Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Compatibility Related Abstracts

9 Compatibility of Copolymer-Based Grinding Aids and Sulfonated Acetone-Formaldehyde Superplasticizer

Authors: Zhang Tailong

Abstract:

Compatibility between sulfonated acetone-formalehyde superplasticizer (SAF) and copolymer-based grinding aids (GA) were studied by fluidity, Zeta potential, setting time of cement pasts, initial slump and slump flow of concrete and compressive strength of concrete. ESEM, MIP, and XRD were used to investigate the changing of microstructure of interior concrete. The results indicated that GA could noticeably enhance the dispersion ability of SAF. It was found that better fluidity and slump-keeping ability of cement paste were obtained in the case of GA. In addition, GA and SAF together had a certain retardation effect on hydration of cement paste. With increasing of the GA dosage, the dispersion ability and retardation effect of admixture increased. The compressive strength of the sample made with SAF and GA after 28 days was higher than that of the control sample made only with SAF. The initial slump and slump flow of concrete increased by 10.0% and 22.9%, respectively, while 0.09 wt.% GA was used. XRD examination indicated that new products were not found in the case of GA. In addition, more dense arrangement of hydrates and lower porosity of the specimen were observed by ESEM and MIP, which contributed to higher compressive strength.

Keywords: Concrete, Microstructure, cement, Compatibility, copolymer-based grinding aids, superplasiticizer

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8 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials

Authors: Jonjaua Ranogajec, Ognjen Rudic, Snezana Pasalic, Snezana Vucetic, Damir Cjepa

Abstract:

The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Compatibility, pilot production, self-cleaning materials

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7 The Effects of Alkalization to the Mechanical Properties of Biocomposite PLA reinforced the Ijuk Fibers

Authors: Mochamad Chalid, Imam Prabowo

Abstract:

The pollution due to non-degradable material such as plastics, has led to studies about the development of environmental-friendly material. Because of biodegradability obtained from natural sources, polylactid acid (PLA) and ijuk fiber are interesting to modify into a composite. This material is also expected to reduce the impact of environmental pollution. Surface modification of ijuk fiber through alkalinization with 0.25 M NaOH solution for 30 minutes, was aimed to enhance it’s compatibility to PLA, in order to improve properties of the composite such as the mechanical properties. Alkalinization of the ijuk fibers annihilates some surface components such as lignin, wax and hemicelloluse, so the pore on the surface clearly appeared, decreasing of the density and diameter of the ijuk fibers. The change of the ijuk fiber properties leads to increase the mechanical properties of PLA composites reinforced the ijuk fibers through strengthening of the mechanical interlocking with the PLA matrix. An addition to enhance the distribution of the fibers in the PLA matrix, the stirring during DCM solvent evaporation from the mixture of the ijuk fibers and the dissolved-PLA can reduce amount of the trapped-voids and fibers pull-out phenomena, which can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite.

Keywords: Morphology, Adhesion, Compatibility, Mechanical Properties, Arenga Pinnata, polylactic acid, alkalinization, volume fraction, distributiom

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6 Nano-Enhanced In-Situ and Field Up-Gradation of Heavy Oil

Authors: Devesh Motwani, Ranjana S. Baruah

Abstract:

The prime incentive behind up gradation of heavy oil is to increase its API gravity for ease of transportation to refineries, thus expanding the market access of bitumen-based crude to the refineries. There has always been a demand for an integrated approach that aims at simplifying the upgrading scheme, making it adaptable to the production site in terms of economics, environment, and personnel safety. Recent advances in nanotechnology have facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oil upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. The In-Situ upgrading scheme makes use of Hot Fluid Injection (HFI) technique where heavy fractions separated from produced oil are injected into the formations to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. In the presence of hydrogen, catalytic exothermic hydro-processing reactions occur that produce light gases and volatile hydrocarbons which contribute to increased oil detachment from the rock resulting in enhanced recovery. In this way the process is a combination of enhanced heavy oil recovery along with up gradation that effectively handles the heat load within the reservoirs, reduces hydrocarbon waste generation and minimizes the need for diluents. By eliminating most of the residual oil, the Synthetic Crude Oil (SCO) is much easier to transport and more amenable for processing in refineries. For heavy oil reservoirs seriously impacted by the presence of aquifers, the nano-catalytic technology can still be implemented on field though with some additional investments and reduced synergies; however still significantly serving the purpose of production of transportable oil with substantial benefits with respect to both large scale upgrading, and known commercial field upgrading technologies currently on the market. The paper aims to delve deeper into the technology discussed, and the future compatibility.

Keywords: Compatibility, upgrading, synthetic crude oil, nano-catalytic technology

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5 Customer Adoption and Attitudes in Mobile Banking in Sri Lanka

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This paper intends to identify and analyze customer adoption and attitudes towards mobile banking facilities. The study uses six perceived characteristics of innovation that can be used to form a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward an innovation, namely: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trailability, risk, and observability. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test. The results showed that mobile bank users were predominantly males. There is a growing trend among young, educated customers towards converting to mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The research outcomes suggested that all the six factors are statistically highly significant in influencing mobile banking adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The major reasons for adopting mobile banking services are the accessibility and availability of services regardless of time and place. Over the 75 percent of the respondents mentioned that savings in time and effort and low financial costs of conducting mobile banking were advantageous. Issue of security was found to be the most important factor that motivated consumer adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking. Main barriers to mobile banking were the lack of technological skills, the traditional cash‐carry banking culture, and the lack of awareness and insufficient guidance to using mobile banking.

