Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Competency Related Abstracts

15 Culture of Argumentative Discourse Formation as an Inevitable Element of Professional Development of Foreign Language Teachers

Authors: Kuznetsova Tamara, Sametova Fauziya


Modern period of educational development is characterized by various attempts in higher quality and effective result provision. Having acquired the modernized educational paradigm, our academic community placed the personality development through language and culture under the focus of primary research. The competency-based concept claims for professionally ready specialists who are capable of solving practical problems. In this sense, under the circumstances of the current development of Kazakhstani society, it is inevitable to form the ability to conduct argumentative discourse as the crucial element of intercultural communicative competence. This article particularly states the necessity of the culture of argumentative discourse formation presents theoretical background of its organization and aims at identifying important argumentative skills within educational process.

Keywords: Skills, Argumentative Discourse, Competency, teaching process

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14 A Study of Native Speaker Teachers’ Competency and Achievement of Thai Students

Authors: Pimpisa Rattanadilok Na Phuket


This research study aims to examine: 1) teaching competency of the native English-speaking teacher (NEST) 2) the English language learning achievement of Thai students, and 3) students’ perceptions toward their NEST. The population considered in this research was a group of 39 undergraduate students of the academic year 2013. The tools consisted of a questionnaire employed to measure the level of competency of NEST, pre-test and post-test used to examine the students’ achievement on English pronunciation, and an interview used to discover how participants perceived their NEST. The data was statistically analysed as percentage, mean, standard deviation and One-sample-t-test. In addition, the data collected by interviews was qualitatively analyzed. The research study found that the level of teaching competency of native speaker teachers of English was mostly low, the English pronunciation achievement of students had increased significantly at the level of 0.5, and the students’ perception toward NEST is combined. The students perceived their NEST as an English expertise, but they felt that NEST had not recognized students' linguistic difficulty and cultural differences.

Keywords: Competency, learning achievement, native English-speaking teacher (NET), English teaching

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13 Discerning Beginning Teachers' Conceptions of Competence through a Phenomenographic Investigation

Authors: Pauline Swee Choo Goh, Kung Teck Wong


The research reported here investigates variation in beginning teachers’ early experiences of their own teaching competency. A phenomenographic research approach was used to show the qualitatively different ways teacher competence was understood amongst beginning teachers in Malaysia. Phenomenographic interviews were conducted with 18 beginning teachers who had started full time teaching for between 1-3 years. Analysis revealed that beginning teachers ‘saw’, ‘understood’ the conceptions of competency in five different ways: i) the ability to manage classroom and student behavior, ii) a strong knowledge of the subject content, iii) the ability to reach out for assistance and support, iv) understanding the students they teach, and v) possessing values of professionalism. The relationships between these different ways are represented diagrammatically. This investigation gives an insider’s perspective a strong voice of what constitutes teacher competence, as well as illustrates that if teacher competence is to be used for any articulation of teacher standards, the term must be carefully defined through the help of the group most affected by any judgements of their competency to avoid misunderstandings, unhappiness and discontent.

Keywords: Teacher Education, phenomenology, Competency, pre-service teachers

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12 Use of Oral Communication Strategies: A Study of Bangladeshi EFL Learners at the Graduate Level

Authors: Afroza Akhter Tina


This paper reports on an investigation into the use of specific types of oral communication strategies, namely ‘topic avoidance’, ‘message abandonment’, ‘code-switching’, ‘paraphrasing’, ‘restructuring’, and ‘stalling’ by Bangladeshi EFL learners at the graduate level. It chiefly considers the frequency of using these strategies as well as the students and teachers attitudes toward such uses. The participants of this study are 66 EFL students and 12 EFL teachers of Jahangirnagar University. Data was collected through questionnaire, oral interview, and classroom observation form. The findings reveal that the EFL students tried to employ all the strategies to various extents due to the language difficulties they encountered in their oral English performance. Among them, the mostly used strategy was ‘stalling’ or the use of fillers, followed by ‘code-switching’. The least used strategies were ‘topic avoidance’, ‘restructuring’, and ‘paraphrasing’. The findings indicate that the use of such strategies was related to the contexts of situation and data-elicitation tasks. It also reveals that the students were not formally trained to use the strategies though the majority of the teachers and students acknowledge them as helpful in communication. Finally the study suggests that an awareness of the nature and functions of these strategies can contribute to the overall improvement of the learners’ communicative competence in spoken English.

