Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Competition Related Abstracts

32 Analyzing Competition in Public Construction Projects

Authors: Khaled Hesham Hyari, Amjad Almani


Construction projects in the public sector are commonly awarded through competitive bidding. In the last decade, the Construction projects environment in the Middle East went through many changes. These changes have been caused by different factors including the economic crisis, delays in monthly payments, international competition and reduced number of projects. These factors had a great impact on the bidding behaviors of contractors and their pricing strategies. This paper examines the competition characteristics in public construction projects through an analysis of bidding results of contractors in public construction projects over a period of 6 years (2006-2011) in Jordan. The analyzed projects include all categories of projects such as infrastructure, buildings, transportation and engineering services (design and supervision contracts). Data for the projects were obtained from the General Tender’s Directorate in Jordan and includes 462 projects. The analysis performed in this projects includes, studying the bid spread in all projects as it is an indication of the level of competition in the analyzed bids. The analysis studied the factors that affect bid spread such as number of bidders, Value of the project, Project category and years. It also studying the “Signal to Noise Ratio” in all projects as it is an indication of the accuracy of cost estimating performed by competing bidders and bidder´s evaluation of project risks. The analysis performed includes the relationship between signal to noise ratio and different parameters such as project category, number of bidders and changes over years. Moreover, the analysis includes determining the bidder´s aggressiveness in bidding as it is an indication of competition level in such projects. This was performed by determining the pack price which can be considered as the true value of the project and comparing it with the lowest bid submitted for each project to determine the level of aggressiveness in submitted bids. The analysis performed in this project should prove to be useful to owners in understanding bidding behaviors of contractors and pointing out areas that needs improvement in preparing bidding documents. Also the project should be useful to contractors in understanding the competitive bidding environment and should help them to improve their bidding strategies to maximize the success rate in obtaining contracts.

Keywords: Competition, Public Construction, Construction Projects, competitive bidding

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31 How to Modernise the ECN

Authors: Dorota Galeza


This paper argues that networks, such as the ECN and the American network, are affected by certain small events which are inherent to path dependence and preclude the full evolution towards efficiency. It is advocated that the American network is superior to the ECN in many respects due to its greater flexibility and longer history. This stems in particular from the creation of the American network, which was based on a small number of cases. Such structure encourages further changes and modifications which are not necessarily radical. The ECN, by contrast, was established by legislative action, which explains its rigid structure and resistance to change. It might be the case that the ECN is subject not so much to path dependence but to past dependence. It might have to be replaced, as happened to its predecessor. This paper is an attempt to transpose the superiority of the American network on to the ECN. It looks at concepts such as judicial cooperation, harmonization of procedure, peer review and regulatory impact assessments (RIAs), and dispute resolution procedures. The aim is to adopt these concepts into the EU setting without recourse to legal transplantation. The major difficulty is that many of these concepts have been tested only in the US and it is difficult to tell whether they could be modified to meet EU standards. Concepts such as judicial cooperation might be difficult due to different language traditions in EU member states. It is hoped that greater flexibility, as in the American network, would boost legitimacy and transparency.

Keywords: Networks, Regulation, Competition, ECN

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30 How to Modernise the European Competition Network (ECN)

Authors: Dorota Galeza


This paper argues that networks, such as the ECN and the American network, are affected by certain small events which are inherent to path dependence and preclude the full evolution towards efficiency. It is advocated that the American network is superior to the ECN in many respects due to its greater flexibility and longer history. This stems in particular from the creation of the American network, which was based on a small number of cases. Such a structure encourages further changes and modifications which are not necessarily radical. The ECN, by contrast, was established by legislative action, which explains its rigid structure and resistance to change. This paper is an attempt to transpose the superiority of the American network on to the ECN. It looks at concepts such as judicial cooperation, harmonisation of procedure, peer review and regulatory impact assessments (RIAs), and dispute resolution procedures.

Keywords: Networks, Competition, antitrust, path dependence

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29 A Predator-Prey Model with Competitive Interaction amongst the Preys

Authors: Titus G. Kassem, Izang A. Nyam


A mathematical model is constructed to study the effect of predation on two competing species in which one of the competing species is a prey to the predator whilst the other species are not under predation. Conditions for the existence and stability of equilibrium solutions were determined. Numerical simulation results indicate the possibility of a stable coexistence of the three interacting species in form of stable oscillations under certain parameter values. We also noticed that under some certain parameter values, species under predation go into extinction.

Keywords: Ecology, Competition, Species, predator-prey

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28 The Impact of Supply Chain Relationship Quality on Cooperative Strategy and Visibility

Authors: Jung-Hsuan Hsu


Due to intense competition within the industry, companies have increasingly recognized partnerships with other companies. In addition, with outsourcing and globalization of the supply chain, it leads to companies' increasing reliance on external resources. Consequently, supply chain network becomes complex, so that it reduces the visibility of the manufacturing process. Therefore, this study is going to focus on the impact of supply chain relationship quality (SCRQ) on cooperative strategy and visibility. Questionnaire survey is going to be conducted as research method, using the organic food industry as the research subject, and the sampling method is random sampling. Finally, the data analysis will use SPSS statistical software and AMOS software to analyze and verify the hypothesis. The expected results in this study is to evaluate the supply chain relationship quality between Taiwan's food manufacturing and their suppliers regarding whether it has a positive impact for the persistence, frequency and diversity of cooperative strategy, as well as the dimensions of supply chain relationship quality on visibility regarding whether it has a positive effect.

