Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Competence Related Abstracts

26 Leadership Competences: The Case of Slovenian Healthcare

Authors: Helena Kovačič, Andrej Rus

Abstract:

This study compared ratings for leadership competence of managers in the healthcare sector and professional managers in Slovenia. Managers’ competence scores were analyzed for Slovenia and compared with some other EU countries. Comparisons of correlations yielded significant differences in leader/non-leader healthcare professionals in their relational competence.

Keywords: Management, Healthcare, Competence, Slovenia

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25 An Exploration on Competency-Based Curricula in Integrated Circuit Design

Authors: Chih Chin Yang, Chung Shan Sun

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In this paper, the relationships between professional competences and school curricula in IC design industry are explored. The semi-structured questionnaire survey and focus group interview is the research method. Study participants are graduates of microelectronics engineering professional departments who are currently employed in the IC industry. The IC industries are defined as the electronic component manufacturing industry and optical-electronic component manufacturing industry in the semiconductor industry and optical-electronic material devices, respectively. Study participants selected from IC design industry include IC engineering and electronic & semiconductor engineering. The human training with IC design professional competence in microelectronics engineering professional departments is explored in this research. IC professional competences of human resources in the IC design industry include general intelligence and professional intelligence.

Keywords: Curricula, IC Design, Competence, task, duty

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24 Improving the Emergency Medicine Teaching from the Perspective of Faculty Training

Authors: Qin-Min Ge, Shu-Ming Pan

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Emergency clinicians usually get teaching qualification after graduating from medical universities without special faculty training in China mainland. Emergency departments are overcrowded places, with large numbers of patients suffering undifferentiated illness. In the field of emergency medicine (EM), improving the faculty competencies and developing the teaching skills are important for medical education, they could enhance learners outcomes and hence affect the patients prognosis indirectly. This article highlights the necessities of faculty training in EM, illustrates the qualities a good clinical educator should qualify, advances the skills as educators in an academic setting and discusses the ways to be good clinical teachers.

Keywords: Teaching, Emergency Medicine, Competence, emergency education, faculty training

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23 Competence of E-Office System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Somkiat Korbuakaew, Bongkoch Puttawong

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This research aims to study the level of e-office system competence of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University graded by age, education background, position and work experience. Sample of this research is 291 staff at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Data were collected by questionnaire. Statistics used in the research are percentage, mean and standard deviation. The result shows that the overall competence of E-office System of the university staff is at average level. When considered in each aspect, it was found that competency level for creating-forwarding-signing documents is high, while competency level for booking meeting rooms, requesting for transportation service, blackboard system, public relations and making appointment and meeting are average.

Keywords: Competence, e-office, education background, work experience

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22 Management Competency in Logistical Function: The Skills That Will Master a Logistical Manager

Authors: Fatima Ibnchahid

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Competence approach is considered, since the early 80's as one of the major development of HR policies. Many approaches to manage the professional skills were declined. Some processes are mature whereas the others have been abandoned. Competence can be defined as the set of knowledge (theoretical and practical), know-how (experience) and life skills (personality traits) mobilized by a person in the company. The skills must master a logistics manager are divided into two main categories: depending on whether technical skills, or managerial skills and human. The firsts are broken down into skills on logistical techniques and on general skills in business, seconds in social skills (self with others) and personal (with oneself). Logisticians are faced with new challenges and new constraints that are revolutionizing the way to treat the physical movement of goods and operations related to information flows that trigger, they control and guide the physical movements of these major changes, we can mention the development of information technology and communication, the emergence of strong environmental and security constraints. These changes have important effects on the skills needs of the members of the logistical function and sensitive development for training requested by logistical managers to perform better in their job changes. In this article, we will address two main points, first, a brief overview of the management skills and secondly answer the question asked in the title of the article to know what are the skills that will master a logistical manager.