Keywords: Frequency, Competency, attitude, communicative strategies

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11 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee


The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Competency, capacity development, instructional leadership

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10 Introduction of Knowledge Management in a Public Sector Organization in India

Authors: Siddharth Vashisth, Varun Mathur


This review provides an overview of the impact that implementation of various Knowledge Management (KM) strategies has had on the growth of a department in a Public Sector Company in India. In a regulated utility controlled by the government, the growth of an organization such as Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) had depended largely on the efficiencies of the systems and its people. However, subsequent to the de-regularization & to the entry of the private competition, the need for a ‘systematic templating’ of knowledge was recognized. This necessitated the introduction of Knowledge Management Centre (KMC). Projects & Pipelines Department (P&P) of HPCL introduced KMC that contributed significantly towards KM by adopting various strategies such as standardization, leveraging information system, competency enhancement, and improvements & innovations. These strategies gave both tangible as well as intangible benefits towards KM. Knowledge, technology & people are the three pillars that need to be catered for effective knowledge management in any organization. In HPCL, the initiative of KMC has served as an intermediary between these three major pillars as each activity of the strategy was centered on them and contributed significantly to their growth and up-gradation, ensuring overall growth of KM in the department.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Innovation, Knowledge, Information System, Technology, people, Impact, standardization, Competency, skill, public sector organization

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9 Teachers' Gender-Counts a Lot: Impact of Teachers’ Gender on Students’ Score Achievement at Primary Level

Authors: Aqleem Fatimah


The purpose of study was to find out the impact of teachers’ gender on students’ score achievement. Focusing on primary level’s teachers & students, a survey research was conducted by using convenient sampling technique. All the students of grade four (1500) and fifty-six teachers (equally divided by gender) from the 50 randomly selected coeducational schools from Lahore were taken as sample. The academic performance was operationalized using a t-test on standardized achievement tests of the students in language, science mathematics and social studies. In addition, all those gender based characteristics of teachers that count a lot in classroom interactions (taking Multi-grade classes, classroom strategies, feedback strategies and evaluation method) that influence students’ achievement were also analyzed by using a questionnaire and an observation schedule. The results of the study showed better academic achievement of students (girl &boy) of female teachers comparatively to the students of male teachers. Therefore, as the female teachers’ number lacks in Pakistan, the study suggests policy makers to seek guidelines to induct more specialized and professionally competent female teachers because their induction will prove highly beneficial for the betterment of students’ score achievement.

Keywords: Gender, Teacher, Competency, score achievement

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8 Critical Thinking and Creativity of Undergraduate Nursing Students: Descriptive and Disposition in Academic Levels

Authors: Kamolrat Turner, Chularat Howharn


Critical thinking and creativity are desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Nursing colleges in Thailand have developed teaching strategies and curricula that nurture critical thinking and creativity dispositions according academic levels. Objectives: This descriptive study identified critical thinking and creativity dispositions of Thai nursing students according academic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 515 nursing students for four academic levels. All are studying at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri, Thailand. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analysis were applied. Results: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually increased as academic level is rising from the junior year throughout the senior year, but its scores are neutral. Scores on creativity skill is neutral and constant thorough the four academic years. The fourth grade students had slightly higher scores on creativity when compared to others. A significant relationship between critical thinking and creativity was also found. Conclusions: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually improved which greatly increased in the senior year. However, creativity has neutrally progressed. The findings suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching strategies for all grades of nursing students to increase their critical thinking and creativity skills.

Keywords: Creativity, Critical thinking, Competency, undergraduate nursing students

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7 Communication Skills Training in Continuing Nursing Education: Enabling Nurses to Improve Competency and Performance in Communication

