Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Compression Related Abstracts

15 Ab-Initio Study of Native Defects in SnO Under Strain

Authors: A. Albar, D. B. Granato, U. Schwingenschlogl


Tin monoxide (SnO) has promising properties to be applied as a p-type semiconductor in transparent electronics. To this end, it is necessary to understand the behavior of defects in order to control them. We use density functional theory to study native defects of SnO under tensile and compressive strain. We show that Sn vacancies are more stable under tension and less stable under compression, irrespectively of the charge state. In contrast, O vacancies behave differently for different charge. It turns out that the most stable defect under compression is the +1 charged O vacancy in a Sn-rich environment and the charge neutral O interstitial in an O-rich environment. Therefore, compression can be used to transform SnO from an n-type into un-doped semiconductor.

Keywords: Semiconductor, Compression, native defects, ab-initio, point defect, tension

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14 REDUCER: An Architectural Design Pattern for Reducing Large and Noisy Data Sets

Authors: Apkar Salatian


To relieve the burden of reasoning on a point to point basis, in many domains there is a need to reduce large and noisy data sets into trends for qualitative reasoning. In this paper we propose and describe a new architectural design pattern called REDUCER for reducing large and noisy data sets that can be tailored for particular situations. REDUCER consists of 2 consecutive processes: Filter which takes the original data and removes outliers, inconsistencies or noise; and Compression which takes the filtered data and derives trends in the data. In this seminal article, we also show how REDUCER has successfully been applied to 3 different case studies.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Compression, Filtering, design pattern

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13 Influence of Loudness Compression on Hearing with Bone Anchored Hearing Implants

Authors: Anja Kurz, Marc Flynn, Tobias Good, Marco Caversaccio, Martin Kompis


Bone Anchored Hearing Implants (BAHI) are routinely used in patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, e.g. if conventional air conduction hearing aids cannot be used. New sound processors and new fitting software now allow the adjustment of parameters such as loudness compression ratios or maximum power output separately. Today it is unclear, how the choice of these parameters influences aided speech understanding in BAHI users. In this prospective experimental study, the effect of varying the compression ratio and lowering the maximum power output in a BAHI were investigated. Twelve experienced adult subjects with a mixed hearing loss participated in this study. Four different compression ratios (1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 2.0) were tested along with two different maximum power output settings, resulting in a total of eight different programs. Each participant tested each program during two weeks. A blinded Latin square design was used to minimize bias. For each of the eight programs, speech understanding in quiet and in noise was assessed. For speech in quiet, the Freiburg number test and the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50, 65, and 80 dB SPL were used. For speech in noise, the Oldenburg sentence test was administered. Speech understanding in quiet and in noise was improved significantly in the aided condition in any program, when compared to the unaided condition. However, no significant differences were found between any of the eight programs. In contrast, on a subjective level there was a significant preference for medium compression ratios of 1.3 to 1.6 and higher maximum power output.

Keywords: Compression, Speech Understanding, Bone Anchored Hearing Implant, baha, maximum power output

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12 Geometry of the Bandaging Procedure and Its Application while Wrapping Bandages for Treatment of Leg Ulcers

Authors: Monica Puri Sikka, Subrato Ghosh Arunangshu Mukhopadhyay


Appropriate compression bandaging is important for compression therapeutic medical diseases. The high compression approach employed for treating venous leg ulcers should be used correctly so that sufficient (but not excessive) pressure is applied. Bandages used to treat venous disease by compression should achieve and sustain effective levels and gradients of pressure and minimise the risk of pressure trauma. To maintain graduated compression on the limb the bandage needs to be applied at same tension for each layer from ankle to the knee. In this paper the geometry for various bandaging procedures is used to wrap each layer of bandage by marking the relaxed length of the bandage. The relaxed length is calculated depending on the stretch, average circumference of the limb on which it is to be applied and the bandaging technique to be used. This paper aims at developing a scientific approach while applying the bandage to reduce the inter operator variability in applying same tension on each successive layer of bandage.

Keywords: Compression, Bandaging, inter operator variability, graduated, relaxed length, stretch

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11 A Deletion-Cost Based Fast Compression Algorithm for Linear Vector Data

Authors: Qiuxiao Chen, Yan Hou, Ning Wu


As there are deficiencies of the classic Douglas-Peucker Algorithm (DPA), such as high risks of deleting key nodes by mistake, high complexity, time consumption and relatively slow execution speed, a new Deletion-Cost Based Compression Algorithm (DCA) for linear vector data was proposed. For each curve — the basic element of linear vector data, all the deletion costs of its middle nodes were calculated, and the minimum deletion cost was compared with the pre-defined threshold. If the former was greater than or equal to the latter, all remaining nodes were reserved and the curve’s compression process was finished. Otherwise, the node with the minimal deletion cost was deleted, its two neighbors' deletion costs were updated, and the same loop on the compressed curve was repeated till the termination. By several comparative experiments using different types of linear vector data, the comparison between DPA and DCA was performed from the aspects of compression quality and computing efficiency. Experiment results showed that DCA outperformed DPA in compression accuracy and execution efficiency as well.

