Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Compliance Related Abstracts

17 Interrelationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Health Belief Dimensions and Compliance to Measles Vaccination among Filipino Mothers

Authors: Beryl Rene R. Lopez, Lesley Anne M. Lipat, Rhogene Barbette C. Lirio, Laurice Joy H. Llanes, Karl Philippe M. Llapitan, Einstein James R. Lopez, Socorro S. GuanHing


Background: Measles remain as one of the most common childhood diseases despite the availability of the vaccine that is safe and cost-effective. Because of morbidity and mortality associated with the recent measles outbreak in the Philippines, there is an increasing concern from the health care professionals. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the compliance of Filipino mothers to measles vaccination and their health beliefs when grouped according to the given socio-demographic factors using a researcher-made questionnaire. Research Methodology: This research utilized the descriptive-correlational research design. With the use of purposive sampling technique, the study involved 200 Filipino mothers aged 18 years old and above excluding those who are healthcare professionals with children aged 2-3 years old with either urban or rural as their settlements. Pre-testing was done prior to the actual data gathering. A questionnaire composed of 26 items involving socio-demographic, compliance, and health beliefs was distributed to the sample population. Statistical analysis was done with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) for the first research question and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for the second research question. Results: Four dimensions were generated with the use of EFA namely: Vulnerability-Oriented Beliefs (VOB), Knowledge-Oriented Beliefs (KOB), Accessibility-Oriented Beliefs (AOB), and Outcomes-Oriented Beliefs (OOB). These were then correlated with the mothers’ socio-demographic factors (age, educational attainment, the area of residence, the number of children, and family income) and their compliance to the measles vaccination schedule. Results showed significant and direct relationships between area of residence and compliance, family income and compliance, KOB and compliance, education and KOB, KOB and VOB, KOB and OOB, AOB and KOB, AOB and OOB, AOB and VOB, and lastly, OOB and VOB. Conclusion: The Knowledge – Oriented Belief dimension greatly influence compliance to measles vaccination. Other determinants of compliance like the area of residence, educational attainment, and family income significantly increase the Filipino mothers’ likelihood of compliance to measles vaccination, which have implications to health education.

Keywords: Compliance, socio-demographic, health beliefs, measles vaccination

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16 Board Characteristics, Audit Committee Characteristics, and the Level of Bahraini Corporate Compliance with Mandatory IFRS Disclosure Requirements

Authors: Omar Juhmani


This paper examines the relation between internal corporate governance and the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements. The internal corporate governance is measured by board and audit committee characteristics. Using data from Bahrain Stock Exchange, the results show that board independence is positively and significantly associated with level of compliance with IFRS disclosure requirements. This suggests that internal corporate governance mechanisms are effective in the financial reporting practices by increasing the level of compliance with IFRS disclosures. Also, the results of the regression analyses indicate that two of the control variables; company size and audit firm size are significantly positively associated with the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements in Bahrain.

Keywords: Compliance, disclosure, IFRS, Bahrain, board and audit committee characteristics

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15 Evaluation on the Compliance of Essential Intrapartum Newborn Care among Nurses in Selected Government Hospital in Manila

