Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

compressed air energy storage (CAES) Related Abstracts

2 Techno Economic Analysis of CAES Systems Integrated into Gas-Steam Combined Plants

Authors: Coriolano Salvini

Abstract:

The increasing utilization of renewable energy sources for electric power production calls for the introduction of energy storage systems to match the electric demand along the time. Although many countries are pursuing as a final goal a “decarbonized” electrical system, in the next decades the traditional fossil fuel fed power plant still will play a relevant role in fulfilling the electric demand. Presently, such plants provide grid ancillary services (frequency control, grid balance, reserve, etc.) by adapting the output power to the grid requirements. An interesting option is represented by the possibility to use traditional plants to improve the grid storage capabilities. The present paper is addressed to small-medium size systems suited for distributed energy storage. The proposed Energy Storage System (ESS) is based on a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) integrated into a Gas-Steam Combined Cycle (GSCC) or a Gas Turbine based CHP plants. The systems can be incorporated in an ex novo built plant or added to an already existing one. To avoid any geological restriction related to the availability of natural compressed air reservoirs, artificial storage is addressed. During the charging phase, electric power is absorbed from the grid by an electric driven intercooled/aftercooled compressor. In the course of the discharge phase, the compressed stored air is sent to a heat transfer device fed by hot gas taken upstream the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) and subsequently expanded for power production. To maximize the output power, a staged reheated expansion process is adopted. The specific power production related to the kilogram per second of exhaust gas used to heat the stored air is two/three times larger than that achieved if the gas were used to produce steam in the HRSG. As a result, a relevant power augmentation is attained with respect to normal GSCC plant operations without additional use of fuel. Therefore, the excess of output power can be considered “fuel free” and the storage system can be compared to “pure” ESSs such as electrochemical, pumped hydro or adiabatic CAES. Representative cases featured by different power absorption, production capability, and storage capacity have been taken into consideration. For each case, a technical optimization aimed at maximizing the storage efficiency has been carried out. On the basis of the resulting storage pressure and volume, number of compression and expansion stages, air heater arrangement and process quantities found for each case, a cost estimation of the storage systems has been performed. Storage efficiencies from 0.6 to 0.7 have been assessed. Capital costs in the range of 400-800 €/kW and 500-1000 €/kWh have been estimated. Such figures are similar or lower to those featuring alternative storage technologies.

Keywords: Techno-Economic Analysis, artificial air storage reservoir, compressed air energy storage (CAES), gas steam combined cycle (GSCC)

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1 Compression and Air Storage Systems for Small Size CAES Plants: Design and Off-Design Analysis

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Coriolano Salvini

Abstract:

The use of renewable energy sources for electric power production leads to reduced CO2 emissions and contributes to improving the domestic energy security. On the other hand, the intermittency and unpredictability of their availability poses relevant problems in fulfilling safely and in a cost efficient way the load demand along the time. Significant benefits in terms of “grid system applications”, “end-use applications” and “renewable applications” can be achieved by introducing energy storage systems. Among the currently available solutions, CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) shows favorable features. Small-medium size plants equipped with artificial air reservoirs can constitute an interesting option to get efficient and cost-effective distributed energy storage systems. The present paper is addressed to the design and off-design analysis of the compression system of small size CAES plants suited to absorb electric power in the range of hundreds of kilowatt. The system of interest is constituted by an intercooled (in case aftercooled) multi-stage reciprocating compressor and a man-made reservoir obtained by connecting large diameter steel pipe sections. A specific methodology for the system preliminary sizing and off-design modeling has been developed. Since during the charging phase the electric power absorbed along the time has to change according to the peculiar CAES requirements and the pressure ratio increases continuously during the filling of the reservoir, the compressor has to work at variable mass flow rate. In order to ensure an appropriately wide range of operations, particular attention has been paid to the selection of the most suitable compressor capacity control device. Given the capacity regulation margin of the compressor and the actual level of charge of the reservoir, the proposed approach allows the instant-by-instant evaluation of minimum and maximum electric power absorbable from the grid. The developed tool gives useful information to appropriately size the compression system and to manage it in the most effective way. Various cases characterized by different system requirements are analysed. Results are given and widely discussed.

Keywords: Compressor Design, artificial air storage reservoir, compressed air energy storage (CAES), compression system management

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