Authors: Marzieh Moattari Mitra Abbasi, Masoud Mousavinasab, Poorahmad


Background: Nurses in their daily practice need to communicate with patients and their families as well as health professional team members. Effective communication contributes to patients’ satisfaction which is a fundamental outcome of nursing practice. There are some evidences in support of patients' dissatisfaction with nurses’ performance in communication process. Therefore improving nurses’ communication skills is a necessity for nursing scholars and nursing administrators. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 2-days workshop on nurses’ competencies and performances in communication in a central hospital located in the sought of Iran. Materials and Method: This is a randomized controlled trial which comprised of a convenient sample of 70 eligible nurses, working in a central hospital. They were randomly divided into 2 experimental and control groups. Nurses’ competencies was measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their performance was measured by asking eligible patients hospitalized in the nurses work setting during a one month period to evaluate nurses' communication skills before and 2 months after intervention. The experimental group participated in a 2 day workshop on communication skills. Content included in this workshop were: the importance of communication (verbal and non verbal), basic communication skills such as initiating the communication, active listening and questioning technique. Other subjects were patient teaching, problem solving, and decision making, cross cultural communication and breaking bad news. Appropriate teaching strategies such as brief didactic sessions, small group discussion and reflection were applied to enhance participants learning. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16. Result: A significant between group differences was found in nurses’ communication skills competencies and performances in the posttest. The mean scores of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group in the total score of OSCE as well as all stations of OSCE (p<0.003). Overall posttest mean scores of patient satisfaction with nurse's communication skills and all of its four dimensions significantly differed between the two groups of the study (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that the education of nurses in communication skills, improves their competencies and performances. Measurement of Nurses’ communication skills as a central component of efficient nurse patient relationship by valid and reliable methods of evaluation is recommended. Also it is necessary to integrate teaching of communication skills in continuing nursing education programs. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201204042621N11

Keywords: Simulation, Performance, clinical evaluation, Communication Skills, Competency, objective structure

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6 Competency Model as a Key Tool for Managing People in Organizations: Presentation of a Model

Authors: Andrea ČopíKová


Competency Based Management is a new approach to management, which solves organization’s challenges with complexity and with the aim to find and solve organization’s problems and learn how to avoid these in future. They teach the organizations to create, apart from the state of stability – that is temporary, vital organization, which is permanently able to utilize and profit from internal and external opportunities. The aim of this paper is to propose a process of competency model design, based on which a competency model for a financial department manager in a production company will be created. Competency models are very useful tool in many personnel processes in any organization. They are used for acquiring and selection of employees, designing training and development activities, employees’ evaluation, and they can be used as a guide for a career planning and as a tool for succession planning especially for managerial positions. When creating a competency model the method AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and quantitative pair-wise comparison (Saaty’s method) will be used; these methods belong among the most used methods for the determination of weights, and it is used in the AHP procedure. The introduction part of the paper consists of the research results pertaining to the use of competency model in practice and then the issue of competency and competency models is explained. The application part describes in detail proposed methodology for the creation of competency models, based on which the competency model for the position of financial department manager in a foreign manufacturing company, will be created. In the conclusion of the paper, the final competency model will be shown for above mentioned position. The competency model divides selected competencies into three groups that are managerial, interpersonal and functional. The model describes in detail individual levels of competencies, their target value (required level) and the level of importance.

Keywords: Competency, analytic hierarchy process, competency model, quantitative pairwise comparison

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5 Developing a Model to Objectively Assess the Culture of Individuals and Teams in Order to Effectively and Efficiently Achieve Sustainability in the Manpower

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Elnady Mohamed Elsafty


This paper explains a developed applied objective model to measure the culture qualitatively and quantitatively, whether in individuals or in teams, in order to be able to use culture correctly or modify it efficiently. This model provides precise measurements and consistent interpretations by being comprehensive, updateable, and protected from being misled by imitations. Methodically, the provided model divides the culture into seven dimensions (total 43 cultural factors): First dimension is outcome-orientation which consists of five factors and should be highest in leaders. Second dimension is details-orientation which consists of eight factors and should be in highest intelligence members. Third dimension is team-orientation which consists of five factors and should be highest in instructors or coaches. Fourth dimension is change-orientation which consists of five factors and should be highest in soldiers. Fifth dimension is people-orientation which consists of eight factors and should be highest in media members. Sixth dimension is masculinity which consists of seven factors and should be highest in hard workers. Last dimension is stability which consists of seven factors and should be highest in soft workers. In this paper, the details of all cultural factors are explained. Practically, information collection about each cultural factor in the targeted person or team is essential in order to calculate the degrees of all cultural factors using the suggested equation of multiplying 'the score of factor presence' by 'the score of factor strength'. In this paper, the details of how to build each score are explained. Based on the highest degrees - to identify which cultural dimension is the prominent - choosing the tested individual or team in the supposedly right position at the right time will provide a chance to use minimal efforts to make everyone aligned to the organization’s objectives. In other words, making everyone self-motivated by setting him/her at the right source of motivation is the most effective and efficient method to achieve high levels of competency, commitment, and sustainability. Modifying a team culture can be achieved by excluding or including new members with relatively high or low degrees in specific cultural factors. For conclusion, culture is considered as the software of the human beings and it is one of the major compression factors on the managerial discretion. It represents the behaviors, attitudes, and motivations of the human resources which are vital to enhance quality and safety, expanding the market share, and defending against attacks from external environments. Thus, it is tremendously essential and useful to use such a comprehensive model to measure, use, and modify culture.