Authors: Eliza Torrigue, Efrelyn Iellamo


Maternal death is one of the rising health issues in the Philippines. It is alarming to know that in every hour of each day, a mother gives birth to a child who may not live to see the next day. Statistics shows that intrapartum period and third stage of labor are the very crucial periods for the expectant mother, as well as the first six hours of life for the newborn. To address the issue, The Essential Intrapartum Newborn Care (EINC) was developed. Through this, Obstetric Delivery Room (OB-DR) Nurses shall be updated with the evidence-based maternal and newborn care to ensure patient safety, thus, reducing maternal and child mortality. This study aims to describe the compliance of hospitals, especially of OB-DR nurses, to the EINC Protocols. The researcher aims to link the profile variables of the respondents in terms of age, length of service and formal training to their compliance on the EINC Protocols. The outcome of the study is geared towards the development of appropriate training program for OB-DR Nurses assigned in the delivery room of the hospitals based on the study’s results to sustain the EINC standards. A descriptive correlational method was used. The sample consists of 75 Obstetric Delivery Room (OB-DR) Nurses from three government hospitals in the City of Manila namely, Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Tondo Medical Center, and Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center. Data were collected using an evaluative checklist. Ranking, weighted mean, Chi-square and Pearson’s R were used to analyze data. The level of compliance to the EINC Protocols by the respondents was evaluated with an overall mean score of 4.768 implying that OB-DR Nurses have a high regard in complying with the step by step procedure of the EINC. Furthermore, data shows that formal training on EINC have a significant relationship with OB-DR Nurses’ level of compliance during cord care, AMTSL, and immediate newborn care until the first ninety minutes to six hours of life. However, the respondents’ age and length of service do not have a significant relationship with the compliance of OB-DR Nurses on EINC Protocols. In the pursuit of decreasing the maternal mortality in the Philippines, EINC Protocols have been widely implemented in the country especially in the government hospitals where most of the deliveries happen. In this study, it was found out that OB-DR Nurses adhere and are highly compliant to the standards in order to assure that optimum level of care is delivered to the mother and newborn. Formal training on EINC, on the other hand, create the most impact on the compliance of nurses. It is therefore recommended that there must be a structured enhancement training program to plan, implement and evaluate the EINC protocols in these government hospitals.

Keywords: Compliance, Nurses, intrapartum, newborn care

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14 The Impact of Formulate and Implementation Strategy for an Organization to Better Financial Consequences in Malaysian Private Hospital

Authors: Naser Zouri


Purpose: Measures of formulate and implementation strategy shows amount of product rate-market based strategic management category such as courtesy, competence, and compliance to reach the high loyalty of financial ecosystem. Despite, it solves the market place error intention to fair trade organization. Finding: Finding shows the ability of executives’ level of management to motivate and better decision-making to solve the treatments in business organization. However, it made ideal level of each interposition policy for a hypothetical household. Methodology/design. Style of questionnaire about the data collection was selected to survey of both pilot test and real research. Also, divide of questionnaire and using of Free Scale Semiconductor`s between the finance employee was famous of this instrument. Respondent`s nominated basic on non-probability sampling such as convenience sampling to answer the questionnaire. The way of realization costs to performed the questionnaire divide among the respondent`s approximately was suitable as a spend the expenditure to reach the answer but very difficult to collect data from hospital. However, items of research survey was formed of implement strategy, environment, supply chain, employee from impact of implementation strategy on reach to better financial consequences and also formulate strategy, comprehensiveness strategic design, organization performance from impression on formulate strategy and financial consequences. Practical Implication: Dynamic capability approach of formulate and implement strategy focuses on the firm-specific processes through which firms integrate, build, or reconfigure resources valuable for making a theoretical contribution. Originality/ value of research: Going beyond the current discussion, we show that case studies have the potential to extend and refine theory. We present new light on how dynamic capabilities can benefit from case study research by discovering the qualifications that shape the development of capabilities and determining the boundary conditions of the dynamic capabilities approach. Limitation of the study :Present study also relies on survey of methodology for data collection and the response perhaps connection by financial employee was difficult to responds the question because of limitation work place.

Keywords: Compliance, Competence, loyalty, financial ecosystem, Malaysian market error, dynamic capability approach, rate-market, optimization intelligence strategy, courtesy

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13 Tax Morale Dimensions Analysis in Portugal and Spain

Authors: Cristina Sá, Carlos Gomes, António Martins


The reasons that explain different behaviors towards tax obligations in similar countries are not completely understood yet. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and compare the factors that influence tax morale levels in Portugal and Spain. We use data from European Values Study (EVS). Using a sample of 2,652 individuals, a factor analysis was used to extract the underlying dimensions of tax morale of Portuguese and Spanish taxpayers. Based on a factor analysis, the results of this paper show that sociological and behavioral factors, psychological factors and political factors are important for a good understanding of taxpayers’ behavior in Iberian Peninsula. This paper added value relies on the analyses of a wide range of variables and on the comparison between Portugal and Spain. Our conclusions provided insights that tax authorities and politicians can use to better focus their strategies and actions in order to increase compliance, reduce tax evasion, fight underground economy and increase country´s competitiveness.