Keywords: Competition, supply chain relationship quality (SCRQ), cooperative strategy, visibility

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27 Customer Relations and Use of Online Shopping Sites

Authors: Bahar Urhan Torun, Havva Nur Tarakcı


At the present time, online marketing has become the common target of small and full-scale organizations. Today’s humanbeing who has to spend most of their time in front of the computer because of his job, prefers to socialize by internet due to the easy access to technology. So online marketing area expands day by day. All business organizations from the smallest to the biggest are in a race in order to get a cut from the virtual market share in an extreme competitive environment. However these organizations which use the internet to reach more consumers cannot determine their target group accurately, so this is the biggest handicap of online marketing sales nowadays. The aim of this study is to determine some significant elements about need for communicating efficiently with the consumer on the internet on online marketing. The strategies that can be used in order to increase sales and the limitations of virtual environment where cannot be communicated with the consumer face to face are argued in this study’s scope. As a consequence it is thought that to study on this subject because of lacking and also being limited efficiency of researches and outputs. Within this scope suggesting some proposals about how to communicate efficiently with the consumer and also offering the consumers’ demands efficiently is the essential objective of this study.

Keywords: Communication, Consumer, Competition, Online Marketing

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26 Evaluation of Wheat Sowing and Fertilizer Application Methods in Wheat Weeds Management

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi


In order to investigation the effects of sowing methods, nitrogen and phosphorus application methods in wheat weeds management, an experiment was performed as split plot, based on randomized completely block design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2010. Treatments included, wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 50 cm width ridges) as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots. In this experiment, phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization were super phosphate triple (150 kg ha-1) applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea (200 kg ha-1) respectively, applied in 2 phases (pre-plant 50%) and near wheat shooting (50%). Results showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods and wheat sowing methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing and reducing weed-wheat competition. Wheat twine row sowing method, reduced weeds biomass for 25% compared wheat single-row sowing method and increased wheat seed yield and biomass for 60% and 30% respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen band application reduced weeds biomass for 46% and 53% respectively and increased wheat seed yield for 22% and 33% compared to their broadcast application. The effects of wheat sowing method plus phosphorus and nitrogen application methods interactions, showed that the fertilizers band application and wheat twine-row sowing method were the best methods in wheat yield improvement and reducing wheat-weeds interaction. These results shows that modifying of fertilization methods and wheat sowing method can have important role in fertilizers use efficiency and improving of weeds managements.

Keywords: biomass, Competition, Fertilizer Management, wheat yield

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25 Good Marketing is an Important Factor for the Success of the Institution

Authors: Maamar Moumena


the Follower of the movement of international competition finds that the success of Japanese companies to break into global markets and win a competitive edge and meet the challenges of this competition, due primarily to the adoption of these companies to the modern concept of marketing, and possession of sophisticated marketing systems, with a focus on pricing policy. The institution's ability to produce goods and services be limited unless accompanied by an effective marketing effort. So the satisfaction of the consumer needs efficiently and effectiveness are unwarranted economic and social presence in the market, and ensure the continuity and achieve their goals, and this can only be achieved through marketing activity, where he activity facet which translates the output of the institution and its presence in the form of financial compensation, and that the inclusion of and marketing function within the functions of the institution and awarded each of gravity reflects the extent of their importance in the conduct of the future of the institution, and depending on excellence in performance and a good application of the basic concepts of marketing and primarily make the consumer focus of attention, so the pleasing of the consumer and earn his allegiance reflects the success of an organization.

Keywords: Marketing, Consumer, Competition, institution

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24 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina


In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: Competition, collusion, price regulation

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23 Customer’s Choice of a Bank: An Empirical Enquiry from the Banked Ghanaian

Authors: Emmanuel Larbi Offei, Felix Agyei-Sasu, Maura Naa Densua Ashong


Ghana has 26 universal banks and several banking and non-banking financial institutions operating in the country. The growing number of banks has heightened competition among banks to attract and retain customers more customers to ensure sustainability. Hence the need to identify and understand factors that influences customers’ choice of banks cannot be overemphasised. This study investigates the determinants of bank selection criteria by banking customers in Ghana. Four banks were purposively sampled for this study namely Barclays, Standard Chartered, Sahel Sahara and Unibank. Convenience sampling was then used to select 114 bank customers in Accra and interviewed. Questionnaires were used to collect data that were analysed in tables and charts with the use of STATA software. The findings of the study revealed that quick/prompt services and complaint handling, safety of funds, networked branches, easy access to functional Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and low/moderate service charges were the major determinants of customers’ choice of banks. The results further show that 89.5 percent of all deposits are held in either current or savings accounts. About 22.1 percent of the respondents indicated that they have plans of changing their banks in the near future because they are not satisfied with their banks. A gender analysis of the choice criteria showed differences between the choice criteria of the male as compared to the female. The study recommends that banks in Ghana should focus on products and policies that will not compromise on the safety of funds of their customers. Again, banks must address customer complaints and dissatisfactions as promptly as possible by taking pragmatic steps to address administrative bureaucracies and infrastructural challenges that prolong the duration of banking transactions.

