but it has many problems when interacts with environmental elements such as water, air, temperature, dust, and humidity. Also concrete made with Portland cement has certain characteristics: it is relatively strong in compression but weak in tension and tends to be brittle. These disadvantages make concrete limited to use in certain conditions. The most common problems appears on concrete are manifested by tearing, cracking, corrosion and spalling, which will lead to do some defect in concrete then in the whole construction, The fundamental objective of this research was to provide information about the hardened properties of concrete achieved by using easily available local raw materials in Jordan to support the practical work with partners in assessing the practicability of the mixes with polypropylene, and to facilitate the introduction of polypropylene fiber concrete (PFC) technology into general construction practice. Investigate the effect of the polypropylene fibers in PCC mixtures and on materials properties such as compressive strength, and tensile strength. Also to investigate the use of polypropylene fibers in plain cubes and cylindrical concrete to improve its compressive and tensile strengths to reduce early cracking and inhibit later crack growth. Increasing the hardness of concrete in this research is the main purpose to measure the deference of compressive strength and tensile strength between plain concrete and concrete mixture with polypropylene fibers different additions and to investigate its effect on reducing the early and later cracking problem. To achieve the goals of research 225 concrete test sample were prepared to measure it’s compressive strength and tensile strength, the concrete test sample were three classes (A,B,C), sub-classified to standard , and polypropylene fibers added by the volume of concrete (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). The investigation of polypropylene fibers mixture with concrete shows that the strengths of the cement are increased and the cracking decreased. The results show that for class A the recommended addition were 5% of polypropylene fibers additions for compressive strength and 10 % for tensile strength revels the best compressive strength that reach 26.67 Mpa and tensile strength that reach 2.548 Mpa records. Achieved results show that for classes B and C the recommend additions were 10 % polypropylene fibers revels the best compressive strength records where they reach 21.11 and 33.78 Mpa, records reach for tensile strength 2.707 and 2.65 Mpa respectively.

Keywords: Construction, Concrete, strengths, Polypropylene, tensile, compressive, effects

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90 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick


In this paper the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. The effect of RHA on concrete discussed. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: Concrete, rice husk ash, cement replacement, environmental friendly

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