Keywords: Compliance, Portugal, Spain, tax morale

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12 Health Literacy for Self-Care by Female Patients Diagnosed with Diabetes at a Selected Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa

Authors: Nditsheni Ramakuela, Sonto Maputle, Base Khoza, Augustine Tugli


Inadequate health literacy can cause difficulties in understanding and compliance to treatment plan. With diabetic condition, self-care activities include behaviours of following a diet plan, avoiding high fat foods, increased exercise, self-glucose monitoring, and foot care. Patients with poor health literacy have difficulty interpreting medication warning labels, following directions on a prescription label and identifying their medications. Difficulties in understanding and performing self-care and health-related activities may ultimately lead to poor health outcomes. The study explored and described factors affecting health literacy and self-care to diabetic regimen by female patients at selected hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Qualitative and explorative research design was used. Female patients who were admitted and diagnosed with diabetes in female medical ward constituted the study population. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select 20 female patients diagnosed with diabetes, who were above 18 years and admitted during April–November 2014. An in-depth face-to-face, unstructured interview was used to collect data. Data were analysed using open coding method. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Findings revealed factors affecting health literacy for diabetic self-care activities amongst patients were; patient, family, disease and facility related. Proposed recommendations were; to strengthen diabetes education and patient-provider partnership. This is important and must be transferred to strengthen self-care activities to fully benefit the patient.

Keywords: Compliance, diabetes mellitus, health literacy, diabetic regimen, self activities

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11 The Impact of Informal Care on Health Behavior among Older People with Chronic Diseases: A Study in China Using Propensity Score Matching

Authors: Hong Wu, Naiji Lu


Improvement of health behavior among people with chronic diseases is vital for increasing longevity and enhancing quality of life. This paper researched the causal effects of informal care on the compliance with doctor’s health advices – smoking control, dietetic regulation, weight control and keep exercising – among older people with chronic diseases in China, which is facing the challenge of aging. We addressed the selection bias by using propensity score matching in the estimation process. We used the 2011-2012 national baseline data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Our results showed informal care can help improve health behavior of older people. First, informal care improved the compliance of smoking controls: whether smoke, frequency of smoking, and the time lag between wake up and the first cigarette was all lower for these older people with informal care; Second, for dietetic regulation, older people with informal care had more meals every day than older people without informal care; Third, three variables: BMI, whether gain weight and whether lose weight were used to measure the outcome of weight control. There were no significant difference between group with informal care and that without for BMI and the possibility of losing weight. Older people with informal care had lower possibility of gain weight than that without; Last, for the advice of keeping exercising, informal care increased the probability of walking exercise, however, the difference between groups for moderate and vigorous exercise were not significant. Our results indicate policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account and provide an appropriate policy to meet the demand of informal care. Our birth policy and postponed retirement policy may decrease the informal caregiving hours, so adjustments of these policies are important and urgent to meet the current situation of aged tendency of population. In addition, government could give more support to develop organizations to provide formal care, such as nursing home. We infer that formal care is also useful for health behavior improvements.

Keywords: Chronic Diseases, Compliance, Older People, propensity score matching, informal care, CHARLS, health advice

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10 Identifying the Determinants of Compliance with Maritime Environmental Legislation in the North and Baltic Sea Area: A Model Developed from Exploratory Qualitative Data Collection

