Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 142

compressive strength Related Abstracts

142 Effect of Confinement on Flexural Tensile Strength of Concrete

Authors: M. Ahmed, Javed Mallick, Mohammad Abul Hasan


The flexural tensile strength of concrete is an important parameter for determining cracking behavior of concrete structure and to compute deflection under flexure. Many factors have been shown to influence the flexural tensile strength, particularly the level of concrete strength, size of member, age of concrete and confinement to flexure member etc. Empirical equations have been suggested to relate the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength. Limited literature is available for relationship between flexural tensile strength and compressive strength giving consideration to the factors affecting the flexural tensile strength specially the concrete confinement factor. The concrete member such as slabs, beams and columns critical locations are under confinement effects. The paper presents the experimental study to predict the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength empirical relations using statistical procedures considering the effect of confinement and age of concrete for wide range of concrete strength (from 35 to about 100 MPa). It is concluded from study that due consideration of confinement should be given in deriving the flexural tensile strength and compressive strength proportionality equations.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, modulus of rupture, statistical procedures, concrete confinement

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141 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Minimizing Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Mortar

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


The development of new construction materials using recycled plastic is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries. Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or post-consumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of ordinary cement based mortar. Parameters investigated include: Fiber length ranging from 20 to 50 mm, and fiber volume fraction ranging from 0% to 1.5% by volume. The test results showed significant improvement in crack arresting mechanism and substantial reduction in the surface area of cracks for the mortar reinforced with recycled plastic fibers compared to plain mortar. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was a slight decrease in compressive strength of mortar reinforced with different lengths and contents of recycled fibers compared to plain mortar. This study suggests that adding more than 1% of RP fibers to mortar, can be used effectively for controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of cement based mortar, and thus results in waste reduction and resources conservation.

Keywords: Plastic, compressive strength, mortar, shrinkage cracking, RF recycled fibers

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140 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan


This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: Concrete, fibers, Tensile Strength, compressive strength, flexural strength

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139 Factors Affecting the Ultimate Compressive Strength of the Quaternary Calcarenites, North Western Desert, Egypt

Authors: M. A. Rashed, A. S. Mansour, H. Faris, W. Afify


The calcarenites carbonate rocks of the Quaternary ridges, which extend along the northwestern Mediterranean coastal plain of Egypt, represent an excellent model for the transformation of loose sediments to real sedimentary rocks by the different stages of meteoric diagenesis. The depositional and diagenetic fabrics of the rocks, in addition to the strata orientation, highly affect their ultimate compressive strength and other geotechnical properties. There is a marked increase in the compressive strength (UCS) from the first to the fourth ridge rock samples. The lowest values are related to the loose packing, weakly cemented aragonitic ooid sediments with high porosity, besides the irregularly distributed of cement, which result in decreasing the ability of these rocks to withstand crushing under direct pressure. The high (UCS) values are attributed to the low porosity, the presence of micritic cement, the reduction in grain size and the occurrence of micritization and calcretization processes. The strata orientation has a notable effect on the measured (UCS). The lowest values have been recorded for the samples cored in the inclined direction; whereas the highest values have been noticed in most samples cored in the vertical and parallel directions to bedding plane. In case of the inclined direction, the bedding planes were oriented close to the plane of maximum shear stress. The lowest and highest anisotropy values have been recorded for the first and the third ridges rock samples, respectively, which may attributed to the relatively homogeneity and well sorted grain-stone of the first ridge rock samples, and relatively heterogeneity in grain and pore size distribution and degree of cementation of the third ridge rock samples, besides, the abundance of shell fragments with intra-particle pore spaces, which may produce lines of weakness within the rock.

Keywords: anisotropy, compressive strength, Egypt, calcarenites

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138 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal


Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, partial replacement to fine aggregates and admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in each one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India, major number of thermal power plants are producing low calcium fly ash. Hence, in the present investigation, low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. Moreover the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces and beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: compressive strength, cementing efficiency, low calcium fly ash, workability

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137 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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136 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya


The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: Minerals, compressive strength, flexural strength, additive, modulus of elasticity

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135 Role of Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Compressive Strength of Cement Paste