Keywords: Compression, Douglas-Peucker algorithm, linear vector data, deletion cost

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10 Buckling Analysis of Composite Shells under Compression and Torsional Loads: Numerical and Analytical Study

Authors: Güneş Aydın, Razi Kalantari Osgouei, Murat Emre Öztürk, Ahmad Partovi Meran, Ekrem Tüfekçi


Advanced lightweight laminated composite shells are increasingly being used in all types of modern structures, for enhancing their structural efficiency and performance. Such thin-walled structures are susceptible to buckling when subjected to various loading. This paper focuses on the buckling of cylindrical shells under axial compression and torsional loads. Effects of fiber orientation on the maximum buckling load of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) shells are optimized. Optimum fiber angles have been calculated analytically by using MATLAB program. Numerical models have been carried out by using Finite Element Method program ABAQUS. Results from analytical and numerical analyses are also compared.

Keywords: Optimization, Compression, Composite, MATLAB, buckling, finite element, torsion, cylindrical shell

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9 Seismic Data Scaling: Uncertainties, Potential and Applications in Workstation Interpretation

Authors: Ankur Mundhra, Shubhadeep Chakraborty, Y. R. Singh, Vishal Das


Seismic data scaling affects the dynamic range of a data and with present day lower costs of storage and higher reliability of Hard Disk data, scaling is not suggested. However, in dealing with data of different vintages, which perhaps were processed in 16 bits or even 8 bits and are need to be processed with 32 bit available data, scaling is performed. Also, scaling amplifies low amplitude events in deeper region which disappear due to high amplitude shallow events that saturate amplitude scale. We have focused on significance of scaling data to aid interpretation. This study elucidates a proper seismic loading procedure in workstations without using default preset parameters as available in most software suites. Differences and distribution of amplitude values at different depth for seismic data are probed in this exercise. Proper loading parameters are identified and associated steps are explained that needs to be taken care of while loading data. Finally, the exercise interprets the un-certainties which might arise when correlating scaled and unscaled versions of seismic data with synthetics. As, seismic well tie correlates the seismic reflection events with well markers, for our study it is used to identify regions which are enhanced and/or affected by scaling parameter(s).

Keywords: Resolution, Compression, clipping, seismic scaling

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8 Harnessing Nigeria's Forestry Potential for Structural Applications: Structural Reliability of Nigerian Grown Opepe Timber

Authors: J. I. Aguwa, S. Sadiku, M. Abdullahi


This study examined the structural reliability of the Nigerian grown Opepe timber as bridge beam material. The strength of a particular specie of timber depends so much on some factors such as soil and environment in which it is grown. The steps involved are collection of the Opepe timber samples, seasoning/preparation of the test specimens, determination of the strength properties/statistical analysis, development of a computer programme in FORTRAN language and finally structural reliability analysis using FORM 5 software. The result revealed that the Nigerian grown Opepe is a reliable and durable structural bridge beam material for span of 5000mm, depth of 400mm, breadth of 250mm and end bearing length of 150mm. The probabilities of failure in bending parallel to the grain, compression perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and deflection are 1.61 x 10-7, 1.43 x 10-8, 1.93 x 10-4 and 1.51 x 10-15 respectively. The paper recommends establishment of Opepe plantation in various Local Government Areas in Nigeria for structural applications such as in bridges, railway sleepers, generation of income to the nation as well as creating employment for the numerous unemployed youths.

Keywords: Compression, structural reliability, shear, bending and deflection, bridge beam, Nigerian Opepe

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7 Lapped Gussets Joints in Compression

Authors: K. R. Tshunza, A. Elvin, A. Gabremmeskel


Final results of an extensive laboratory research program on “lapped gusset joints in compression” are presented. The investigation was carried out at the Heavy structures laboratory at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. A proposed, relatively easy to use analytical equation was found to be reasonably adequate in determining the global compressive capacity of lapped gussets joints under compressive load. A wide range of lapped mild steel plates of varying slenderness, welded on 219*10 and 127*6 Mild steel circular hollow sections of 1m length were tested in compression and the formula was validated with experimental results. The investigation show that the connection’s capacity is controlled by flexure due to the eccentricity between the plates that are connected side to side.