Keywords: Management, Skills, Competence, logistical function

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21 Trust and Conflict Resolution: Relationship Building for Learning

Authors: Jeff Dickie

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This research paper combined grounded coding and research questions with the objective to investigate conflict resolution in the classroom. The students’ answers concerning teaching were coded according to phrasal meanings which revealed concepts. These concept codes then became input data into theoretical frameworks. The investigation indicated two conflicts: whether the information was valid and whether to make the study effort which was discussed as perceptions of teacher’s competence in helping to learn. The relevant factors in helping to learn were predominately emotional. These factors were important in the negotiation process to develop relationships. Information validity seemed to be the motivator to begin and participate effectively with the learning process. In effect, confidence in the learning negotiation process with the focus towards relationship building with the subject matter seemed to be the motivator to make the study effort.

Keywords: Coding, Risk, Trust, Conflict Resolution, Competence, confidence, relationship building

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20 The Roles of ECOWAS Parliament on Regional Integration of the West African Sub-Region

Authors: Mohd Afandi Salleh, Sani Shehu

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Parliament is a law making body which provided at national, state, province and territorial level playing a parliamentary role of representing people, law making, peace, and conflict resolution, ratifying and incorporating international convention into municipal law. Parliaments are created globally to give solid legitimacy to good governance under democratic system of government, and the representatives must be elected by the people, so the ECOWAS parliament is entitled to have this legitimacy, where members must be elected by adult people among the citizens of ECOWAS member states. This paper will discuss on the roles that ECOWAS parliament plays for the achievement of regional integration and economic goals of development and cooperation in the sub-region.

Keywords: Composition, Power, Competence, ECOWAS parliament

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19 The Use of Self-Determination Theory to Assess the Opportunities and Challenges for Blended E-Learning in Egypt: An Analysis of the Motivations of Logistics Lecturers

Authors: Aisha Tarek Noour, Nick Hubbard

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Blended e-Learning (BL) is proving to be an effective pedagogical tool in many areas of business and management education, but there remains a number of barriers to overcome before its implementation. This paper seeks to analyse the views of lecturers towards BL according to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), and identifies the opportunities and challenges for using BL in Logistics Education in an Egyptian higher education establishment. SDT is approached from a different perspective and the relationship between intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and amotivation (AM) is analysed and related to the opportunities and challenges of the BL method. The case study methodology comprises of a series of interviews with lecturers employed at three Colleges of International Transport and Logistics (CITLs) at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology, Maritime and Transport (AAST&MT) in Egypt. A structured face-to-face interview was undertaken with 61 interviewees across all faculty positions: Deans, Associate Professors, Assistant Professor, Department Heads, Part-time instructors, Teaching Assistants, and Graduate Teaching Assistants. The findings were based on "content analysis" of the interview transcripts and use of the NVivo10 software program. The research contributes to the application of SDT within the field of BL through an analysis of the views of lecturers towards the opportunities and challenges that BL offers to logistics educators in Egypt.

Keywords: Autonomy, Competence, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation, relatedness, self-determination theory and blended e-learning

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18 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

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This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: Culture, training, Process, Method, Competence, primary, communicative

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17 Taiwanese Pre-Service Elementary School EFL Teachers’ Perception and Practice of Station Teaching in English Remedial Education