Authors: Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh


The outstanding mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest for their potential as reinforcements in high performance cementitious composites. The main challenge in research is the proper dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the cement matrix. The present work discusses the role of dispersion of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the compressive strength characteristics of hydrated Portland IS 1489 cement paste. Cement-MWCNT composites with different mixing techniques were prepared by adding 0.2% (by weight) of MWCNTs to Portland IS 1489 cement. Rectangle specimens of size approximately 40mm × 40mm ×160mm were prepared and curing of samples was done for 7, 14, 28, and 35 days. An appreciable increase in compressive strength with both techniques; mixture of MWCNTs with cement in powder form and mixture of MWCNTs with cement in hydrated form 7 to 28 days of curing time for all the samples was observed.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Composite, Portland Cement, compressive strength

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134 The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin

Authors: Min Ho Kwon, Woo Young Jung, Hyun Su Seo


A Polymer Cement Mortar (PCM) has been widely used as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure; however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant. Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM resin was mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM. Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement mortar.

Keywords: steel fiber, compressive strength, polymer cement mortar, UM resin, PVA fiber

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133 Influence of Silica Fume on Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

Authors: Vitoldas Vaitkevičius, Evaldas Šerelis


Silica fume, also known as microsilica (MS) or condensed silica fume is a by-product of the production of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is one of the most effective pozzolanic additives which could be used for ultrahigh performance and other types of concrete. Despite the fact, however is not entirely clear, which amount of silica fume is most optimal for UHPC. Main objective of this experiment was to find optimal amount of silica fume for UHPC with and without thermal treatment, when different amount of quartz powder is substituted by silica fume. In this work were investigated four different composition of UHPC with different amount of silica fume. Silica fume were added 0, 10, 15 and 20% of cement (by weight) to UHPC mixture. Optimal amount of silica fume was determined by slump, viscosity, qualitative and quantitative XRD analysis and compression strength tests methods.

Keywords: silica fume, compressive strength, ultrahigh performance concrete, XRD

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132 Evaluating Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: S. Hachemi, A. Ounis, S. Chabi


This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effects of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural strength of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC), High Strength Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC). In addition, the specimen mass and volume were measured before and after heating in order to determine the loss of mass and volume during the test. In terms of non-destructive measurement, ultrasonic pulse velocity test was proposed as a promising initial inspection method for fire damaged concrete structure. 100 Cube specimens for three grades of concrete were prepared and heated at a rate of 3°C/min up to different temperatures (150, 250, 400, 600, and 900°C). The results show a loss of compressive and flexural strength for all the concretes heated to temperature exceeding 400°C. The results also revealed that mass and density of the specimen significantly reduced with an increase in temperature.

Keywords: High Temperature, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mass loss

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131 Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Hybrid Alkaline Cements

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, P. Torgal, J. Barroso Aguiar


Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders, state that this new material is likely to have high potential to become an alternative to Portland cement. Classical alkali-activated cements could be made more eco-efficient if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence originated by the fact that alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. Compressive strength results and efflorescence’s observations show that the new mixes already analyzed are promising. SEM results show that no traditional porous ITZ was detected in these binders.

Keywords: SEM, compressive strength, hybrid alkaline cements, efflorescence, ITZ

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130 Creep Compliance Characteristics of Cement Dust Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

Authors: Ayman Othman, Tallat Abd el Wahed


The current research is directed towards studying the creep compliance characteristics of asphalt concrete mixtures modified with cement dust. This study can aid in assessing the permanent deformation potential of asphalt concrete mixtures. Cement dust was added to the mixture as mineral filler and compared with regular lime stone filler. A power law model was used to characterize the creep compliance behavior of the studied mixtures. Creep testing results have revealed that the creep compliance power law parameters have a strong relationship with mixture type. Testing results of the studied mixtures, as indicated by the creep compliance parameters revealed an enhancement in the creep resistance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength for cement dust mixtures as compared to mixtures with traditional lime stone filler. It is concluded that cement dust can be successfully used to decrease the potential of asphalt concrete mixture to permanent deformation and improve its mechanical properties. This is in addition to the environmental benefits that can be gained when using cement dust in asphalt paving technology.