Keywords: Competition, banks, determinants, Ghana, customers’ choice

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22 Determination of Critical Period for Weed Control in the Second Crop Forage Maize (454 Cultivar)

Authors: Farhad Farahvash, Parya Mobaseri


Weeds control based on their critical period leads to less production costs and risks of wide chemical application of weeds control methods. The present study considered effect of weeds control time (weeds interference after 20, 40 and 60 days, weeds full control, weeds interference and weeds control after 20, 40 and 60 days) on growth and yield of forage maize 454. The experiment based on full-randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at research farm of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz located at 15th km of East Tabriz in 2013. According to the results, weeds interference after 40 and 60 days as well as weeds control after 20 days prevented from decrease of maize biomass resulted from weeds presence while weeds interference after 20 days, weeds interference and weeds control after 40 and 60 days led respectively to 41.2%, 35%, 25% and 32.5% decrease of forage maize biomass. The weeds-influenced decrease was manifested at different parts of the plant depending on presence period of weeds. Decrease of fresh weight of ear and fresh weight of leaf and stem was observed due to weeds interference after 20 days and weeds interference. If weeds are controlled after 60 days, decrease of ear weight and fresh weight of stem will lead to biomass decrease. Also, if weeds are controlled after 40 days, decrease of fresh weight of maize stems will result in biomass decrease. Ear traits were affected by weeds control treatment. Being affected by treatments of weeds interference after 20 days, weeds non-interference, weeds control after 40 and 60 days, ear length was shortened 29.9 %, 41.4 %, 27.6 % and 37.2 %, respectively. The stem diameter demonstrated a significant decrease although it was only affected by treatments of weeds interference and weeds control after 60 days. Considering results of the present study, generally, it is suggested to control weeds during initial 20-60 days of maize growth in order to prevent undesirable effect of weeds on growth, production and production biomass of maize and decrease of production costs.

Keywords: biomass, Competition, maize, weed

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21 Logistic and Its Importance in Turkish Food Sector and an Analysis of the Logistics Sector in Turkey

Authors: Şule Turhan, Özlem Turan


Permanence in the international markets for many global companies is about being known as having effective logistics which targets customer satisfaction management and lower costs. Under competitive conditions, the necessity of providing the products to customers quickly and on time for the companies which constantly aim to improve their profitability increased the strategic importance of the logistics concept. Food logistic is one of the most difficult areas in logistics. In the process from manufacturer to final consumer, quality and hygiene standards must be provided constantly. In food logistics, reliable and extensive service network has great importance and on time delivery is the target. Developing logistics industry provide the supply of foods in the country and the development of export markets more quickly and has an important role in providing added value to the country's economy. Turkey that creates a bridge between the east and the west is an attractive market for logistics companies. In this study, by examining both the place and the importance of logistics in Turkish food sector, recommendations will be made for the food industry.

Keywords: Logistics, Competition, Food industry, Turkish food industry

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20 Studying the Beginnings of Strategic Behavior

Authors: Taher Abofol, Yaakov Kareev, Judith Avrahami, Peter M. Todd


Are children sensitive to their relative strength in competitions against others? Performance on tasks that require cooperation or coordination (e.g. the Ultimatum Game) indicates that early precursors of adult-like notions of fairness and reciprocity, as well as altruistic behavior, are evident at an early age. However, not much is known regarding developmental changes in interactive decision-making, especially in competitive interactions. Thus, it is important to study the developmental aspects of strategic behavior in these situations. The present research focused on cognitive-developmental changes in a competitive interaction. Specifically, it aimed at revealing how children engage in strategic interactions that involve the allocation of limited resources over a number of fields of competition, by manipulating relative strength. Relative strength refers to situations in which player strength changes midway through the game: the stronger player becomes the weaker one, while the weaker player becomes the stronger one. An experiment was conducted to find out if the behavior of children of different age groups differs in the following three aspects: 1. Perception of relative strength. 2. Ability to learn while gaining experience. 3. Ability to adapt to change in relative strength. The task was composed of a resource allocation game. After the players allocated their resources (privately and simultaneously), a competition field was randomly chosen for each player. The player who allocated more resources to the field chosen was declared the winner of that round. The resources available to the two competitors were unequal (or equal, for control). The theoretical solution for this game is that the weaker player should give up on a certain number of fields, depending on the stronger opponent’s relative strength, in order to be able to compete with the opponent on equal footing in the remaining fields. Participants were of three age groups, first-graders (N = 36, mean age = 6), fourth-graders (N = 36, mean age = 10), and eleventh-graders (N = 72, mean age = 16). The games took place between players of the same age and lasted for 16 rounds. There were two experimental conditions – a control condition, in which players were of equal strength, and an experimental condition, in which players differed in strength. In the experimental condition, players' strength was changed midway through the session. Results indicated that players in all age groups were sensitive to their relative strength, and played in line with the theoretical solution: the weaker players gave up on more fields than the stronger ones. This understanding, as well as the consequent difference in allocation between weak and strong players, was more pronounced among older participants. Experience led only to minimal behavioral change. Finally, the children from the two older groups, particularly the eleventh graders adapted quickly to the midway switch in relative strength. In contrast, the first-graders hardly changed their behavior with the change in their relative strength, indicating a limited ability to adapt. These findings highlight young children’s ability to consider their relative strength in strategic interactions and its boundaries.