Authors: Chien Chin-Wen

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Collaborative teaching has different teaching models and station teaching is one type of collaborative teaching. Station teaching is not commonly practiced in elementary school English education and introduced in language teacher education programs in Taiwan. In station teaching, each teacher takes a small part of instructional content, working with a small number of students. Students rotate between stations where they receive the assignments and instruction from different teachers. The teachers provide the same content to each group, but the instructional method can vary based upon the needs of each group of students. This study explores thirty-four Taiwanese pre-service elementary school English teachers’ knowledge about station teaching and their competence demonstrated in designing activities for and delivering of station teaching in an English remedial education to six sixth graders in a local elementary school in northern Taiwan. The participants simultaneously enrolled in this Elementary School English Teaching Materials and Methods class, a part of an elementary school teacher education program in a northern Taiwan city. The instructor (Jennifer, pseudonym) in this Elementary School English Teaching Materials and Methods class collaborated with an English teacher (Olivia, pseudonym) in Maureen Elementary School (pseudonym), an urban elementary school in a northwestern Taiwan city. Of Olivia’s students, four male and two female sixth graders needed to have remedial English education. Olivia chose these six elementary school students because they were in the lowest 5 % of their class in terms of their English proficiency. The thirty-four pre-service English teachers signed up for and took turns in teaching these six sixth graders every Thursday afternoon from four to five o’clock for twelve weeks. While three participants signed up as a team and taught these six sixth graders, the last team consisted of only two pre-service teachers. Each team designed a 40-minute lesson plan on the given language focus (words, sentence patterns, dialogue, phonics) of the assigned unit. Data in this study included the KWLA chart, activity designs, and semi-structured interviews. Data collection lasted for four months, from September to December 2014. Data were analyzed as follows. First, all the notes were read and marked with appropriate codes (e.g., I don’t know, co-teaching etc.). Second, tentative categories were labeled (e.g., before, after, process, future implication, etc.). Finally, the data were sorted into topics that reflected the research questions on the basis of their relevance. This study has the following major findings. First of all, the majority of participants knew nothing about station teaching at the beginning of the study. After taking the course Elementary School English Teaching Materials and Methods and after designing and delivering the station teaching in an English remedial education program to six sixth graders, they learned that station teaching is co-teaching, and that it includes activity designs for different stations and students’ rotating from station to station. They demonstrated knowledge and skills in activity designs for vocabulary, sentence patterns, dialogue, and phonics. Moreover, they learned to interact with individual learners and guided them step by step in learning vocabulary, sentence patterns, dialogue, and phonics. However, they were still incompetent in classroom management, time management, English, and designing diverse and meaningful activities for elementary school students at different English proficiency levels. Hence, language teacher education programs are recommended to integrate station teaching to help pre-service teachers be equipped with eight knowledge and competences, including linguistic knowledge, content knowledge, general pedagogical knowledge, curriculum knowledge, knowledge of learners and their characteristics, pedagogical content knowledge, knowledge of education content, and knowledge of education’s ends and purposes.

Keywords: Knowledge, Competence, pre-service teachers, co-teaching, station teaching

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16 Towards a Competence Management Approach Based on Continuous Improvement

Authors: N. Sefiani, C. Fikri Benbrahim, A. Boumane, K. Reklaoui

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Nowadays, the reflection on competence management is the basic for new competitive strategies. It is considered as the core of the problems of the global supply chain. It interacts a variety of actors: information, physical and activities flows, etc. Even though competence management is seen as the key factor for any business success, the existing approaches demonstrate the deficiencies and limitations of the competence concept. This research has two objectives: The first is to make a contribution by focusing on the development of a competence approach, based on continuous improvement. It allows the enterprise to spot key competencies, mobilize them in order to serve its strategic objectives and to develop future competencies. The second is to propose a method to evaluate the level of Collective Competence. The approach was confirmed through an application carried out at an automotive company.

Keywords: Competence, Competence Management, continuous improvement, performance indicator, competencies’ approach, collective competence level

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15 Communicative Competence versus Language Proficiency

Authors: Pouya Vakili

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The aim of present paper is to have a rough comparison between language proficiency and communicative competence, moreover, how different scholars in the field of second language acquisition/assessment have defined competence in different paradigms. Researchers differ, however, in how they view 'competence'. Those who are dealing with generative tradition associated with Chomsky have defined it as linguistic competence (knowledge of the grammar of L2). Other researchers have adopted a broader perspective that is examining how learners acquire communicative competence (knowledge of both the L2 grammar and of how this system is put to use in actual communication).