Keywords: compressive strength, cement dust, asphalt concrete mixtures, creep compliance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength

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129 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva


The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% at 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes have been designed, three as conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen as HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines i.e. IS: 10262. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave One Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: fly ash, High Performance Concrete, Linear Regression, compressive strength, ANN, concrete mixes, strength prediction models

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128 Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Construction and Demolition Waste Produced in Greece

Authors: C. Alexandridou, G. N. Angelopoulos, F. A. Coutelieris


Construction industry in Greece consumes annually more than 25 million tons of natural aggregates originating mainly from quarries. At the same time, more than 2 million tons of construction and demolition waste are deposited every year, usually without control, therefore increasing the environmental impact of this sector. A potential alternative for saving natural resources and minimize landfilling, could be the recycling and re-use of Concrete and Demolition Waste (CDW) in concrete production. Moreover, in order to conform to the European legislation, Greece is obliged to recycle non-hazardous construction and demolition waste to a minimum of 70% by 2020. In this paper characterization of recycled materials - commercially and laboratory produced, coarse and fine, Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) - has been performed. Namely, X-Ray Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used for chemical and mineralogical analysis respectively. Physical properties such as particle density, water absorption, sand equivalent and resistance to fragmentation were also determined. This study, first time made in Greece, aims at outlining the differences between RCA and natural aggregates and evaluating their possible influence in concrete performance. Results indicate that RCA’s chemical composition is enriched in Si, Al, and alkali oxides compared to natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, quartz and minor peaks of mica and feldspars. From all the evaluated physical properties of coarse RCA, only water absorption and resistance to fragmentation seem to have a direct influence on the properties of concrete. Low Sand Equivalent and significantly high water absorption values indicate that fine fractions of RCA cannot be used for concrete production unless further processed. Chemical properties of RCA in terms of water soluble ions are similar to those of natural aggregates. Four different concrete mixtures were produced and examined, replacing natural coarse aggregates with RCA by a ratio of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% respectively. Results indicate that concrete mixtures containing recycled concrete aggregates have a minor deterioration of their properties (3-9% lower compression strength at 28 days) compared to conventional concrete containing the same cement quantity.

Keywords: Waste Management, compressive strength, chemical and physical characterization, mineralogical analysis, recycled concrete aggregates

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127 Long Term Strength Behavior of Hemp-Concrete

Authors: Elie Awwad, Bilal Hamad, Mounir Mabsout, Helmi Khatib


The paper reports test results on the long-term behavior of sustainable hemp-concrete material prepared in research work conducted at the American University of Beirut. The tests results are in terms of compressive and splitting tensile tests conducted on standard 150x300 mm cylinders. A control mix without fibers, one polypropylene-concrete mix, and ten hemp-concrete mixes were prepared with different percentages of industrial hemp fibers and reduced coarse aggregate contents. The objective was to investigate the strength properties of hemp-reinforced concrete at 1.5 years age as compared with control mixes. The results indicated that both the compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength results of all tested cylinders increased as compared with the 28-days values. Also, the difference between the hemp-concrete samples and the control samples at 28 days was maintained at 1.5 years age indicating that hemp fibers did not exhibit any negative effect on the long-term strength properties of concrete.

Keywords: Natural Fibers, compressive strength, hemp-reinforced concrete, splitting tensile strength

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126 Evaluate Effects of Different Curing Methods on Compressive Strength, Modulus of Elasticity and Durability of Concrete

Authors: Dhara Shah, Chandrakant Shah


Construction industry utilizes plenty of water in the name of curing. Looking at the present scenario, the days are not so far when all construction industries will have to switch over to an alternative-self curing system, not only to save water for sustainable development of the environment but also to promote indoor and outdoor construction activities even in water scarce areas. At the same time, curing is essential for the development of proper strength and durability. IS 456-2000 recommends a curing period of 7 days for ordinary Portland cement concrete, and 10 to 14 days for concrete prepared using mineral admixtures or blended cements. But, being the last act in the concreting operations, it is often neglected or not fully done. Consequently, the quality of hardened concrete suffers, more so, if the freshly laid concrete gets exposed to the environmental conditions of low humidity, high wind velocity and high ambient temperature. To avoid the adverse effects of neglected or insufficient curing, which is considered a universal phenomenon, concrete technologist and research scientists have come up with curing compounds. Concrete is said to be self-cured, if it is able to retain its water content to perform chemical reaction for the development of its strength. Curing compounds are liquids which are either incorporated in concrete or sprayed directly onto concrete surfaces and which then dry to form a relatively impermeable membrane that retards the loss of moisture from the concrete. They are an efficient and cost-effective means of curing concrete and may be applied to freshly placed concrete or that which has been partially cured by some other means. However, they may affect the bond between concrete and subsequent surface treatments. Special care in the choice of a suitable compound needs to be exercised in such circumstances. Curing compounds are generally formulated from wax emulsions, chlorinated rubbers, synthetic and natural resins, and from PVA emulsions. Their effectiveness varies quite widely, depending on the material and strength of the emulsion.

