Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Computational Modeling Related Abstracts

4 The Effects of a Thin Liquid Layer on the Hydrodynamic Machine Rotor

Authors: František Pochylý, Jaroslav Krutil, Simona Fialová, Vladimír Habán

Abstract:

A mathematical model of the additional effects of the liquid in the hydrodynamic gap is presented in the paper. An in-compressible viscous fluid is considered. Based on computational modeling are determined the matrices of mass, stiffness and damping. The mathematical model is experimentally verified.

Keywords: Computational Modeling, mathematical model, hydrodynamic gap, matrices of mass, stiffness and damping

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3 In silico Model of Transamination Reaction Mechanism

Authors: Sang-Woo Han, Jong-Shik Shin

Abstract:

w-Transaminase (w-TA) is broadly used for synthesizing chiral amines with a high enantiopurity. However, the reaction mechanism of w-TA has been not well studied, contrary to a-transaminase (a-TA) such as AspTA. Here, we propose in silico model on the reaction mechanism of w-TA. Based on the modeling results which showed large free energy gaps between external aldimine and quinonoid on deamination (or ketimine and quinonoid on amination), withdrawal of Ca-H seemed as a critical step which determines the reaction rate on both amination and deamination reactions, which is consistent with previous researches. Hyperconjugation was also observed in both external aldimine and ketimine which weakens Ca-H bond to elevate Ca-H abstraction.

Keywords: Computational Modeling, reaction intermediates, w-transaminase, in silico model

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2 Computer Based Identification of Possible Molecular Targets for Induction of Drug Resistance Reversion in Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Authors: Oleg Reva, Ilya Korotetskiy, Marina Lankina, Murat Kulmanov, Aleksandr Ilin

Abstract:

Molecular docking approaches are widely used for design of new antibiotics and modeling of antibacterial activities of numerous ligands which bind specifically to active centers of indispensable enzymes and/or key signaling proteins of pathogens. Widespread drug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms calls for development of new antibiotics specifically targeting important metabolic and information pathways. A generally recognized problem is that almost all molecular targets have been identified already and it is getting more and more difficult to design innovative antibacterial compounds to combat the drug resistance. A promising way to overcome the drug resistance problem is an induction of reversion of drug resistance by supplementary medicines to improve the efficacy of the conventional antibiotics. In contrast to well established computer-based drug design, modeling of drug resistance reversion still is in its infancy. In this work, we proposed an approach to identification of compensatory genetic variants reducing the fitness cost associated with the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The approach was based on an analysis of the population genetic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and on results of experimental modeling of the drug resistance reversion induced by a new anti-tuberculosis drug FS-1. The latter drug is an iodine-containing nanomolecular complex that passed clinical trials and was admitted as a new medicine against MDR-TB in Kazakhstan. Isolates of M. tuberculosis obtained on different stages of the clinical trials and also from laboratory animals infected with MDR-TB strain were characterized by antibiotic resistance, and their genomes were sequenced by the paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology. A steady increase in sensitivity to conventional anti-tuberculosis antibiotics in series of isolated treated with FS-1 was registered despite the fact that the canonical drug resistance mutations identified in the genomes of these isolates remained intact. It was hypothesized that the drug resistance phenotype in M. tuberculosis requires an adjustment of activities of many genes to compensate the fitness cost of the drug resistance mutations. FS-1 cased an aggravation of the fitness cost and removal of the drug-resistant variants of M. tuberculosis from the population. This process caused a significant increase in genetic heterogeneity of the Mtb population that was not observed in the positive and negative controls (infected laboratory animals left untreated and treated solely with the antibiotics). A large-scale search for linkage disequilibrium associations between the drug resistance mutations and genetic variants in other genomic loci allowed identification of target proteins, which could be influenced by supplementary drugs to increase the fitness cost of the drug resistance and deprive the drug-resistant bacterial variants of their competitiveness in the population. The approach will be used to improve the efficacy of FS-1 and also for computer-based design of new drugs to combat drug-resistant infections.

Keywords: Computational Modeling, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, complete genome sequencing, drug resistance reversion

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1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Comparison of Flow through Mechanical Heart Valve Using Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid

Authors: D. Šedivý, S. Fialová

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to show differences between the numerical solution of the flow through the artificial heart valve using Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The simulation was carried out by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package based on finite-volume method. An aortic bileaflet heart valve (Sorin Bicarbon) was used as a pattern for model of real heart valve replacement. Computed tomography (CT) was used to gain the accurate parameters of the valve. Data from CT were transferred in the commercial 3D designer, where the model for CFD was made. Carreau rheology model was applied as non-Newtonian fluid. Physiological data of cardiac cycle were used as boundary conditions. Outputs were taken the leaflets excursion from opening to closure and the fluid dynamics through the valve. This study also includes experimental measurement of pressure fields in ambience of valve for verification numerical outputs. Results put in evidence a favorable comparison between the computational solutions of flow through the mechanical heart valve using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.

Keywords: Computational Modeling, non-Newtonian fluid, dynamic mesh, mechanical heart valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 220