Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Computational Modelling Related Abstracts

6 Genetic Programming: Principles, Applications and Opportunities for Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Oluwaseun K. Oyebode, Josiah A. Adeyemo

Abstract:

Hydrological modelling plays a crucial role in the planning and management of water resources, most especially in water stressed regions where the need to effectively manage the available water resources is of critical importance. However, due to the complex, nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of hydro-climatic interactions, achieving reliable modelling of water resource systems and accurate projection of hydrological parameters are extremely challenging. Although a significant number of modelling techniques (process-based and data-driven) have been developed and adopted in that regard, the field of hydrological modelling is still considered as one that has sluggishly progressed over the past decades. This is majorly as a result of the identification of some degree of uncertainty in the methodologies and results of techniques adopted. In recent times, evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been developed and introduced in response to the search for efficient and reliable means of providing accurate solutions to hydrological related problems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles, methodological needs and applications of a promising evolutionary computation modelling technique – genetic programming (GP). It examines the specific characteristics of the technique which makes it suitable to solving hydrological modelling problems. It discusses the opportunities inherent in the application of GP in water related-studies such as rainfall estimation, rainfall-runoff modelling, streamflow forecasting, sediment transport modelling, water quality modelling and groundwater modelling among others. Furthermore, the means by which such opportunities could be harnessed in the near future are discussed. In all, a case for total embracement of GP and its variants in hydrological modelling studies is made so as to put in place strategies that would translate into achieving meaningful progress as it relates to modelling of water resource systems, and also positively influence decision-making by relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: Genetic Programming, Evolutionary Algorithms, Computational Modelling, Hydrological Modelling

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5 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: A. Ouibrahim, M. Guemmadi

Abstract:

This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: Computational Modelling, Lubrication, journal bearing, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, load capacity

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4 Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Non-Destructive Testing on Complex Structure

Authors: Y. L. Hor, H. S. Chu, V. P. Bui

Abstract:

Composite material is widely used to replace conventional material, especially in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of the devices. It is formed by combining reinforced materials together via adhesive bonding to produce a bulk material with alternated macroscopic properties. In bulk composites, degradation may occur in microscopic scale, which is in each individual reinforced fiber layer or especially in its matrix layer such as delamination, inclusion, disbond, void, cracks, and porosity. In this paper, we focus on the detection of defect in matrix layer which the adhesion between the composite plies is in contact but coupled through a weak bond. In fact, the adhesive defects are tested through various nondestructive methods. Among them, pulsed phase thermography (PPT) has shown some advantages providing improved sensitivity, large-area coverage, and high-speed testing. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient numerical model to study the application of PPT to the nondestructive inspection of weak bonding in composite material. The resulting thermal evolution field is comprised of internal reflections between the interfaces of defects and the specimen, and the important key-features of the defects presented in the material can be obtained from the investigation of the thermal evolution of the field distribution. Computational simulation of such inspections has allowed the improvement of the techniques to apply in various inspections, such as materials with high thermal conductivity and more complex structures.

Keywords: Optimization, Composite, Computational Modelling, CFRP, pulsed phase thermography, weak bond

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3 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati

Abstract:

Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: Computational Modelling, mathematical model, action potential, all-or-none, transmembrane voltage

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2 Character and Evolution of Electronic Waste: A Technologically Developing Country's Experience

Authors: Karen C. Olufokunbi, Odetunji A. Odejobi

Abstract:

The discourse of this paper is the examination of the generation, accumulation and growth of e-waste in a developing country. Images and other data about computer e-waste were collected using a digital camera, 290 copies of questionnaire and three structured interviews using Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria environment as a case study. The numerical data were analysed using R data analysis and process tool. Automata-based techniques and Petri net modeling tool were used to design and simulate a computational model for the recovery of saleable materials from e-waste. The R analysis showed that at a 95 percent confidence level, the computer equipment that will be disposed by 2020 will be 417 units. Compared to the 800 units in circulation in 2014, 50 percent of personal computer components will become e-waste. This indicates that personal computer components were in high demand due to their low costs and will be disposed more rapidly when replaced by new computer equipment Also, 57 percent of the respondents discarded their computer e-waste by throwing it into the garbage bin or by dumping it. The simulated model using Coloured Petri net modelling tool for the process showed that the e-waste dynamics is a forward sequential process in the form of a pipeline meaning that an e-waste recovery of saleable materials process occurs in identifiable discrete stages indicating that e-waste will continue to accumulate and grow in volume with time.

Keywords: Computational Modelling, Electronic Waste, Coloured Petri net, electronic waste process dynamics

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1 Computational Modelling of Epoxy-Graphene Composite Adhesive towards the Development of Cryosorption Pump

Authors: Ravi Verma

Abstract:

Cryosorption pump is the best solution to achieve clean, vibration free ultra-high vacuum. Furthermore, the operation of cryosorption pump is free from the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Due to these attributes, this pump is used in the space simulation chamber to create the ultra-high vacuum. The cryosorption pump comprises of three parts (a) panel which is cooled with the help of cryogen or cryocooler, (b) an adsorbent which is used to adsorb the gas molecules, (c) an epoxy which holds the adsorbent and the panel together thereby aiding in heat transfer from adsorbent to the panel. The performance of cryosorption pump depends on the temperature of the adsorbent and hence, on the thermal conductivity of the epoxy. Therefore we have made an attempt to increase the thermal conductivity of epoxy adhesive by mixing nano-sized graphene filler particles. The thermal conductivity of epoxy-graphene composite adhesive is measured with the help of indigenously developed experimental setup in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K, which is generally the operating temperature range of cryosorption pump for efficiently pumping of hydrogen and helium gas. In this article, we have presented the experimental results of epoxy-graphene composite adhesive in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K. We have also proposed an analytical heat conduction model to find the thermal conductivity of the composite. In this case, the filler particles, such as graphene, are randomly distributed in a base matrix of epoxy. The developed model considers the complete spatial random distribution of filler particles and this distribution is explained by Binomial distribution. The results obtained by the model have been compared with the experimental results as well as with the other established models. The developed model is able to predict the thermal conductivity in both isotropic regions as well as in anisotropic region over the required temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K. Due to the non-empirical nature of the proposed model, it will be useful for the prediction of other properties of composite materials involving the filler in a base matrix. The present studies will aid in the understanding of low temperature heat transfer which in turn will be useful towards the development of high performance cryosorption pump.

Keywords: Computational Modelling, Thermal Conductivity, composite adhesive, cryosorption pump

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