Keywords: Durability, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, curing methods, self-curing compound

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125 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim


Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: compressive strength, shrinkage, water absorption, fired clay brick, sludge waste

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124 Suitability of Quarry Dust as Replacement of Sand in Medium Grade Concrete

Authors: Popoola M. Oyenola


Concrete plays the important role and a huge percentage of concrete is being utilized in every construction practices. Natural river sand is one of the major ingredients of concrete, is becoming expensive due to excessive cost of accessibility from sources. Also large scale depletion of sources creates environmental problems. Therefore, there is a need of economic alternative materials. Quarry dust is a waste obtained during quarrying process. It has been rampantly used in different construction practices and could be used as an effective fine aggregate instead of river sand. Partial and total replacement of fine aggregate in conventional concrete with quarry dust has been empirically conducted with the view to examining primarily the compressive strength of the resulting composite and possible total utilization of quarry dust as fine aggregate in the production of medium grade concrete. The results of the study showed that its specific gravity, porosity and water absorption showed satisfactory performance. The percentage replacement of natural river sand with quarry dust for a designed strength of 25N/mm2 varied at intervals of 10% up to a maximum value of 100%. A total of 132 cubes of 150 x 150 x 150mm were cast and tested at 7, 14 and 28 days of hydration. Compressive strength increases with curing age in all the mixes. Compressive strength decreases with increase in percentage of quarry dust. Generally the compressive strength of concrete incorporating quarry dust attained strength of 22.47 N/mm2 after 28 days which makes it a suitable aggregate for the production medium grade concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Aggregates, compressive strength, quarry dust

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123 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concretes

Authors: Akram Salah Eddine Belaidi, Said Kenai, El-Hadj Kadri, Benchaâ Benabed, Hamza Soualhi


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was developed in the middle of the 1980’s in Japan. SCC flows alone under its dead weight and consolidates itself without any entry of additional compaction energy and without segregation. As an integral part of a SCC, self-compacting mortars (SCM) may serve as a basis for the mix design of concrete since the measurement of the rheological properties of SCCs. This paper discusses the effect of using natural pozzolana (PZ) and marble powder (MP) in two alternative systems ratios PZ/MP = 1 and 1/3 of the performance of the SCC. A total of 11 SCC’s were prepared having a constant water-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.40 and total cementitious materials content of 475 kg/m3. Then, the fresh properties of the mortars were tested for mini-slump flow diameter and mini-V-funnel flow time for SCMs and Slumps flow test, L-Box height ratio, V-Funnel flow time and sieve stability for SCC. Moreover, the development in the compressive strength was determined at 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Test results have shown that using of ternary blends improved the fresh properties of the mixtures. The compressive strength of SCC at 90 days with 30% of PZ and MP was similar to those of ordinary concrete use in situ.

Keywords: Rheology, Self-Compacting Concrete, compressive strength, self-compacting mortar, natural pozzolana, marble powder

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122 Utilization of Waste Crushed Tile as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Harkaranjit Singh, Arun Kumar


Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and industrialization involving construction of infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, bricks, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viable substitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing of crushed tiles as a coarse aggregate. The waste crushed tiles can be used as coarse aggregates with the replacement ratio of 0, 50, 75 and 100% were used. Mechanical and physical tests were conducted on specimens. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, and flexure.

Keywords: Concrete, compressive strength, flexural strength, waste crushed tile

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121 Assessment of Some Local Clay Minerals Used for the Production of Floor Tiles: Panacea for Economic Growth