Keywords: Communicative Competence, Competence, linguistic competence, language proficiency

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14 Determines of Professional Competencies among Newly Registered Nurses in Teaching Hospital in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana Alkattan

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Aim: This study aims to identify and analyze the factors predicting the professional clinical competency among newly recruited registered nurses. In addition, it aims to explore factors significantly correlated with high and low professional clinical competency score. Method: A descriptive analytical is applied in this study, cross-sectional which conducted between June 2012 and June 2013 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, as one of the largest governmental university tertiary Hospital in Saudi Arabia. A survey questionnaire was designed to collect data. And then, data were analyzed using the SPSS. Results: A total of the 86 nurses provided valid responses. 69 were female and 17 were male. The majority of the participants in this study were married, from the Philippines, between 20-29 years old. The majority had certified university bachelor’s degree in nursing, as well as had prior experience in nursing between 1 to 5 years. There are two categories emerged from the data, which significantly correlated with nurses' professional competence and development. The first was the newly employed registered nurses demographic characteristic (correlation coefficients 0.154 to 0.470, P < 0.05), while the second was the list of studied environmental factors except 'job rotation factor' (correlation coefficients 0.122 to 0.540, P < 0.01). However, nurses' attitude including motivation and confidence were not associated with nurse's professional competency. Conclusion: that nurses' professional competence development is a process affected by certain personal demographic and environmental factors which will enable newly graduates nurses to provide safe effective patients' care and maintain their career responsibilities.

Keywords: Clinical, Competence, development nurses professional, registered

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13 Morality in Actual Behavior: The Moderation Effect of Identification with the Ingroup and Religion on Norm Compliance

Authors: Shauma L. Tamba

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This study examined whether morality is the most important aspect in actual behavior. The prediction was that people tend to behave in line with moral (as compared to competence) norms, especially when such norms are presented by their ingroup. The actual behavior that was tested was support for a military intervention without a mandate from the UN. In addition, this study also examined whether identification with the ingroup and religion moderated the effect of group and norm on support for the norm that was prescribed by their ingroup. The prediction was that those who identified themselves higher with the ingroup moral would show a higher support for the norm. Furthermore, the prediction was also that those who have religion would show a higher support for the norm in the ingroup moral rather than competence. In an online survey, participants were asked to read a scenario in which a military intervention without a mandate was framed as either the moral (but stupid) or smart (but immoral) thing to do by members of their own (ingroup) or another (outgroup) society. This study found that when people identified themselves with the smart (but immoral) norm, they showed a higher support for the norm. However, when people identified themselves with the moral (but stupid) norm, they tend to show a lesser support towards the norm. Most of the results in the study did not support the predictions. Possible explanations and implications are discussed.

Keywords: Religion, morality‎, Competence, ingroup identification, group norm

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12 The Impact of Formulate and Implementation Strategy for an Organization to Better Financial Consequences in Malaysian Private Hospital

Authors: Naser Zouri

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Purpose: Measures of formulate and implementation strategy shows amount of product rate-market based strategic management category such as courtesy, competence, and compliance to reach the high loyalty of financial ecosystem. Despite, it solves the market place error intention to fair trade organization. Finding: Finding shows the ability of executives’ level of management to motivate and better decision-making to solve the treatments in business organization. However, it made ideal level of each interposition policy for a hypothetical household. Methodology/design. Style of questionnaire about the data collection was selected to survey of both pilot test and real research. Also, divide of questionnaire and using of Free Scale Semiconductor`s between the finance employee was famous of this instrument. Respondent`s nominated basic on non-probability sampling such as convenience sampling to answer the questionnaire. The way of realization costs to performed the questionnaire divide among the respondent`s approximately was suitable as a spend the expenditure to reach the answer but very difficult to collect data from hospital. However, items of research survey was formed of implement strategy, environment, supply chain, employee from impact of implementation strategy on reach to better financial consequences and also formulate strategy, comprehensiveness strategic design, organization performance from impression on formulate strategy and financial consequences. Practical Implication: Dynamic capability approach of formulate and implement strategy focuses on the firm-specific processes through which firms integrate, build, or reconfigure resources valuable for making a theoretical contribution. Originality/ value of research: Going beyond the current discussion, we show that case studies have the potential to extend and refine theory. We present new light on how dynamic capabilities can benefit from case study research by discovering the qualifications that shape the development of capabilities and determining the boundary conditions of the dynamic capabilities approach. Limitation of the study :Present study also relies on survey of methodology for data collection and the response perhaps connection by financial employee was difficult to responds the question because of limitation work place.