Keywords: Compression, eccentricity, lapped gussets joints, moment resistance

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6 Repair of Thermoplastic Composites for Structural Applications

Authors: Philippe Castaing, Thomas Jollivet


As a result of their advantages, i.e. recyclability, weld-ability, environmental compatibility, long (continuous) fiber thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) are increasingly used in many industrial sectors (mainly automotive and aeronautic) for structural applications. Indeed, in the next ten years, the environmental rules will put the pressure on the use of new structural materials like composites. In aerospace, more than 50% of the damage are due to stress impact and 85% of damage are repaired on the fuselage (fuselage skin panels and around doors). With the arrival of airplanes mainly of composite materials, replacement of sections or panels seems difficult economically speaking and repair becomes essential. The objective of the present study is to propose a solution of repair to prevent the replacement the damaged part in thermoplastic composites in order to recover the initial mechanical properties. The classification of impact damage is not so not easy : talking about low energy impact (less than 35 J) can be totally wrong when high speed or weak thicknesses as well as thermoplastic resins are considered. Crash and perforation with higher energy create important damages and the structures are replaced without repairing, so we just consider here damages due to impacts at low energy that are as follows for laminates : − Transverse cracking; − Delamination; − Fiber rupture. At low energy, the damages are barely visible but can nevertheless reduce significantly the mechanical strength of the part due to resin cracks while few fiber rupture is observed. The patch repair solution remains the standard one but may lead to the rupture of fibers and consequently creates more damages. That is the reason why we investigate the repair of thermoplastic composites impacted at low energy. Indeed, thermoplastic resins are interesting as they absorb impact energy through plastic strain. The methodology is as follows: - impact tests at low energy on thermoplastic composites; - identification of the damage by micrographic observations; - evaluation of the harmfulness of the damage; - repair by reconsolidation according to the extent of the damage ; -validation of the repair by mechanical characterization (compression). In this study, the impacts tests are performed at various levels of energy on thermoplastic composites (PA/C, PEEK/C and PPS/C woven 50/50 and unidirectional) to determine the level of impact energy creating damages in the resin without fiber rupture. We identify the extent of the damage by US inspection and micrographic observations in the plane part thickness. The samples were in addition characterized in compression to evaluate the loss of mechanical properties. Then the strategy of repair consists in reconsolidating the damaged parts by thermoforming, and after reconsolidation the laminates are characterized in compression for validation. To conclude, the study demonstrates the feasibility of the repair for low energy impact on thermoplastic composites as the samples recover their properties. At a first step of the study, the “repair” is made by reconsolidation on a thermoforming press but we could imagine a process in situ to reconsolidate the damaged parts.

Keywords: Aerospace, Automotive, Composites, Damages, Compression, repair, Structural Applications, thermoplastic

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5 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Jawairia Umar, Tanveer Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood


Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, Sportswear, statistical model, stretch and recovery, kikuhime

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4 A Survey on Compression Methods for Table Constraints

Authors: N. Gharbi


Constraint Satisfaction problems are mathematical problems that are often used to model many real-world problems for which we look if there exists a solution satisfying all its constraints. Table constraints are important for modeling parts of many problems since they list all combinations of allowed or forbidden values. However, they admit practical limitations because they are sometimes too large to be represented in a direct way. In this paper, we present a survey of the different categories of the proposed approaches to compress table constraints in order to reduce both space and time complexities.

Keywords: Data Mining, Compression, Constraint Programming, table constraints

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3 Experimental Analysis of Advanced Multi-Axial Preforms Conformability to Complex Contours

Authors: Andrew Hardman, Alistair T. McIlhagger, Edward Archer


A degree of research has been undertaken in the determination of 3D textile preforms behaviour to compression with direct comparison to 2D counterparts. Multiscale simulations have been developed to try and accurately analyse the behaviour of varying architectures post-consolidation. However, further understanding is required to experimentally identify the mechanisms and deformations that exist upon conforming to a complex contour. Due to the complexity of 3D textile preforms, determination of yarn behaviour to a complex contour is assessed through consolidation by means of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM), and the resulting mechanisms are investigated by micrograph analysis. Varying architectures; with known areal densities, pic density and thicknesses are assessed for a cohesive study. The resulting performance of each is assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively from the perspective of material in terms of the change in representative unit cell (RVE) across the curved beam contour, in crimp percentage, tow angle, resin rich areas and binder distortion. A novel textile is developed from the resulting analysis to overcome the observed deformations.