Authors: Ekenyem Stan Chinweike


The suitability of some clay deposits in south eastern Nigeria (Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu) as materials for the production of floor tiles was investigated. The clay samples were analyzed using wet classical method to determine their chemical composition. Floor tile test specimens were produced using standard method. The test specimens were tested for physical properties such as compressive strength and porosity at 1050◦c and 1150◦c temperature levels. The chemical analysis showed the following results: Unwana (5102 52.24%, AL2o3, 27.20%, Fe2o3 7%, T102 (1.52%), Ekebedi (S102 (58.53%), Al2o3 28.42%, Fe2o3 7%, Ti o2 (1.12%),NSU SIo2 (58.16%), Al2O3 (28.42%), Fe2O3 1.89%, T102 (0.82%) The compressive strength of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively: 15MPa, 13.75MPa and 13.5MPa. At 1150◦c, the values are 16.2MPa and 16.0MPa for Ekebedi and Nsu clays respectively. The porosity of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively31.57%, 23.15% and 24.21%. At 1150◦c, the values are 23.65% and 24.75% for Ekebedi and Nsu respectively. The three clays can be used for production of tiles but Ekebedi has the highest compressive strength which makes it the most suitable clay for the production of floor tiles when compared with floor tiles of the same nominal size stipulated by ASTM standard.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, compressive strength, porosity, feldspar, quartz

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120 Performance of Structural Concrete Containing Marble Dust as a Partial Replacement for River Sand

Authors: Ravande Kishore


The paper present the results of experimental investigation carried out to understand the mechanical properties of concrete containing marble dust. Two grades of concrete viz. M25 and M35 have been considered for investigation. For each grade of concrete five replacement percentages of sand viz. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by marble dust have been considered. In all, 12 concrete mix cases including two control concrete mixtures have been studied to understand the key properties such as Compressive strength, Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of rupture and Split tensile strength. Development of Compressive strength is also investigated. In general, the results of investigation indicated improved performance of concrete mixture containing marble dust. About 21% increase in Compressive strength is noticed for concrete mixtures containing 20% marble dust and 80% river sand. An overall assessment of investigation results pointed towards high potential for marble dust as alternative construction material coming from waste generated in marble industry.

Keywords: compressive strength, construction material, partial replacement, marble dust

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119 Masonry Blocks with Recycled Aggregates and Recycled Glass

Authors: Pierre Y. Matar, Louay S. El Hassanieh, Marleine F. Bayssary


The demolished concrete is a major component of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the demolished concrete can be used as a substitute of natural aggregates. Another major C&D waste is the flat glass. This glass can be also recycled and used as an aggregate substitute. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of the use of recycled concrete aggregates and recycled glass on the compressive strength and fire resistance of precast concrete masonry blocks. Tests are carried out on four series of blocks whose compositions include different percentages of recycled aggregates and recycled glass and one series of reference blocks whose composition consists of exclusively natural aggregates. The recycled coarse aggregates and recycled glass have 6.3/12.5 mm fraction and the natural aggregates have 0/6.3 mm fraction; no recycled fine aggregates are included in concrete mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, precast concrete blocks, recycled aggregates, recycled glass

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118 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Surface Roughness of Nanofilled and Microhybrid Composites

Authors: Solmaz Eskandarion, Haniyeh Eftekhar, Amin Fallahi


Introduction: Nowadays cosmetic dentistry has gained greater attention because of the changing demands of dentistry patients. Composite resin restorations play an important role in the field of esthetic restorations. Due to the variation between the resin composites, it is important to be aware of their mechanical properties and surface roughness. So, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties (surface hardness, compressive strength, diametral tensile strength) and surface roughness of four kinds of resin composites after thermal aging process. Materials and Method: 10 samples of each composite resins (Gradia-direct (GC), Filtek Z250 (3M), G-ænial (GC), Filtek Z350 (3M- filtek supreme) prepared for evaluation of each properties (totally 120 samples). Thermocycling (with temperature 5 and 55 degree of centigrade and 10000 cycles) were applied. Then, the samples were tested about their compressive strength and diametral tensile strength using UTM. And surface hardness was evaluated with Microhardness testing machine. Either surface roughness was evaluated with Scanning electron microscope after surface polishing. Result: About compressive strength (CS), Filtek Z250 showed the highest value. But there were not any significant differences between 4 groups about CS. Either Filtek Z250 detected as a composite with highest value of diametral tensile strength (DTS) and after that highest to lowest DTS was related to: Filtek Z350, G-ænial and Gradia-direct. And about DTS all of the groups showed significant differences (P<0.05). Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) of Filtek Z250 was the greatest. After that Filtek Z350, G-ænial and Gradia-direct followed it. The surface roughness of nano-filled composites was less than Microhybrid composites. Either the surface roughness of GC Ganial was a little greater than Filtek Z250. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is not any evident significant difference between the groups amoung their mechanical properties. But it seems that Filtek Z250 showed slightly better mechanical properties. About surface roughness, nanofilled composites were better that Microhybrid.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, compressive strength, surface roughness, resin composite, thermal aging