Authors: Thea Freese, Michael Gille, Andrew Hursthouse, John Struthers


Ship operators on the North and Baltic Sea have been experiencing increased political interest in marine environmental protection and cleaner vessel operations. Stricter legislation on SO2 and NOx emissions, ballast water management and other measures of protection are currently being phased in or will come into force in the coming years. These measures benefit the health of the marine environment, while increasing company’s operational costs. In times of excess shipping capacity and linked consolidation in the industry non-compliance with environmental rules is one way companies might hope to stay competitive with both intra- and inter-modal trade. Around 5-15% of industry participants are believed to neglect laws on vessel-source pollution willingly or unwillingly. Exploratory in-depth interviews conducted with 12 experts from various stakeholder groups informed the researchers about variables influencing compliance levels, including awareness and apprehension, willingness to comply, ability to comply and effectiveness of controls. Semi-structured expert interviews were evaluated using qualitative content analysis. A model of determinants of compliance was developed and is presented here. While most vessel operators endeavour to achieve full compliance with environmental rules, a lack of availability of technical solutions, expediency of implementation and operation and economic feasibility might prove a hindrance. Ineffective control systems on the other hand foster willing non-compliance. With respect to motivations, lacking time, lacking financials and the absence of commercial advantages decrease compliance levels. These and other variables were inductively developed from qualitative data and integrated into a model on environmental compliance. The outcomes presented here form part of a wider research project on economic effects of maritime environmental legislation. Research on determinants of compliance might inform policy-makers about actual behavioural effects of shipping companies and might further the development of a comprehensive legal system for environmental protection.

Keywords: Compliance, marine environmental protection, exploratory qualitative research study, clean vessel operations, North and Baltic Sea area

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9 Economic Effects of Maritime Environmental Legislation in the North and Baltic Sea Area: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

Authors: Thea Freese


Environmental legislation to protect North and Baltic Sea areas from harmful vessel-source emissions has received increased political attention in recent years. Legislative measures are expected to show positive effects on the health of the marine environment and society. At the same time, compliance might increase the costs to industry and have effects on freight rates and volumes shipped with potential negative repercussions on the environment. Building on an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach, this research project will study the economic effects of maritime environmental legislation in two phases. In Phase I, exploratory in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 experts from various stakeholder groups aiming at identifying variables influencing the relationship between environmental legislation, freight rates and volumes shipped. Influencing factors like compliance, enforcement and modal shift were identified and studied. Phase II will comprise of a quantitative study conducted with the aim of verifying the theory build in Phase I and quantifying economic effects of rules on shipping pollution. Research in this field might inform policy-makers about determinants of behaviour of ship operators in the face of the law and might further the development of a comprehensive legal system for marine environmental protection. At the present stage of research, first tentative results from the qualitative phase may be examined and open research questions to be addressed in the quantitative phase as well as possible research designs for phase II may be discussed. Input from other researchers will be highly valuable at this point.

Keywords: Compliance, mixed methods research, North and Baltic Sea area, clean shipping operations, maritime environmental legislation, maritime law and economics

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8 An Exploratory Study of Effects of Parenting Styles on Maternal Expectation and Perception of Compliance among Adolescents

Authors: Anton James


This study explored the contribution of parenting styles in the Maternal Perception of Compliance Model (MPCM). This model explores maternal expectations to illustrate the formation of maternal perception of severity of noncompliance in adolescent children. The methodology consisted of three stages: In the first stage, a focus group was held, and the data was analysed to fine-tune the interview schedule. In the second stage, a single interview was held, and the interview schedule was further modified. The third and the final stage consisted of interviewing six mothers who had adolescent children. They were chosen with ‘maximum variation’ approach to represent three tiered socioeconomic statuses, and Asian, white and black ethnicities. The data was thematically analysed in a hybrid fashion: inductive coding and deductive assignment of codes into discrete parenting styles. The study found: a) parenting styles are not always discrete and sometimes it can be mixed. b) The parenting styles are influenced by culture, socioeconomic status, transgenerational knowledge, academic knowledge, observational knowledge, self-reflective knowledge, and parental anxiety. c) The parenting style functioned a mediating mechanism where it attempted to converge discrepancies between parental expectations of compliance with maternal perception of severity of noncompliance. The findings of parenting styles were discussed in relation to MPCM.