Keywords: Compliance, Competence, loyalty, financial ecosystem, Malaysian market error, dynamic capability approach, rate-market, optimization intelligence strategy, courtesy

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11 The Influence of Guided and Independent Training Toward Teachers’ Competence to Plan Early Childhood Education Learning Program

Authors: Sofia Hartati

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This research is aimed at describing training in early childhood education program empirically, describing teachers ability to plan lessons empirically, and acquiring empirical data as well as analyzing the influence of guided and independent training toward teachers competence in planning early childhood learning program. The method used is an experiment. It collected data with a population of 76 early childhood educators in Tunjung Teja Sub District area through random sampling technique and grouped into two namely 38 people in an experiment class and 38 people in a controlled class. The technique used for data collections is a test. The result of the research shows that there is a significant influence between training for guided educators toward Teachers Ability toward Planning Early Childhood Learning Program. Guided training has been proven to improve the ability to comprehend planning a learning program. The ability to comprehend planning a learning program owned by teachers of early childhood program comprises of 1) determining the characteristics and competence of students prior to learning; 2) formulating the objective of the learning; 3) selecting materials and its sequences; 4) selecting teaching methods; 5) determining the means or learning media; 6) selecting evaluation strategy as a part of teachers pedagogic competence. The result of this research describes a difference in the competence level of teachers who have joined guided training which is relatively higher than the teachers who joined the independent training. Guided training is one of an effective way to improve the knowledge and competence of early childhood educators.

Keywords: Planning, training, Teachers, Competence

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10 Exploring the Power of Words: Domesticating the Competence/Competency Concept in Ugandan Organisations

Authors: John C. Munene, Florence Nansubuga

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The study set out to examine a number of theories that have directly or indirectly implied that words are potent but that the potency depends on the context or practice in which they are utilised. The theories include the Freudian theory of Cathexis, which directly suggests that ambiguous events when named become potent as well as the word that is used to name them. We briefly examine Psychological differentiation, which submit that ambiguity is often a result of failure to distinguish figure from ground. The investigate Prospecting Theory, which suggests that in a situation when people have to make decisions, they have options to utilise intuition or reasoned judgment. It suggests that more often than not, the tendency is to utilise intuition especially when generic heuristics such as representativeness and similarity are available. That usage of these heuristics may depend on lack of a salience or accessibility of the situation due to ambiguity. We also examine Activity Theory, which proposes that meaning of words emerge directly and dialectically from the activities in which they are used. The paper argues that the power of words will depend on either or all of the theories mentioned above. To examine this general proposition we test the utilization of a generic competence framework in a local setting. The assumption is that generic frameworks are inherently ambiguous and lack the potency normally associated with the competence concept in the management of human resources. A number of case studies provide initial supporting evidence for the general proposition.

Keywords: meaning, Competence, operationalisation, power of words

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9 CyberSecurity Malaysia: Towards Becoming a National Certification Body for Information Security Management Systems Internal Auditors

Authors: M. S. Razana, Z. W. Shafiuddin

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Internal auditing is one of the most important activities for organizations that implement information security management systems (ISMS). The purpose of internal audits is to ensure the ISMS implementation is in accordance to the ISO/IEC 27001 standard and the organization’s own requirements for its ISMS. Competent internal auditors are the main element that contributes to the effectiveness of internal auditing activities. To realize this need, CyberSecurity Malaysia is now in the process of becoming a certification body that certifies ISMS internal auditors. The certification scheme will assess the competence of internal auditors in generic knowledge and skills in management systems, and also in ISMS-specific knowledge and skills. The certification assessment is based on the ISO/IEC 19011 Guidelines for auditing management systems, ISO/IEC 27007 Guidelines for information security management systems auditing and ISO/IEC 27001 Information security management systems requirements. The certification scheme complies with the ISO/IEC 17024 General requirements for bodies operating certification systems of persons. Candidates who pass the exam will be certified as an ISMS Internal Auditor, whose competency will be evaluated every three years.