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117 Prediction of Compressive Strength in Geopolymer Composites by Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Ramazan Demirboğa, Majid Atashafrazeh


Geopolymers are highly complex materials which involve many variables which makes modeling its properties very difficult. There is no systematic approach in mix design for Geopolymers. Since the amounts of silica modulus, Na2O content, w/b ratios and curing time have a great influence on the compressive strength an ANFIS (Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) method has been established for predicting compressive strength of ground pumice based Geopolymers and the possibilities of ANFIS for predicting the compressive strength has been studied. Consequently, ANFIS can be used for geopolymer compressive strength prediction with acceptable accuracy.

Keywords: Geopolymer, compressive strength, ANFIS, mix design

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116 Building Bricks Made of Fly-Ash Mixed with Sand or Ceramic Dust: Synthesis and a Comparative Study

Authors: Md. R. Shattique, Md. T. Zaki, Md. G. Kibria


Fly-ash bricks give a comprehensive solution towards recycling of fly-ash and since there is no requirement of firing to produce them, they are also eco-friendly bricks; little or no carbon-dioxide is emitted during their entire production cycle. As bricks are the most essential and widely utilized building materials in the construction industry, the significance of developing an alternate eco-friendly brick is substantial in modern times. In this paper, manufacturing and potential utilization of Fly-ash made building bricks have been studied and was found to be a prospective substitute for fired clay bricks that contribute greatly to polluting the environment. Also, a comparison between sand made and ceramic dust made Fly-ash bricks have been carried out experimentally. The ceramic dust made bricks seem to show higher compressive strength at lower unit volume weight compared to sand made Fly-ash bricks. Moreover, the water absorption capacity of ceramic dust Fly-ash bricks was lower than sand made bricks. Then finally a statistical comparison between fired clay bricks and fly-ash bricks were carried out. All the requirements for good quality building bricks are matched by the fly-ash bricks. All the facts from this study pointed out that these bricks give a new opportunity for being an alternate building material.

Keywords: Sand, gypsum, compressive strength, coal fly-ash, ceramic dust, burnt clay bricks, absorption capacity, unit volume weight

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115 Preparation of Geopolymer Cements from Tunisian Illito-Kaolinitic Clay Mineral

Authors: N. Hamdi, E. Srasra


In this work geopolymer cement are synthesized from Tunisian (illito-kaolinitic) clay. This product can be used as binding material in place of cement Portland. The clay fractions used were characterized with physico-chemical and thermal analyses. The clays materials react with alkaline solution (10, 14 and 18 mol(NaOH)/L) in order to produce geopolymer cements whose pastes were characterized by determining their water adsorption and compressive strength. The compressive strength of the hardened geopolymer cement paste samples aged 28 days attained its highest value (32.3MPa) around 950°C for NaOH concentration of 14M. The water adsorption value of the prepared samples decreased with increasing the calcination temperature of clay fractions. It can be concluded that the most suitable temperature for the calcination of illitio-kaolinitic clays in view of producing geopolymer cements is around 950°C.

Keywords: Mineral, Geopolymer Cement, compressive strength, illitio-kaolinitic clay

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114 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete

Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-Kareim Shoeib


The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (40*40*160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11 %, 0.22 %, and 0.33 % by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0 %, 2.0 %, and 3.0 % by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0 %, 0.11 %, and 0.22 % by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0 %, 1.0%, and 2.0 % by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fiber is more effective when used with cement mortar than that of used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fiber. And also by adding nano-fiber the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibres, nano-silica (nS) fibres

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113 Utilization of Discarded PET and Concrete Aggregates in Construction Causes: A Green Approach

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh


The purpose of this study is to resolve the solid waste problems caused by plastics and concrete demolition as well. In order to that mechanical properties of polymer concrete; in particular, polymer concrete made of unsaturated polyester resins from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste and recycled concrete aggregates is carried out. Properly formulated unsaturated polyester based on recycled PET is mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete. Apart from low manufacturing cost, polymer concrete blend has acceptable properties, to go through it. The prior objectives of the paper is to investigate the mechanical properties, i.e. compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength of polymer concrete blend using an unsaturated polyester resin based on recycled PET. The relationships between the mechanical properties are also analyzed.

Keywords: compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), concrete aggregates

Procedia PDF Downloads 411