Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Computational Methods Related Abstracts

4 Computational Approach to the Interaction of Neurotoxins and Kv1.3 Channel

Authors: Ludis Morales, Janneth González, George Barreto, Angélica Sabogal

Abstract:

Sea anemone neurotoxins are peptides that interact with Na+ and K+ channels, resulting in specific alterations on their functions. Some of these neurotoxins (1ROO, 1BGK, 2K9E, 1BEI) are important for the treatment of nearly eighty autoimmune disorders due to their specificity for Kv1.3 channel. The aim of this study was to identify the common residues among these neurotoxins by computational methods, and establish whether there is a pattern useful for the future generation of a treatment for autoimmune diseases. Our results showed eight new key common residues between the studied neurotoxins interacting with a histidine ring and the selectivity filter of the receptor, thus showing a possible pattern of interaction. This knowledge may serve as an input for the design of more promising drugs for autoimmune treatments.

Keywords: Computational Methods, Autoimmune diseases, Neurotoxins, potassium channel, Kv1.3

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3 Introduction to Various Innovative Techniques Suggested for Seismic Hazard Assessment

Authors: Deepshikha Shukla, C. H. Solanki, Mayank K. Desai

Abstract:

Amongst all the natural hazards, earthquakes have the potential for causing the greatest damages. Since the earthquake forces are random in nature and unpredictable, the quantification of the hazards becomes important in order to assess the hazards. The time and place of a future earthquake are both uncertain. Since earthquakes can neither be prevented nor be predicted, engineers have to design and construct in such a way, that the damage to life and property are minimized. Seismic hazard analysis plays an important role in earthquake design structures by providing a rational value of input parameter. In this paper, both mathematical, as well as computational methods adopted by researchers globally in the past five years, will be discussed. Some mathematical approaches involving the concepts of Poisson’s ratio, Convex Set Theory, Empirical Green’s Function, Bayesian probability estimation applied for seismic hazard and FOSM (first-order second-moment) algorithm methods will be discussed. Computational approaches and numerical model SSIFiBo developed in MATLAB to study dynamic soil-structure interaction problem is discussed in this paper. The GIS-based tool will also be discussed which is predominantly used in the assessment of seismic hazards.

Keywords: Computational Methods, MATLAB, Seismic Hazard, seismic measurements

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2 Dynamic Process Model for Designing Smart Spaces Based on Context-Awareness and Computational Methods Principles

Authors: Heba M. Jahin, Ali F. Bakr, Zeyad T. Elsayad

Abstract:

As smart spaces can be defined as any working environment which integrates embedded computers, information appliances and multi-modal sensors to remain focused on the interaction between the users, their activity, and their behavior in the space; hence, smart space must be aware of their contexts and automatically adapt to their changing context-awareness, by interacting with their physical environment through natural and multimodal interfaces. Also, by serving the information used proactively. This paper suggests a dynamic framework through the architectural design process of the space based on the principles of computational methods and context-awareness principles to help in creating a field of changes and modifications. It generates possibilities, concerns about the physical, structural and user contexts. This framework is concerned with five main processes: gathering and analyzing data to generate smart design scenarios, parameters, and attributes; which will be transformed by coding into four types of models. Furthmore, connecting those models together in the interaction model which will represent the context-awareness system. Then, transforming that model into a virtual and ambient environment which represents the physical and real environments, to act as a linkage phase between the users and their activities taking place in that smart space . Finally, the feedback phase from users of that environment to be sure that the design of that smart space fulfill their needs. Therefore, the generated design process will help in designing smarts spaces that can be adapted and controlled to answer the users’ defined goals, needs, and activity.

Keywords: Computational Methods, Smart Spaces, Design Process, Context-Awareness

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1 Topology Enhancement of a Straight Fin Using a Porous Media Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach

Authors: M. Nemer, S. Wakim, B. Zeghondy, B. Ghannam, C. Bouallou

Abstract:

Designing the optimal heat exchanger is still an essential objective to be achieved. Parametrical optimization involves the evaluation of the heat exchanger dimensions to find those that best satisfy certain objectives. This method contributes to an enhanced design rather than an optimized one. On the contrary, topology optimization finds the optimal structure that satisfies the design objectives. The huge development in metal additive manufacturing allowed topology optimization to find its way into engineering applications especially in the aerospace field to optimize metal structures. Using topology optimization in 3d heat and mass transfer problems requires huge computational time, therefore coupling it with CFD simulations can reduce this it. However, existed CFD models cannot be coupled with topology optimization. The CFD model must allow creating a uniform mesh despite the initial geometry complexity and also to swap the cells from fluid to solid and vice versa. In this paper, a porous media approach compatible with topology optimization criteria is developed. It consists of modeling the fluid region of the heat exchanger as porous media having high porosity and similarly the solid region is modeled as porous media having low porosity. The switching from fluid to solid cells required by topology optimization is simply done by changing each cell porosity using a user defined function. This model is tested on a plate and fin heat exchanger and validated by comparing its results to experimental data and simulations results. Furthermore, this model is used to perform a material reallocation based on local criteria to optimize a plate and fin heat exchanger under a constant heat duty constraint. The optimized fin uses 20% fewer materials than the first while the pressure drop is reduced by about 13%.

Keywords: Computational Methods, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, heat exchanger, topology optimization

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