Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

concoctions Related Abstracts

2 Between Efficacy and Danger: Narratives of Female University Students about Emergency Contraception Methods

Authors: Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Ezebunwa Ethelbert Nwokocha, Wilson Akpan, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi


Studies on emergency contraception (EC) mostly utilise quantitative methods and focus on medically approved drugs for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. This methodological bias necessarily obscures insider perspectives on sexual behaviour, particularly on why specific methods are utilized by women who seek to prevent unplanned pregnancies. In order to privilege this perspective, with a view to further enriching the discourse and policy on the prevention and management of unplanned pregnancies, this paper brings together the findings from several focus groups and in-depth interviews conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities. The study found that while the research participants had good knowledge of the consequences of unprotected sexual intercourses - with abstinence and condom widely used - participants’ willingness to rely only on medically sound measures to prevent unwanted pregnancies was not always mediated by such knowledge. Some of the methods favored by participants appeared to be those commonly associated with people of low socio-economic status in the society where the study was conducted. Medically unsafe concoctions, some outright dangerous, were widely believed to be efficacious in preventing unwanted pregnancy. Furthermore, respondents’ narratives about their sexual behaviour revealed that inadequate sex education, socio-economic pressures, and misconceptions about the efficacy of “crude” emergency contraception methods were all interrelated. The paper therefore suggests that these different facets of the unplanned pregnancy problem should be the focus of intervention.

Keywords: emergency contraception, unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion, concoctions

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1 Ethnopharmacological Analysis of Fermented Herbal Concoctions

Authors: Ishmael Ntlhamu


In Limpopo Province, the use of herbal concoctions is becoming very popular. These concoctions are claimed to be capable of treating ulcers, diabetes, certain STDs, blood cleansing, and many more types of diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition, evaluate the pharmacological effects and consumption safety in herbal concoctions to treat various kinds of ailments in Limpopo. The concoctions were extracted with 80% acetone. Microorganisms in the concoctions were identified using the Vitek 2 compact system. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was determined using standard chemical tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total polyphenol content was quantified. Antioxidant activity was quantified using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and ferric reducing power. Antimicrobial activities were determined using a broth micro-dilution assay and bioautography. Cell viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity. Results showed that concoctions had antioxidant activity. Presence of different phytoconstituents was observed. Isolated microorganisms were identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei, Staphylococcus vitulimus, Enterococcus columbae, Kocuria kristanae, Staphylococcus intermedius, Cryptococcus laurenti. and Burkholderia pseudomallei (highly pathogenic). Therefore, phytochemicals prove that the concoctions can heal as the antimicrobial tests also displayed activity. Moreover, the concoctions did not exhibit cytotoxic effects. However, contaminants raise concerns, not only for consumer safety but also the quality of herbal concoctions available as part of the traditional medicinal practice in Limpopo.

Keywords: Phytochemicals, Antimicrobials, Cytotoxicity, concoctions

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