Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

concentric Related Abstracts

4 Numerical Study of Rayleight Number and Eccentricity Effect on Free Convection Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Annulus

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor‚ Saeed Hosseini, Behnam Amiri


Concentric and eccentric annulus is used frequently in technical and industrial applications such as nuclear reactors, thermal storage system and etc. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate two dimensional free convection of laminar flow in annulus with isotherm cylinders surface and cooler inner surface. Problem studied in thirty different cases. Due to natural convection continuity and momentum equations are coupled and must be solved simultaneously. Finite volume method is used for solving governing equations. The purpose was to obtain the eccentricity effect on Nusselt number in different Rayleight numbers, so streamlines and temperature fields must be determined. Results shown that the highest Nusselt number values occurs in degree of eccentricity equal to 0.5 upward for inner cylinder and degree of eccentricity equal to 0.3 upward for outer cylinder. Side eccentricity reduces the outer cylinder Nusselt number but increases inner cylinder Nusselt number. The trend in variation of Nusselt number with respect to eccentricity remain similar in different Rayleight numbers. Correlations are included to calculate the Nusselt number of the cylinders.

Keywords: natural convection, nusselt number, concentric, eccentric, annulus

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3 Diabatic Flow of Sub-Cooled R-600a Inside a Capillary Tube: Concentric Configuration

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Santhosh Kumar Dubba


This paper presents an experimental study of a diabatic flow of R-600a through a concentric configured capillary tube suction line heat exchanger. The details of experimental facility for testing the diabatic capillary tube with different inlet sub-cooling degree and pressure are discussed. The effect of coil diameter, capillary length, capillary tube diameter, sub-cooling degree and inlet pressure on mass flow rate are presented. The degree of sub-cooling at the inlet of capillary tube is varied from 3-20°C. The refrigerant mass flow rate is scattered up with rising of pressure. A semi-empirical correlation to predict the mass flow rate of R-600a flowing through a diabatic capillary tube is proposed for sub-cooled inlet conditions. The proposed correlation predicts measured data with an error band of ±20 percent.

Keywords: concentric, capillary tube, diabatic, R-600a

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2 Effects of Lower and Upper Body Plyometric Training on Electrocardiogram Parameters of University Athletes

Authors: T. N. Uzor, C. O. Akosile, G. O. Emeahara


Plyometric training is a form of specialised strength training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in sports conditioning by coaches and athletes. Despite its useful role in sports conditioning programme, the information about plyometric training on the athletes cardiovascular health especially Electrocardiogram (ECG) has not been established in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of lower and upper body plyometric training on ECG of athletes. The study was guided by three null hypotheses. Quasi–experimental research design was adopted for the study. Seventy-two university male athletes constituted the population of the study. Thirty male athletes aged 18 to 24 years volunteered to participate in the study, but only twenty-three completed the study. The volunteered athletes were apparently healthy, physically active and free of any lower and upper extremity bone injuries for past one year and they had no medical or orthopedic injuries that may affect their participation in the study. Ten subjects were purposively assigned to one of the three groups: lower body plyometric training (LBPT), upper body plyometric training (UBPT), and control (C). Training consisted of six plyometric exercises: lower (ankle hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps) and upper body plyometric training (push-ups, medicine ball-chest throws and side throws) with moderate intensity. The general data were collated and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 22.0). The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while paired samples t-test was also used to test for the hypotheses. The results revealed that athletes who were trained using LBPT had reduced ECG parameters better than those in the control group. The results also revealed that athletes who were trained using both LBPT and UBPT indicated lack of significant differences following ten weeks plyometric training than those in the control group in the ECG parameters except in Q wave, R wave and S wave (QRS) complex. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that coaches should include both LBPT and UBPT as part of athletes’ overall training programme from primary to tertiary institution to optimise performance as well as reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and promotes good healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, concentric, eccentric, plyometric

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1 Building Cardiovascular Fitness through Plyometric Training

Authors: Theresa N. Uzor


The word cardiovascular fitness is a topic of much interest to people of Nigeria, especially during this time, some heart diseases run in families. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply-rich blood to the working muscle tissues. This type of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained physical activity such as plyometric training. Plyometric is a form of advanced fitness training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in the sports performance by coaches and athletes. Plyometric training involves a rapid stretching of muscle (eccentric phase) immediately followed by a concentric or shortening action of the same muscle and connective tissue. However, the most basic example of true plyometric training is running and can be safe for a wide variety of populations. This paper focused on building cardiovascular health through Plyometric Training. The centre focus of the article is cardiovascular fitness and plyometric training with factors of cardiovascular fitness. Plyometric training at any age provides multiple benefits even beyond weight control and weight loss, decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other diseases, among other benefits of plyometric training to cardiovascular fitness. Participation in plyometric training will increase metabolism of an individual, thereby burning more calories even when at rest and reduces weight is also among the benefits of plyometric training. Some guidelines were recommended for planning plyometric training programme to minimise the chance of injury. With plyometric training in Nigeria, fortune can change for good, especially now that there has been an increase in cardiovascular diseases within the society for great savings would be saved.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, aerobic, concentric, plyometric, stretch-shortening cycle

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