Keywords: Perception, Compliance, parenting styles, Expectation

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7 A Framework for Systemically Understanding and Increasing Compliance with Water Regulation in Time Limited and Uncertain Contexts

Authors: Luisa Perez-Mujica


Traditionally, non-compliance in water regulation has been understood to be attributable to lack of information or knowledge of regulations. In other words, it is confusing behavioural change and education with communication or regulations. However, compliance is a complex response to water regulation factors including 1) knowledge and understanding of regulations; 2) perception that resources are overregulated; 3) presence of regulatory officers in the field; 4) accurate communication of what is being protected; 5) time lag between behavioral change projects and observation of outcomes and 6) how success of behavioral change is measured and evaluated. This paper presents a framework for designing education and behavioral change projects by understanding non-compliance in terms of the interaction of its factors, including a process for prioritizing projects, actions, evaluation and monitoring of outcomes. By taking a systemic approach to compliance, a more directed type of actions can be efficiently identified and prioritized, preventing the reactive nature of education and behavioral change projects.

Keywords: Compliance, Systems Thinking, Behaviour Change, water regulation

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6 IIROC's Enforcement Performance: Funnel in, Funnel out, and Funnel away

Authors: Mark Lokanan


The paper analyzes the processing of complaints against investment brokers and dealer members through the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) from 2008 to 2017. IIROC is the self-regulatory organization (SRO) that is responsible for policing investment dealers and brokerage firms that trade in Canada’s securities market. Data from the study came from IIROC's enforcement annual reports for the years examined. The case processing is evaluated base on the misconduct funnel that was originally designed for street crime and applies to the enforcement of investment fraud. The misconduct funnel is used as a framework to examine IIROC’s claim that it brought in more complaints (funnel in) than government regulators and shows how these complaints are funneled out and funneled away as they are processed through IIROC’s enforcement system. The results indicate that IIROC is ineffective in disciplining its members and is unable to handle the more serious quasi-criminal and improper sales practices offenses. It is hard not to see the results of the paper being used by the legislator in Ottawa to show the importance of a federal securities regulatory agency such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States.

Keywords: Compliance, Enforcement, investment fraud, securities regulation

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5 Accountants and Anti-Money Laundering Compliance in the Real Estate Sector

Authors: Mark E. Lokanan, Liz Lee


This paper aims to examine the role of accountants as gatekeepers in anti-money laundering compliance in real estate transactions. The paper seeks to answer questions on ways in which accountants are involved in real estate transactions and mandatory compliance with regulatory authorities in Canada. The data for the study came from semi-structured interviews with accountants, lawyers, and government officials. Preliminary results reveal that there is a conflict between accountants’ obligation to disclose and loyalty to their clients. Accountants often do not see why they are obligated to disclose their clients' information to government agencies. The importance of the client in terms of the amount of revenue contributed to the accounting firm also plays a significant role in accountants' reporting decision-making process. Although the involvement of accountants in real estate purchase and sale transactions is limited to lawyers or notaries, they are often involved in designing financing schemes, which may involve money laundering activities. The paper is of wider public policy interests to both accountants and regulators. It is hard not to see Chartered Professional Accountant (CPA) Canada and government regulators using the findings to better understand the decision-making processes of accountants in their reporting practices to regulatory authorities.

Keywords: Real Estate, Compliance, Money Laundering, Legislation, disclosure

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4 A Cloud-Based Mobile Auditing Tools for Muslim-Friendly Hospitality Services

Authors: Mohd Iskandar Illyas Tan, Zuhra Junaida Mohamad Husny, Farawahida Mohd Yusof


The potentials of Muslim-friendly hospitality services bring huge opportunities to operators (hoteliers, tourist guides, and travel agents), especially among the Muslim countries. In order to provide guidelines that facilitate the operations among these operators, standards and manuals have been developing by the authorities. Among the challenges is the applicability and complexity of the standard to be adopted in the real world. Mobile digital technology can be implemented to overcome those challenges. A prototype has been developed to help operators and authorities to assess their readiness in complying with MS2610:2015. This study analyzes the of mobile digital technology characteristics that are suitable for the user in conducting sharia’ compliant hospitality audit. A focus group study was conducted in the state of Penang, Malaysia that involves operators (hoteliers, tourist guide, and travel agents) as well as agencies (Islamic Tourism Center, Penang Islamic Affairs Department, Malaysian Standard) that involved directly in the implementation of the certification. Both groups were given the 3 weeks to test and provide feedback on the usability of the mobile applications in order to conduct an audit on their readiness towards the Muslim-friendly hospitality services standard developed by the Malaysian Standard. The feedbacks were analyzed and the overall results show that three criteria (ease of use, completeness and fast to complete) show the highest responses among both groups for the mobile application. This study provides the evidence that the mobile application development has huge potentials to be implemented by the Muslim-friendly hospitality services operator and agencies.