Keywords: Sustainability, Competency, self-motivation, culture dimensions, culture factors, culture measurement, cultural analysis, cultural modification, alignment to objectives

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4 A Measurement Instrument to Determine Curricula Competency of Licensure Track Graduate Psychotherapy Programs in the United States

Authors: Laith F. Gulli, Nicole M. Mallory


We developed a novel measurement instrument to assess Knowledge of Educational Programs in Professional Psychotherapy Programs (KEP-PPP or KEP-Triple P) within the United States. The instrument was designed by a Panel of Experts (PoE) that consisted of Licensed Psychotherapists and Medical Care Providers. Licensure track psychotherapy programs are listed in the databases of the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE); American Psychological Association (APA); Council on Social Work Education (CSWE); and the Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs (CACREP). A complete list of psychotherapy programs can be obtained from these professional databases, selecting search fields of (All Programs) in (All States). Each program has a Web link that electronically and directly connects to the institutional program, which can be researched using the KEP-Triple P. The 29-item KEP Triple P was designed to consist of six categorical fields; Institutional Type: Degree: Educational Delivery: Accreditation: Coursework Competency: and Special Program Considerations. The KEP-Triple P was designed to determine whether a specific course(s) is offered in licensure track psychotherapy programs. The KEP-Triple P is designed to be modified to assess any part or the entire curriculum of licensure graduate programs. We utilized the KEP-Triple P instrument to study whether a graduate course in Addictions was offered in Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) programs. Marriage and Family Therapists are likely to commonly encounter patients with Addiction(s) due to the broad treatment scope providing psychotherapy services to individuals, couples and families of all age groups. Our study of 124 MFT programs which concluded at the end of 2016 found that we were able to assess 61 % of programs (N = 76) since 27 % (N = 34) of programs were inaccessible due to broken Web links. From the total of all MFT programs 11 % (N = 14) did not have a published curriculum on their Institutional Web site. From the sample study, we found that 66 % (N = 50) of curricula did not offer a course in Addiction Treatment and that 34 % (N =26) of curricula did require a mandatory course in Addiction Treatment. From our study sample, we determined that 15 % (N = 11) of MFT doctorate programs did not require an Addictions Treatment course and that 1 % (N = 1) did require such a course. We found that 99 % of our study sample offered a Campus based program and 1 % offered a hybrid program with both online and residential components. From the total sample studied, we determined that 84 % of programs would be able to obtain reaccreditation within a five-year period. We recommend that MFT programs initiate procedures to revise curricula to include a required course in Addiction Treatment prior to their next accreditation cycle, to improve the escalating addiction crisis in the United States. This disparity in MFT curricula raises serious ethical and legal consideration for national and Federal stakeholders as well as for patients seeking a competently trained psychotherapist.

Keywords: Psychotherapy, Addiction, Curriculum, Competency

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3 Challenges for Competency-Based Learning Design in Primary School Mathematics in Mozambique

Authors: Satoshi Kusaka


The term ‘competency’ is attracting considerable scholarly attention worldwide with the advance of globalization in the 21st century and with the arrival of a knowledge-based society. In the current world environment, familiarity with varied disciplines is regarded to be vital for personal success. The idea of a competency-based educational system was mooted by the ‘Definition and Selection of Competencies (DeSeCo)’ project that was conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Further, attention to this topic is not limited to developed countries; it can also be observed in developing countries. For instance, the importance of a competency-based curriculum was mentioned in the ‘2013 Harmonized Curriculum Framework for the East African Community’, which recommends key competencies that should be developed in primary schools. The introduction of such curricula and the reviews of programs are actively being executed, primarily in the East African Community but also in neighboring nations. Taking Mozambique as a case in point, the present paper examines the conception of ‘competency’ as a target of frontline education in developing countries. It also aims to discover the manner in which the syllabus, textbooks and lessons, among other things, in primary-level math education are developed and to determine the challenges faced in the process. This study employs the perspective of competency-based education design to analyze how the term ‘competency’ is defined in the primary-level math syllabus, how it is reflected in the textbooks, and how the lessons are actually developed. ‘Practical competency’ is mentioned in the syllabus, and the description of the term lays emphasis on learners' ability to interactively apply socio-cultural and technical tools, which is one of the key competencies that are advocated in OECD's ‘Definition and Selection of Competencies’ project. However, most of the content of the textbooks pertains to ‘basic academic ability’, and in actual classroom practice, teachers often impart lessons straight from the textbooks. It is clear that the aptitude of teachers and their classroom routines are greatly dependent on the cultivation of their own ‘practical competency’ as it is defined in the syllabus. In other words, there is great divergence between the ‘syllabus’, which is the intended curriculum, and the content of the ‘textbooks’. In fact, the material in the textbooks should serve as the bridge between the syllabus, which forms the guideline, and the lessons, which represent the ‘implemented curriculum’. Moreover, the results obtained from this investigation reveal that the problem can only be resolved through the cultivation of ‘practical competency’ in teachers, which is currently not sufficient.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, Curriculum, Competency, Mozambique