Keywords: Decision Making, Children, Competition, developmental changes, strategic behavior

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19 Cybersecurity Awareness through Laboratories and Cyber Competitions in the Education System: Practices to Promote Student Success

Authors: Haydar Teymourlouei


Cybersecurity is one of the greatest challenges society faces in an age revolving around technological development. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, the nation needs to understand and learn ways that can prevent such attacks. A major contribution that can change the education system is to implement laboratories and competitions into academia. This method can improve and educate students with more hands-on exercises in a highly motivating setting. Considering the fact that students are the next generation of the nation’s workforce, it is important for students to understand concepts not only through books, but also through actual hands-on experiences in order for them to be prepared for the workforce. An effective cybersecurity education system is critical for creating a strong cyber secure workforce today and for the future. This paper emphasizes the need for awareness and the need for competitions and cybersecurity laboratories to be implemented into the education system.

Keywords: cybersecurity, Workforce, Competition, awareness, Laboratories

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18 A Review: Global Crisis Effects on Agriculture and Animal Production in Turkey

Authors: Muhittin Fatih Demirhan, Sibel Alapala Demirhan


Agriculture, is also regarded as the primary activity area in all economies. When international comparisons are made Turkey has comparative advantages in agricultural potential. However, it is diffi cult to say that Turkey's agricultural productivity and use of technology is well developed in terms of sufficieny. Turkey, in terms of agricultural production, is one of the rare self-sufficient countries, but for supplying excessive demand of its domesticproduction to foreign markets to obtain the necessary income it is rather insufficient. On the basis of wrong policies implemented during the crisis and found that bottlenecks in agriculture and animal husbandry or agriculture policies of the IMF and World Bank are imposed on countries like Turkey. The IMF and the World Bank, the reduction of support in the agricultural and livestock Turkey, is known to put pressure for the abolition. Under these circumstances, our farmers, livestock producers and breeders of, not a chance to compete in the same market with EU producers. Animal products that capture the productivity levels of developed countries, seems to be our chance to compete with the quality and hygiene criteria. Thus, the discussion of the issue must be raised as for the sector's contribution to the economy in terms of further increasing production of the existing potential in mobilization.

Keywords: Animal Production, Competition, agricultural development, Food Supply, Economic Crisis

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17 Male Rivalry Seen through a Biopsychosocial Lens

Authors: John G. Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj


We investigated the effects of winning and losing on men’s testosterone and assessed whether androgen reactivity affected their empathic accuracy and their aggression. We also explored whether their power motivation would moderate the relationships between competitive, hormonal, and behavioral outcomes. In Experiment 1, 84 males competed on a task that allegedly gauged their leadership potential and future earnings, after which they interpreted people’s emotional expressions. Results showed that winners were more capable of accurately inferring others’ emotions compared to losers and this ability improved with increasing power. Second, testosterone change mediated the relationship between competitive outcomes and empathic accuracy, with post-competitive testosterone increases relating to more accuracy. In Experiment 2, 72 males again competed after which they were measured on two aggression subtypes: proactive and reactive. Results showed that neither the competitive outcome nor the testosterone change had a significant effect on either types of aggression. However, as power increased, winners aggressed more proactively than losers whereas losers aggressed more reactively than winners. Finally, in both experiments, power moderated the relationship between competitive outcomes and testosterone change. Collectively, these studies add to existing research that explores the psychophysiological effects of competition on individuals’ empathic and aggressive responses.

Keywords: Competition, testosterone, power motivation, empathic accuracy, proactive aggression, reactive aggression

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16 Thatsana Nataya Chatri Dance: A Creative Conservation Process of Cultural Performing Arts for Competition

Authors: Dusittorn Ngamying


The research on Thatsana Nataya Chatri Dance: A Creative Conservation Process of Cultural Performing Arts for Competition was aimed at 1) studying the creative conservation process of cultural performing arts; 2) creating conservation process of cultural performing arts of Thatsana Nataya Chatri dance; and 3) utilizing the created performing arts for the competition. The study was conducted using the qualitative research method in the Central region provinces of Thailand through documentary study and data from field observations, interviews and focus group meetings. Data were collected from 50 informants consisting of 10 experts on the subject, 30 practitioners and 10 general information providers. The data collection instruments consisted of participatory and non-participatory forms, structured and non-structured interview schedules and focus group note forms. The data were verified by the triangulation technique and presented using the descriptive analysis. The results of the study reveal that the creative conservation process of cultural performing arts should be initiated by those who have experienced using a prior knowledge in the pursuit of new knowledge. The new knowledge is combined to generate creative work with the conservation process in 9 aspects: acquiring the related knowledge, creating theme and inspiration, designing the music and melody, designing costumes, inventing dance postures, selecting dancers, transferring the dance postures, preparing the stage and performance equipment, planning the performance event. Inventing the conservation process of cultural performing arts Thatsana Nataya Chatri dance consists of 33 dance postures and 14 transformed patterns. The performance requires 6 dancers, 3 males and 3 females. Costume features both male and female classical and modified dancer’s costumes. The duration of the show takes 5 minutes. As for the application for the competition, this creative work has been selected by Dramatic Works Association (Thailand) to represent Thailand at the Lombok International Dance Sports Festival 2015 held at Lombok, Indonesia. The team has been awarded the Second Place in the Traditional Dance category.