Keywords: Compression, comformability, binder architecture, textile preform

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2 Precursor Muscle Cell’s Phenotype under Compression in a Biomimetic Mechanical Niche

Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi, Arne Hofemeier, Timo Betz


Muscle growth and regeneration critically depend on satellite cells (SCs) which are muscle stem cells located between the basal lamina and myofibres. Upon damage, SCs become activated, enter the cell cycle, and give rise to myoblasts that form new myofibres, while a sub-population self-renew and re-populate the muscle stem cell niche. In aged muscle as well as in certain muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, some of the SCs lose their regenerative ability. Although it is demonstrated that the chemical composition of SCs quiescent niche is different from the activated niche, the mechanism initially activated in the SCs remains unknown. While extensive research efforts focused on potential chemical activation, no such factor has been identified to the author’s best knowledge. However, it is substantiated that niche mechanics affects SCs behaviors, such as stemness and engraftment. We hypothesize that mechanical stress in the healthy niche (homeostasis) is different from the regenerative niche and that this difference could serve as an early signal activating SCs upon fiber damage. To investigate this hypothesis, we develop a biomimetic system to reconstitute both, the mechanical and the chemical environment of the SC niche. Cells will be confined between two elastic polyacrylamide (PAA) hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli and functionalized surface chemistry. By controlling the distance between the PAA hydrogel surfaces, we vary the compression forces exerted by the substrates on the cells, while the lateral displacement of the upper hydrogel will create controlled shear forces. To establish such a system, a simplified system is presented. We engineered a sandwich-like configuration of two elastic PAA layer with stiffnesses between 1 and 10 kPa and confined a precursor myoblast cell line (C2C12) in between these layers. Our initial observations in this sandwich model indicate that C2C12 cells show different behaviors under mechanical compression if compared to a control one-layer gel without compression. Interestingly, this behavior is stiffness-dependent. While the shape of C2C12 cells in the sandwich consisting of two stiff (10 kPa) layers was much more elongated, showing almost a neuronal phenotype, the cell shape in a sandwich situation consisting of one stiff and one soft (1 kPa) layer was more spherical. Surprisingly, even in proliferation medium and at very low cell density, the sandwich situation stimulated cell differentiation with increased striation and myofibre formation. Such behavior is commonly found for confluent cells in differentiation medium. These results suggest that mechanical changes in stiffness and applied pressure might be a relevant stimulation for changes in muscle cell behavior.

Keywords: Compression, Force, skeletal muscle, C2C12 cells, satellite cells

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1 An Investigation into the Influence of Compression on 3D Woven Preform Thickness and Architecture

Authors: Calvin Ralph, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger


3D woven textile composites continue to emerge as an advanced material for structural applications and composite manufacture due to their bespoke nature, through thickness reinforcement and near net shape capabilities. When 3D woven preforms are produced, they are in their optimal physical state. As 3D weaving is a dry preforming technology it relies on compression of the preform to achieve the desired composite thickness, fibre volume fraction (Vf) and consolidation. This compression of the preform during manufacture results in changes to its thickness and architecture which can often lead to under-performance or changes of the 3D woven composite. Unlike traditional 2D fabrics, the bespoke nature and variability of 3D woven architectures makes it difficult to know exactly how each 3D preform will behave during processing. Therefore, the focus of this study is to investigate the effect of compression on differing 3D woven architectures in terms of structure, crimp or fibre waviness and thickness as well as analysing the accuracy of available software to predict how 3D woven preforms behave under compression. To achieve this, 3D preforms are modelled and compression simulated in Wisetex with varying architectures of binder style, pick density, thickness and tow size. These architectures have then been woven with samples dry compression tested to determine the compressibility of the preforms under various pressures. Additional preform samples were manufactured using Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) with varying compressive force. Composite samples were cross sectioned, polished and analysed using microscopy to investigate changes in architecture and crimp. Data from dry fabric compression and composite samples were then compared alongside the Wisetex models to determine accuracy of the prediction and identify architecture parameters that can affect the preform compressibility and stability. Results indicate that binder style/pick density, tow size and thickness have a significant effect on compressibility of 3D woven preforms with lower pick density allowing for greater compression and distortion of the architecture. It was further highlighted that binder style combined with pressure had a significant effect on changes to preform architecture where orthogonal binders experienced highest level of deformation, but highest overall stability, with compression while layer to layer indicated a reduction in fibre crimp of the binder. In general, simulations showed a relative comparison to experimental results; however, deviation is evident due to assumptions present within the modelled results.

Keywords: Compression, Textile Composites, preforms

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