Keywords: Certification, Competence, ISMS internal audit, ISMS internal auditor, ISO/IEC 17024

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8 The Relationship between the Competence Perception of Student and Graduate Nurses and Their Autonomy and Critical Thinking Disposition

Authors: Zülfiye Bıkmaz, Aytolan Yıldırım

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This study was planned as a descriptive regressive study in order to determine the relationship between the competency levels of working nurses, the levels of competency expected by nursing students, the critical thinking disposition of nurses, their perceived autonomy levels, and certain socio demographic characteristics. It is also a methodological study with regard to the intercultural adaptation of the Nursing Competence Scale (NCS) in both working and student samples. The sample of the study group of nurses at a university hospital for at least 6 months working properly and consists of 443 people filled out questionnaires. The student group, consisting of 543 individuals from the 4 public university nursing 3rd and 4th grade students. Data collection tools consisted of a questionnaire prepared in order to define the socio demographic, economic, and personal characteristics of the participants, the ‘Nursing Competency Scale’, the ‘Autonomy Subscale of the Sociotropy – Autonomy Scale’, and the ‘California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory’. In data evaluation, descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests, Rasch analysis and correlation and regression tests were used. The language validity of the ‘NCS’ was performed by translation and back translation, and the context validity of the scale was performed with expert views. The scale, which was formed into its final structure, was applied in a pilot application from a group consisting of graduate and student nurses. The time constancy of the test was obtained by analysis testing retesting method. In order to reduce the time problems with the two half reliability method was used. The Cronbach Alfa coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.980 for the nurse group and 0.986 for the student group. Statistically meaningful relationships between competence and critical thinking and variables such as age, gender, marital status, family structure, having had critical thinking training, education level, class of the students, service worked in, employment style and position, and employment duration were found. Statistically meaningful relationships between autonomy and certain variables of the student group such as year, employment status, decision making style regarding self, total duration of employment, employment style, and education status were found. As a result, it was determined that the NCS which was adapted interculturally was a valid and reliable measurement tool and was found to be associated with autonomy and critical thinking.

Keywords: Critical thinking, Autonomy, Competence, nurse, rasch analysis, nursing student

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7 Effects of Ubiquitous 360° Learning Environment on Clinical Histotechnology Competence

Authors: Mari A. Virtanen, Elina Haavisto, Eeva Liikanen, Maria Kääriäinen

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Rapid technological development and digitalization has affected also on higher education. During last twenty years multiple of electronic and mobile learning (e-learning, m-learning) platforms have been developed and have become prevalent in many universities and in the all fields of education. Ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is not that widely known or used. Ubiquitous learning environments (ULE) are the new era of computer-assisted learning. They are based on ubiquitous technology and computing that fuses the learner seamlessly into learning process by using sensing technology as tags, badges or barcodes and smart devices like smartphones and tablets. ULE combines real-life learning situations into virtual aspects and can be flexible used in anytime and anyplace. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ubiquitous 360 o learning environment on higher education students’ clinical histotechnology competence. A quasi-experimental study design was used. 57 students in biomedical laboratory science degree program was assigned voluntarily to experiment (n=29) and to control group (n=28). Experimental group studied via ubiquitous 360o learning environment and control group via traditional web-based learning environment (WLE) in a 8-week educational intervention. Ubiquitous 360o learning environment (ULE) combined authentic learning environment (histotechnology laboratory), digital environment (virtual laboratory), virtual microscope, multimedia learning content, interactive communication tools, electronic library and quick response barcodes placed into authentic laboratory. Web-based learning environment contained equal content and components with the exception of the use of mobile device, interactive communication tools and quick response barcodes. Competence of clinical histotechnology was assessed by using knowledge test and self-report developed for this study. Data was collected electronically before and after clinical histotechnology course and analysed by using descriptive statistics. Differences among groups were identified by using Wilcoxon test and differences between groups by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Statistically significant differences among groups were identified in both groups (p<0.001). Competence scores in post-test were higher in both groups, than in pre-test. Differences between groups were very small and not statistically significant. In this study the learning environment have developed based on 360o technology and successfully implemented into higher education context. And students’ competence increases when ubiquitous learning environment were used. In the future, ULE can be used as a learning management system for any learning situation in health sciences. More studies are needed to show differences between ULE and WLE.