Keywords: Competition, creative conservation process, cultural performing arts, Thatsana Nataya Chatri dance

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15 The Effects of Techno-Economic Paradigm on Social Evolution

Authors: Derya Güler Aydin, Bahar Araz Takay


Two different forms of competition theories can be distinguished: Those theories that emphasize the equilibrating forces created by competition, and those emphasizing the disequilibrating forces. This difference can be attributed, among other things, to the differences regarding the functioning of the market economy; that is to say, the basic problem here is whether competition should be understood as a static state or a dynamic process. This study aims to analyze the dynamic competition theories by K. Marx and J. A. Schumpeter and neo- Schumperians all of which focus on the dynamic role played by competition through creating disequilibria, endogenous structural change and social transformation as a distinguishing characteristic of the market system. With this aim, in the first section, after examining the static, neoclassical competition theory, both Marx‟s theory, which is based on profit rate differentials, and Schumpeter‟s theory, which is based on the notion of “creative destruction”, will be discussed. In the second section, the long-term fluctuations, based on creative gales of destruction, the concept will be examined under the framework of techno-economic paradigm. It is argued that the dynamic, even disequilibrium tendencies created by the competition process should be regarded in both understanding the working of capitalism and social transformation of the system.

Keywords: Competition, Social Evolution, Schumpeter, techno-enomic paradigm

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14 The Application of Animal Welfare for Madura Cow Racing Competition in Madura Island

Authors: Mustopa, Setyawan Wahyu Pradana


This study aims to determine the application of animal welfare in Madura cow racing competition at Sumenep district, Madura Island. This study conducted by survey and discussion methods with 3 Madura cow owners in the competition. The animal welfare is going to be proved by observing the condition of the cage, the cleanliness of it, feeding and water, the health of the cow, also owner treatments for their Madura cow that will be served as a racer. Observations made using stable conditions ACRES form with assessment scores ranged from 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = regular, 4 = good and 5 = very good, animal welfare conditions seen by conducting observations and interviews with Madura cow owners. The result shows that the Madura cow competition has fulfilled the criteria of animal welfare application. Application of animal welfare principle by the owner of Madura cow terms of ACRES (Animal Concerns Research and Education Society) below standard, the average score obtained was 2.06, which is mean in a poor ratings. Besides considering the animal welfare application, Madura cow owners also do special treatments for their Madura cow with purpose to produce racers that are healthy and fast. Therefore, if the cow wins in Madura cow racing competition, it will purchase a high-value price.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Competition, racing, Madura cow

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13 Beware the Trolldom: Speculative Interests and Policy Implications behind the Circulation of Damage Claims

Authors: Antonio Davola


Moving from the evaluations operated by Richard Posner in his judgment on the case Carhart v. Halaska, the paper seeks to analyse the so-called ‘litigation troll’ phenomenon and the development of a damage claims market, i.e. a market in which the right to propose claims is voluntary exchangeable for money and can be asserted by private buyers. The aim of our study is to assess whether the implementation of a ‘damage claims market’ might represent a resource for victims or if, on the contrary, it might operate solely as a speculation tool for private investors. The analysis will move from the US experience, and will then focus on the EU framework. Firstly, the paper will analyse the relation between the litigation troll phenomenon and the patent troll activity: even though these activities are considered similar by Posner, a comparative study shows how these practices significantly differ in their impact on the market and on consumer protection, even moving from similar economic perspectives. The second part of the paper will focus on the main specific concerns related to the litigation trolling activity. The main issues that will be addressed are the risk that the circulation of damage claims might spur non-meritorious litigation and the implications of the misalignment between the victim of a tort and the actual plaintiff in court arising from the sale of a claim. In its third part, the paper will then focus on the opportunities and benefits that the introduction and regulation of a claims market might imply both for potential claims sellers and buyers, in order to ultimately assess whether such a solution might actually increase individual’s legal empowerment. Through the damage claims market compensation would be granted more quickly and easily to consumers who had suffered harm: tort victims would, in fact, be compensated instantly upon the sale of their claims without any burden of proof. On the other hand, claim-buyers would profit from the gap between the amount that a consumer would accept for an immediate refund and the compensation awarded in court. In the fourth part of the paper, the analysis will focus on the legal legitimacy of the litigation trolling activity in the US and the EU framework. Even though there is no express provision that forbids the sale of the right to pursue a claim in court - or that deems such a right to be non-transferable – procedural laws of single States (especially in the EU panorama) must be taken into account in evaluating this aspect. The fifth and final part of the paper will summarize the various data collected to suggest an evaluation on if, and through which normative solutions, the litigation trolling might comport benefits for competition and which would be its overall effect over consumer’s protection.