Keywords: Innovation, Mobile Application, hospitality, Audit, Compliance

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3 Resistance of African States Against the African Court on Human and People Rights (ACPHR)

Authors: Ayyoub Jamali


At the first glance, it seems that the African Court on Human and People’s Rights has achieved a tremendous development in the protection of human rights in Africa. Since its first judgement in 2009, the court has taken a robust approach/ assertive stance, showing its strength by finding states to be in violation of the Africana Charter and other human rights treaties. This paper seeks to discuss various challenges and resistance that the Court has faced since the adoption of the Founding Protocol to the Establishment of the African Court on Human and People’s Rights. The outcome of the paper casts shadow on the legitimacy and effectiveness of the African Court as the guarantor of human rights within the African continent.

Keywords: Compliance, African Union, African Court on Human and People’s Rights, African regional human rights system

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2 Knowledge, Attitude and Compliance of Secondary School Students Towards School Discipline Policy in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: S. Yakubu, E. A. Isah


One of the objectives of the school discipline policy is to instill discipline among students. However, despite the availability of this policy in various secondary schools in Nigeria, there seem to be numerous cases of indiscipline among students, which has become a source of concern to all stakeholders in the education sector. In an attempt to proffer possible solutions to this unending challenge, the study investigated the influence of knowledge and attitude on compliance of secondary school students towards school discipline policy in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was employed to collect the requisite data. The multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted to select 570 respondents as the sample for the study. The data collected were analyzed using statistical measures of Mean, Standard deviation and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The findings of the study showed that knowledge and compliance of school discipline policy among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State were significantly related (r =0.330, p<0.05). The study also revealed a significant relationship between attitude and compliance of school discipline policy among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State (r = 0.593, p<0.05). Based on the findings, it was recommended that school rules and regulations should be emphasized and given more awareness for easy compliance. Also, students should be encouraged to portray a positive attitude towards their respective rules and regulations.

Keywords: Knowledge, Compliance, attitude, school discipline policy

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1 The Transnationalization of Anti-Corruption Compliance Programs in Latin America

Authors: Hitalo Silva


The most famous corruption scandals in the past four years were taken in Latin America, especially in Brazil, but besides the stain that these countries suffered in an international field, there was a huge effort to create or modernize its national anti-corruption laws. Also, the countries are implementing new standards for investigations and corporate compliance programs, in order to combat corruption and prevent the money laundering. But here is the following question: is here an invisible uniformization/transnationalization of the anti-corruption systems in Latin America? This new scenario reflects the impacts of the corruption investigations conducted in Latin America countries, such as Car Wash Operation in Brazil, Pretelt Case in Colombia, Gasoducto Sur Peruano case and the Mr. Alex Kouri’s case both in Peru. Legal and institutional pro-transparency reforms were made recently, the companies are trying to implement new standards of conduct and investing in their compliance department. In this sense, there is a huge homogeneity in Latin America concerning the structuring of corporate compliance programs, a truly transnationalization not only of laws but also corporate standards among these countries. Although legislative initiatives vary among the countries, there is a tendency to impose rigid liability standards for the companies being investigated for corruption, not only the personal punishments of their executives, which demonstrate the power of authorities to strength the investigative tools. Also, instruments such as leniency agreements and plea bargain are essential to put a central role in enforcement activities in Latin America. In other words, in a region where six former Presidents were convicted for acts of corruption, and, companies such as Odebrecht that is accused of offering bribes to politicians from Argentina to México, passing through Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala and Panama, this demonstrates the necessity to increase strength of their legal framework in a sense that unify transnational goals. All things considered, this paper will show how anti-corruption regulators are cooperating in Latin America jurisdictions in order to unify their laws and how the private sector is dealing with this new scenario of corporate culture change.

Keywords: Corruption, Compliance, Investigations, Transnational, Latin America

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