Keywords: Higher Education, ubiquitous learning, Competence, U-Learning, histotechnology

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6 English Learning Motivation in Communicative Competence

Authors: Sebastianus Menggo

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The aim of communicative language teaching is to enable learners to communicate in the target language. Each learner is required to perform the micro and macro components in each utterance produced. Utterances produced must be in line with the understanding of competence and performance of each speaker. These are inter-depended. Competence and performance are obliged to be appeared proportionally in creating the utterances. The representative of competence and performance reflects the linguistics identity of a speaker in providing sentences in each certain language community. Each lexicon spoken may lead that interlocutor in comprehending the intentions utterances given. However proportional performance of both components in an utterance needed to be further elaborated. Finding appropriate gap between competence and performance components in a communicative competence must be supported positive response given by the learners.The learners’ inability to keep communicative competence proportionally is caused by inside and outside factors. The inside factors are certain lacks such as lack of self-confidence and lack of motivation which could make students feel ashamed to produce utterances, scared to make mistakes, and have no enough confidence. Knowing learner’s English learning motivation is an urgent variable to be considered in creating conducive atmosphere classroom which will raise the learners to do more toward the achievement of communicative competence. Meanwhile, the outside factor is related with the teacher. The teacher should be able to recognize the students’ problem in creating conducive atmosphere in the classroom that will raise the students’ ability to be an English speaker qualified. Moreover, the aim of this research is to know and describe the English learning motivation affecting students’ communicative competence of 48 students of XI grade of science program at catholic senior of Saint Ignasius Loyola Labuan Bajo, West Flores, Indonesia. Correlation design with purposive procedure applied in this research. Data were collected through questionnaire, interview, and students’ speaking achievement document. Result shows the description of motivation significantly affecting students’ communicative competence.

Keywords: Learning, English, Motivation, Competence, communicative

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5 Cultural Competence of Philippine National Police Personnel

Authors: Nestor C. Nabe, Melvie F. Bayog

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The cultural competence of police officers can lead to effective law enforcement and gain respect to their organization. This study evaluated the level of cultural competence of Philippine National Police Personnel in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. Descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The survey utilized an adapted questionnaire to measure the level of cultural competence of the respondents. Questionnaires were administered to 305 ethnic minorities coming from the four major ethnic tribes in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. The data gathered were treated using Percentage, Mean, T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings are as follows: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is moderate; and, there is no significant difference in the cultural competence of the police personnel when analyzed by age, gender, civil status and, occupation while there is a significant difference analyzed by educational attainment and ethnic tribe. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is only manifested sometimes; and, civil status, and occupation has no significant difference in the cultural competence of police personnel while educational attainment and ethnic tribe has a significant difference.

Keywords: Cultural, Police, Competence, Philippines

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4 Developing Oral Communication Competence in a Second Language: The Communicative Approach

Authors: Ikechi Gilbert

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Oral communication is the transmission of ideas or messages through the speech process. Acquiring competence in this area which, by its volatile nature, is prone to errors and inaccuracies would require the adoption of a well-suited teaching methodology. Efficient oral communication facilitates exchange of ideas and easy accomplishment of day-to-day tasks, by means of a demonstrated mastery of oral expression and the making of fine presentations to audiences or individuals while recognizing verbal signals and body language of others and interpreting them correctly. In Anglophone states such as Nigeria, Ghana, etc., the French language, for instance, is studied as a foreign language, being used majorly in teaching learners who have their own mother tongue different from French. The same applies to Francophone states where English is studied as a foreign language by people whose official language or mother tongue is different from English. The ideal approach would be to teach these languages in these environments through a pedagogical approach that properly takes care of the oral perspective for effective understanding and application by the learners. In this article, we are examining the communicative approach as a methodology for teaching oral communication in a foreign language. This method is a direct response to the communicative needs of the learner involving the use of appropriate materials and teaching techniques that meet those needs. It is also a vivid improvement to the traditional grammatical and audio-visual adaptations. Our contribution will focus on the pedagogical component of oral communication improvement, highlighting its merits and also proposing diverse techniques including aspects of information and communication technology that would assist the second language learner communicate better orally.