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2 Development of the ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’

Authors: Riin Seema


Guidance and counseling as a whole-school responsibility is a global trend. Counseling is a specific competence, that consist of cognitive, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral components. To authors best knowledge, there are no self-assessment scales for teachers in the whole world to measure teachers’ counseling competency. In 2016 an Estonian scale on teachers counseling competence was developed during an Interdisciplinary Project at Tallinn University. The team consisted of 10 interdisciplinary students (psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) and their supervisor. In 2017 another international Interdisciplinary Project was carried out for adapting the scale in English for international students. Firstly, the Estonian scale was translated by 2 professional translators, and then a group of international Erasmus students (again from psychology, nursery school, special and adult education) selected the most suitable translation for the scale. The developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ measures teacher’s self-efficacy beliefs in their own competence to perform different counseling tasks (creating a counseling relationship, using different reflection techniques, etc.). The scale consists of 47 questions in a 5-point numeric scale. The scale is created based on counseling theory and scale development and validation theory. The scale has been used as a teaching and learning material for counseling courses by 174 Estonian and 10 international student teachers. After filling out the scale, the students also reflected on the scale and their own counseling competencies. The study showed that the scale is unidimensional and has an excellent Cronbach alpha coefficient. Student’s qualitative feedback on the scale has been very positive, as the scale supports their self-reflection. In conclusion, the developed ‘Teacher’s Counselling Competence Self-Efficacy Scale’ is a useful tool for supporting student teachers’ learning.

Keywords: Counseling, Self-efficacy, Competency, teacher students

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1 Investigate the Competencies Required for Sustainable Entrepreneurship Development in Agricultural Higher Education

Authors: Ehsan Moradi, Parisa Paikhaste, Amir Alam Beigi, Seyedeh Somayeh Bathaei


The need for entrepreneurial sustainability is as important as the entrepreneurship category itself. By transferring competencies in a sustainable entrepreneurship framework, entrepreneurship education can make a significant contribution to the effectiveness of businesses, especially for start-up entrepreneurs. This study analyzes the essential competencies of students in the development of sustainable entrepreneurship. It is an applied causal study in terms of nature and field in terms of data collection. The main purpose of this research project is to study and explain the dimensions of sustainability entrepreneurship competencies among agricultural students. The statistical population consists of 730 junior and senior undergraduate students of the Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran. The sample size was determined to be 120 using the Cochran's formula, and the convenience sampling method was used. Face validity, structure validity, and diagnostic methods were used to evaluate the validity of the research tool and Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability to evaluate its reliability. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) method to prepare a measurement model for data processing. The results showed that seven key dimensions play a role in shaping sustainable entrepreneurial development competencies: systems thinking competence (STC), embracing diversity and interdisciplinary (EDI), foresighted thinking (FTC), normative competence (NC), action competence (AC), interpersonal competence (IC), and strategic management competence (SMC). It was found that acquiring skills in SMC by creating the ability to plan to achieve sustainable entrepreneurship in students through the relevant mechanisms can improve entrepreneurship in students by adopting a sustainability attitude. While increasing students' analytical ability in the field of social and environmental needs and challenges and emphasizing curriculum updates, AC should pay more attention to the relationship between the curriculum and its content in the form of entrepreneurship culture promotion programs. In the field of EDI, it was found that the success of entrepreneurs in terms of sustainability and business sustainability of start-up entrepreneurs depends on their interdisciplinary thinking. It was also found that STC plays an important role in explaining the relationship between sustainability and entrepreneurship. Therefore, focusing on these competencies in agricultural education to train start-up entrepreneurs can lead to sustainable entrepreneurship in the agricultural higher education system.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, Competency, sustainable entrepreneurship, agricultural higher education

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