Keywords: Competition, Litigation, claims, consumer's protection

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12 On Increase and Development Prospects of Competitiveness of Georgia’s Transport-Logistical System on the Contemporary Stage

Authors: Ketevan Goletiani


MMultimodal transport is Europe-Asia’s rational decision of the XXI century. Success prerequisite of this form of cargo carriage is not technologic decision, but the comprehensive attitude towards it. Integration of the transport industry must refer to both technical and organizational-economic fields. Support of the multimodal’s must be the priority of the transport policy in different organizations of Europe and Asia. The method of approach to the transport as a unified system has been changed to a certain extent in the market conditions. Nowadays the competition between the different kinds of transport is not to be considered as a competition of one kind of transport towards another one, but is to be considered as a stimulator of the transport development. Basically, transport logistic, as the recent methodology and organization of the rationally flow of cargos at the specialized logistic centres during their procession provides effective rise of such flow of cargos, decreases non-operating expenses and gives the opportunity to the transport companies to come along with the time, to meet market clients’ requirements. It is apparent that the advanced transport-forwarding and logistic firms are being analized.

Keywords: Transport Logistics, Competition, Transport Systems, multimodal transport

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11 A Study of Competition Anxiety among Male and Female Volleyball Players of Gujarat

Authors: Mukesh R. Goswami


Sports Competition Anxiety test (SCAT) constructed and standardized by Martens was Administrated on 30 National level (15 male, 15 female) Volleyball players of Gujarat. The age of subjects ranged between 19 to 22 years. The purpose of the study was to compare the level of Anxiety between male and female national level Volleyball players of Gujarat. Statistical analysis has been done by T-test and the significance of the result was seen on 0.05 level. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference found in mean difference among the male and the female National level Volleyball players in relation to sports competition anxiety.

Keywords: Sports, Anxiety, Competition, male and female volleyball players

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10 Competition as an Appropriate Instructional Practice in the Physical Education Environment: Reflective Experiences

Authors: David Barney, Francis Pleban, Muna Muday


The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences of former physical education students related to reflective experiences of competition in physical education learning environment. In the school environment, students are positioned in competitive situations, including in the physical education context. Therefore it is important to prepare future physical educators to address the role of competition in physical education. Participants for this study were 304 college-aged students and young adults (M = 1.53, SD = .500), from a private university and local community located in the western United States. When comparing gender, significant differences (p < .05) were reported for four (questions 5, 7, 12, and 14) of the nine scaling questions. Follow-up quantitative findings reported that males (41%) more than females (27%) witnessed fights in physical education environment during competitive games. Qualitative findings reported fighting were along the lines of verbal confrontation. Female participants tended to experience being excluded from games, when compared to male participants. Both male and female participants (total population; 95%, males; 98%; and females 92%) were in favor of including competition in physical education for students. Findings suggest that physical education teachers and physical education teacher education programs have a responsibility to develop gender neutral learning experiences that help students better appreciate the role competition plays, both in and out of the physical education classroom.

Keywords: Gender, Physical Education, Competition, physical education teacher education

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9 An Extra-Curricular Program to Enhance Student Outcome of a Class

Authors: Dong Jin Kang


Application of single board microcontrollers is an important skill even for non-electronic engineering major students. Arduino board is widely utilized in engineering classes of the Yeungnam University of South Korea. In those classes, students are subjected to learn how to use various sensor components related to motion, sound, light, and so on as well as physical quantities. Students are grouped into several teams, and each team consists of 4~5 students. Many students are not motivated enough to learn those skills. An extracurricular program was planned to improve this problem. The extracurricular program was held as an international boot camp where students from three different countries were invited to participate. 10 students groups were formed, and each team was consisted of students having different nationality. The camp was 4 days long and wrapped up with competitions. During the camp, every student was assigned to design and make a two wheel robot. The competition was carried out in two different areas; individual and group performances. As most skills dealt in the class are used to build the robot, students are much motivated to review the whole subjects of the class. All students were surveyed after the program. The survey shows that the skills studied in the class are greatly improved, and practically understood. Staying at the dormitory and teaming with international students are help students improve communication skills. Competition at the camp was found as a key element to inspire and attract students for voluntary participation.

Keywords: Robot, Competition, extracurricular program, Arduino board, international camp

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8 The Changing Trend of Collaboration Patterns in the Social Sciences: Institutional Influences on Academic Research in Korea, 2013-2016

Authors: Ho-Dae Chong, Jong-Kil Kim


Collaborative research has become more prevalent and important across disciplines because it stimulates innovation and interaction between scholars. Seeing as existing studies relatively disregarded the institutional conditions triggering collaborative research, this work aims to analyze the changing trend in collaborative work patterns among Korean social scientists. The focus of this research is the performance of social scientists who received research grants through the government’s Social Science Korea (SSK) program. Using quantitative statistical methods, collaborative research patterns in a total of 2,354 papers published under the umbrella of the SSK program in peer-reviewed scholarly journals from 2013 to 2016 were examined to identify changing trends and triggering factors in collaborative research. A notable finding is that the share of collaborative research is overwhelmingly higher than that of individual research. In particular, levels of collaborative research surpassed 70%, increasing much quicker compared to other research done in the social sciences. Additionally, the most common composition of collaborative research was for two or three researchers to conduct joint research as coauthors, and this proportion has also increased steadily. Finally, a strong association between international journals and co-authorship patterns was found for the papers published by SSK program researchers from 2013 to 2016. The SSK program can be seen as the driving force behind collaboration between social scientists. Its emphasis on competition through a merit-based financial support system along with a rigorous evaluation process seems to have influenced researchers to cooperate with those who have similar research interests.