Keywords: Communication, Methodology, Competence, pedagogical component

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3 Effects of Training on Self-Efficacy, Competence, and Target Complaints of Dementia Family Support Program Facilitators

Authors: Myonghwa Park, Eun Jeong Choi

Abstract:

Persons with dementia living at home have complex caregiving demands, which can be significant sources of stress for the family caregivers. Thus, the dementia family support program facilitators struggle to provide various health and social services, facing diverse challenges. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of training program for the dementia family support program facilitators on self-efficacy, competence, and target complaints concerning operating their program. We created a training program with systematic contents, which was composed of 10 sessions and we provided the program for the facilitators. The participants were 32 people at 28 community dementia support centers who manage dementia family support programs and they completed quantitative and qualitative self-report questionnaire before and after participating in the training program. For analyzing the data, descriptive statistics were used and with a paired t-test, pretest and posttest scores of self-efficacy, competence, and target complaints were analyzed. We used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistics (Version 21) to analyze the data. The average age of the participants was 39.6 years old and the 84.4% of participants were nurses. There were statistically meaningful increases in facilitators’ self-efficacy scores (t = -4.45, p < .001) and competence scores (t = -2.133, p = 0.041) after participating in training program and operating their own dementia family support program. Also, the facilitators’ difficulties in conducting their dementia family support program were decreased which was assessed with target complaints. Especially, the facilitators’ lack of dementia expertise and experience was decreased statistically significantly (t = 3.520, p = 0.002). Findings provided evidence of the benefits of the training program for facilitators to enhance managing dementia family support program by improving the facilitators’ self-efficacy and competence and decreasing their difficulties regarding operating their program.

Keywords: training, Dementia, Family, Competence, Self-efficacy, facilitator

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2 Quality of Today's Teachers: Post-Certified Teachers' Competence in Alleviating Poverties towards a Sustainable Development

Authors: Sudirman

Abstract:

Competence is a term describing capability that correlates with a person’s occupation. The competence of a teacher consists of four, i.e., pedagogical, professional, personality and social competence. These four components are implemented during interacting with students to motivate the students and improve their achievement. The objective of this qualitative study is to explore the roles and contributions of certified teachers in alleviating the issue of poverty to promote a sustainable development. The data comprise primary and secondary data which were generated from observation, interview, documentation and library research. Furthermore, this study offers in-depth information regarding the performance of the teachers in coping with poverty and sustaining development. The result shows that the teacher’s competence positively contributes to the improvement of students’ achievement. This helps the students to prepare for the real work experience by which it results in a better income and, therefore, alleviate poverty. All in all, the quality of today’s teachers can be measured by their contribution in enhancing the students’ competence prior to entering real work, resulting in a wealthy society. This is to deal with poverty and conceptualizing a sustainable development.

Keywords: Development, Poverty, Teachers, Competence

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1 Studying the Role of Teachers’ Self-Acceptance in the Development of Their Self-Esteem and Efficacy Level: A Case Study Applied to 37 Teachers at the English Department, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria

Authors: Asmaa Baghli

Abstract:

Self-acceptance is one of the most pertinent notions that attracted the attention of many scholars. These latters believed that the sense of self-acceptance for people contributes in the emergence of their self-esteem and helps to improve their efficacy level. Simply defined, self-acceptance stands for the ability of the person to admire and accept herself and her potentials. This fact is believed to participate in the personal image creation depending on the qualities and features possessed. Hitherto, the following paper aims, first, to provide a brief and concise definition of self-acceptance, self-esteem and self-efficacy. It tries to explain the correlation between the three concepts along with its linkage to language teaching. Then, it examines teachers’ acceptance level and its influence on their classroom actions. For that purpose, the main methodology undertaken is the mixed method. That means the combination between both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The prime tools selected are a questionnaire and self-acceptance test for teachers. Finally, it suggests some techniques for developing teachers’ self-acceptance.

Keywords: Development, Teachers, Competence, Efficacy, self-esteem, Self-acceptance

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