Keywords: Policy, Collaboration, Competition, cooperation, coauthorship, Social Science Korea

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7 Shaping Work Engagement through Intra-Organizational Coopetition: Case Study of the University of Zielona Gora in Poland

Authors: Marta Moczulska


One of the most important aspects of human management in an organization is the work engagement. In spite of the different perspectives of engagement, it is possible to see that it is expressed in the activity of the individual involved in the performance of tasks, the functioning of the organization. At the same time is considered not only in behavioural but also cognitive and emotional dimensions. Previous studies were related to sources, predictors of engagement and determinants, including organizational ones. Attention was paid to the importance of needs (including belonging, success, development, sense of work), values (such as trust, honesty, respect, justice) or interpersonal relationships, especially with the supervisor. Taking them into account and theories related to human acting, behaviour in the organization, interactions, it was recognized that engagement can be shaped through cooperation and competition. It was assumed that to shape the work engagement, it is necessary to simultaneously cooperate and compete in order to reduce the weaknesses of each of these activities and strengthen the strengths. Combining cooperation and competition is defined as 'coopetition'. However, research conducted in this field is primarily concerned with relations between companies. Intra-organizational coopetition is mainly considered as competing organizational branches or units (cross-functional coopetition). Less attention is paid to competing groups or individuals. It is worth noting the ambiguity of the concepts of cooperation and rivalry. Taking into account the terms used and their meaning, different levels of cooperation and forms of competition can be distinguished. Thus, several types of intra-organizational coopetition can be identified. The article aims at defining the potential for work engagement through intra-organizational coopetition. The aim of research was to know how levels of cooperation in competition conditions influence engagement. It is assumed that rivalry (positive competition) between teams (the highest level of cooperation) is a type of coopetition that contributes to working engagement. Qualitative research will be carried out among students of the University of Zielona Gora, realizing various types of projects. The first research groups will be students working in groups on one project for three months. The second research group will be composed of students working in groups on several projects in the same period (three months). Work engagement will be determined using the UWES questionnaire. Levels of cooperation will be determined using the author's research tool. Due to the fact that the research is ongoing, results will be presented in the final paper.

Keywords: Competition, cooperation, work engagement, intra-organizational coopetition

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6 Legal Implications of a Single African Air Transport Market on Airlines and Passengers in Nigeria

Authors: Adejoke Omowumi Adediran


The commitment of African states to liberalise civil aviation in Africa through the implementation of the Yamoussoukro Decision of 1999 was reiterated in 2015 at the African Union Assembly meeting. A declaration was made by African Heads of government at the meeting to ensure the immediate implementation of the decision towards the establishment of a Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM) by 2017. A SAATM will imply among others, a removal of all commercial restrictions for African airlines in Africa; access to any route in Africa by African airlines without any required permit or authorisation; and a common set of regulations for airlines in African member states. As the envisioned 2017 date for launching the SAATM could not be met, a new date of January 2018 has been set. The lack of political will by African States, however, remains a prominent challenge to the realisation of the SAATM. As at June 2017, only twenty-one states had signed the commitment to actualise the decision creating the SAATM. In actualisation of the SAATM, a regulatory framework has been established to efficiently manage the new African airline industry, and regulatory texts have been adopted as part of the legal regime. This legal regime is to regulate both interstate and domestic operations. Airlines in Nigeria are currently faced with certain challenges which ultimately affect their effectiveness and passengers as well do not enjoy utmost customer satisfaction with services rendered by the airlines. Although Nigeria has demonstrated support for the SAATM since 2015, as Nigeria alongside ten other states, signed the initial commitment, whether or not SAATM will eventually be beneficial to airlines and passengers has become an issue in the light of the challenges of the Nigerian airline industry. Remarkably, the benefit of the SAATM is to a large extent ultimately determined by its legal framework. Using doctrinal research, this paper examines the legal implications of the SAATM on airlines and passengers in Nigeria. This paper analyses the legal framework of SAATM and juxtaposes this with the particular issues affecting airlines and passengers in Nigeria such as financial difficulties on the part of airlines and consumer protection as regards passengers. Among others, it can be asserted that the legal regime affords an opportunity for business expansion and creates a fair environment for competition. This is beneficial not only to the airlines but to passengers as well. In addition, in the interest of passengers, consumer rights are prescribed, and the regulations also cater for situations where airlines interrupt their services, as losses arising from these situations will be mitigated. There is indeed no doubt that the SAATM will be of great utility to both airlines and passengers in Nigeria.

Keywords: Competition, consumer protection, Airlines, Civil Aviation, passengers, single African air transport market, yamoussoukro decision

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5 Cartel's Little Helpers: A Comparative Study of the Case Law Regarding the Facilitators of Collusion in Latin America Competition Law and Policy

Authors: Andres Calderon


In order to avoid detection and punishment, cartels have recruited the help of third parties to organize, execute and disguise the anticompetitive practices cartel members have agreed upon. These third parties may take the form of consultancy firms, guilds or professional advisors that do not perform an economic activity in the market where the collusion takes place. This paper takes a look into how national competition authorities and national legislators have dealt with the emergence of the cartels’ facilitators in Latin America. Following the practice of other jurisdictions such as United States (Toys R' Us, Apple), European Union (AC Treuhand), United Kingdom (Replica Kits, Hasbro) and Spain (Urban, Snap-On), some countries (e.g. Argentina, Chile) in Latin America have started to conduct investigations and find antitrust liability in cartels’ facilitators for helping others to violate their national competition laws. Some countries (e.g. Peru and Colombia) have also amended their legislation to amplify the subjective scope of application in order to include cartels’ facilitators. The Latin American case is one of special relevance because public officials are often prone to promote or indulge agreements between competitors in sectors of political interest. A broad definition of cartels’ facilitator, consequently, could lead to the prosecution of punishment of public officials that may hinder the competitive process.

Keywords: Competition, facilitator, collusion, anticompetitive practices, cartel, hub and spoke

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4 Impacts of Commercial Honeybees on Native Butterflies in High-Elevation Meadows in Utah, USA

Authors: Jacqueline Kunzelman, Val Anderson, Robert Johnson, Nicholas Anderson, Rebecca Bates


In an effort to protect honeybees from colony collapse disorder, beekeepers are filing for government permits to use natural lands as summer pasture for honeybees under the multiple-use management regime in the United States. Utilizing natural landscapes in high mountain ranges may help strengthen honeybee colonies, as this natural setting is generally void of chemical pollutants and pesticides that are found in agricultural and urban settings. However, the introduction of a competitive species could greatly impact the native species occupying these natural landscapes. While honeybees and butterflies have different life histories, behavior, and foraging strategies, they compete for the same nectar resources. Few, if any, studies have focused on the potential population effects of commercial honeybees on native butterfly abundance and diversity. This study attempts to observe this impact using a paired before-after control-impact (BACI) design. Over the course of two years, malaise trap samples were collected every week during the months of the flowering season in two similar areas separated by 11 kilometers. Each area contained nine malaise trap sites for replication. In the first year, samples were taken to analyze and establish trends within the pollinating communities. In the second year, honeybees were introduced to only one of the two areas, and a change in trends between the two areas was assessed. Contrary to the original hypothesis, the resulting observation was an overall significant increase in the mean butterfly abundance in the impact areas after honeybees were introduced, while control areas remained relatively stable. This overall increase in abundance over the season can be attributed to an increase in butterflies during the first and second periods of the data collection when populations were near their peak. Several potential theories are 1) Honeybees are deterring a natural predator/competitor of butterflies that previously limited population growth. 2) Honeybees are consuming resources regularly used by butterflies, which may extend the foraging time and consequent capture rates of butterflies. 3) Environmental factors such as number of rainy days were inconsistent between control and impact areas, biasing capture rates. This ongoing research will help determine the suitability of high mountain ranges for the summer pasturing of honeybees and the population impacts on many different pollinators.

Keywords: Competition, butterfly, Pollinator, honeybee

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3 The Analysis of Competitive Balance Progress among Five Most Valuable Football Leagues from 1966 to 2015

Authors: Seyed Salahedin Naghshbandi, Zahra Bozorgzadeh, Leila Zakizadeh, Siavash Hamidzadeh


From the sport economy experts point of view, the existence of competitive balance among sport leagues and its numerous effects on league is an important and undeniable issue. In general, sport events fans are so eager to unpredictable results of competition in order to reach the top of excitement and necessary motivation for following competitions. The purpose of this research is to consider and compare the competitive balance among five provisional European football leagues (Spain, England, Italy, France and Germany) during 1966 - 2015 seasons. Research data are secondary and obtained from Premier League final tables of selected countries in 1966 - 2015 seasons. For analyzing data, C5 and C5ICB indicators used. whatever these indicators be less, more balance establishes in the league and vice-versa. The result showed that Le champion of France reached from 1,259 to 1,395; Italy Serie-A league from 1,316 to 1,432; England premier league from 1, 342 to 1,455; Germany Bundesliga from 1,238 to 1,465 and Spain La liga from 1,295 to 1,495. So by comparing C5ICB charts during 1966 - 2015 seasons, La liga of Spain moved more toward imbalance and enjoyed less balance with other European Leagues. Also, La champion of France during the mentioned season, enjoyed less imbalance and preserved its relative balance with monotonous process. It seems that football in France has been followed as stable during 1966 to 2015, and prediction of results was more difficult and competitions were so attractive for spectators, but in Italy, England, Germany, and Spain there were less balance, respectively.

Keywords: Competition, Competitive Balance, professional football league, C5ICB

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