Keywords: Risk, Complexity, Mobile Banking, Observability, Compatibility

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4 Analyzing a Tourism System by Bifurcation Theory

Authors: Amin Behradfar

Abstract:

‎Tourism has a direct impact on the national revenue for all touristic countries. It creates work opportunities‎, ‎industries‎, ‎and several investments to serve and raise nations performance and cultures. ‎This paper is devoted to analyze dynamical behaviour of a four-dimensional non-linear tourism-based social-ecological system by using the codimension two bifurcation theory‎. ‎In fact we investigate the cusp bifurcation of that‎. ‎Implications of our mathematical results to the tourism‎ ‎industry are discussed‎. Moreover, profitability‎, ‎compatibility and sustainability of the tourism system are shown by the aid of cusp bifurcation and numerical techniques‎.

Keywords: Sustainability, Profitability, Compatibility, tourism-based social-ecological dynamical systems, cusp bifurcation, center manifold theory

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3 Psychological Compatibility of Football Players According to Success Achievement and Failure Avoidance Motivation

Authors: Alexandra O. Savinkina, Konstantin A. Bochaver

Abstract:

The study analyzed the relationship between the homogeneity-heterogeneity of players in a football team and their efficiency. Compatible players were examined in terms of level of socio-psychological development of the team for which they act. It was shown that in teams of high level of socio-psychological development more compatible were athletes with different levels of failure avoidance motivation. But in low-level teams – bucking the trend. The homogeneity of success achievement motivation was not a factor in the effectiveness of the football team.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, football, Compatibility, Homogeneity, soccer, failure avoidance motivation, sport team, success achievement motivation

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2 Blending Effects on Crude Oil Stability: An Experimental Study

Authors: Muheddin Hamza, Entisar Etter

Abstract:

This study is a part of investigating the possibility of blending two crude oils obtained from Libyan oil fields, namely crude oil (A) and crude oil (B) with different ratios, prior to blending the crude oils have to be compatible in order to avoid phase out and precipitation of asphaltene from the bulk of crude. The physical properties of both crudes such as density, viscosity, pour point and sulphur content were measured according to (ASTM) method. To examine the stability of both crudes and their blends, the oil compatibility model using microscopic, colloidal instability index (CII) using SARA analysis and asphaltene stabilization test using Turbiscan tests were conducted in the Libyan Petroleum Institute laboratories. Compatibility tests were carried out with both crude oils, the insolubility number (IN), and the solubility blending number (SBN), for both crude oils and their blends were calculated. The criteria for compatibility of any blend is that the volume average solubility blending number (SBN) is greater than the insolubility number (IN) of any component in the blend, the results indicated that both crudes were compatible. To support the results of compatibility tests the SARA analysis was done for the fractional determination of (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) content. From this result, the colloidal Instability index (CII) and resin to asphaltenes ratio (R/A) were calculated for crudes and their blends. The results show that crude oil (B) which has higher (R/A) and lower (CII) is more stable than crude oil (A) and as the ratio of crude (B) increases in the blend the (CII) and (R/A) were improved, and the blends becomes more stable. Asphaltene stabilization test was also conducted for the crudes and their blends using Turbiscan MA200 according to the standard test method ASTM D7061-04, the Turbiscan shows that the crude (B) is more stable than crude (A) which shows a fair tendency. The (CII) and (R/A) were compared with the solubility number (SBN) for each crude and the blends along with Turbiscan results. The solubility blending number (SBN) of the crudes and their blends show that the crudes are compatible, also by comparing (R/A) and (SBN) values of the blends, it can be seen that they are complements of each other. All the experimental results show that the blends of both crudes are more stability.

Keywords: Compatibility, crude oil, asphaltene, resin, oil blends, SARA

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1 Screening Maize for Compatibility with F. Oxysporum to Enhance Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze Resistance

Authors: Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Admire Isaac Tichafa Shayanowako

Abstract:

Striga asiatica is among the leading abiotic constraints to maize production under small-holder farming communities in southern African. However, confirmed sources of resistance to the parasitic weed are still limited. Conventional breeding programmes have been progressing slowly due to the complex nature of the inheritance of Striga resistance, hence there is a need for more innovative approaches. This study aimed to achieve partial resistance as well as to breed for compatibility with Fusarium oxysporum fsp strigae, a soil fungus that is highly specific in its pathogenicity. The agar gel and paper roll assays in conjunction with a glass house pot trial were done to select genotypes based on their potential to stimulate germination of Striga and to test the efficacy of Fusarium oxysporum as a biocontrol agent. Results from agar gel assays showed a moderate to high potential in the release of Strigalactones among the 33 OPVs. Maximum Striga germination distances from the host root of 1.38 cm and up to 46% germination were observed in most of the populations. Considerable resistance was observed in a landrace ‘8lines’ which had the least Striga germination percentage (19%) with a maximum distance of 0.93 cm compared to the resistant check Z-DPLO-DTC1 that had 23% germination at a distance of 1.4cm. The number of fusarium colony forming units significantly deferred (P < 0.05) amongst the genotypes growing between germination papers. The number of crown roots, length of primary root and fresh weight of shoot and roots were highly correlated with concentration of fusarium macrospore counts. Pot trials showed significant differences between the fusarium coated and the uncoated treatments in terms of plant height, leaf counts, anthesis-silks intervals, Striga counts, Striga damage rating and Striga vigour. Striga emergence counts and Striga flowers were low in fusarium treated pots. Plants in fusarium treated pots had non-significant differences in height with the control treatment. This suggests that foxy 2 reduces the impact of Striga damage severity. Variability within fusarium treated genotypes with respect to traits under evaluation indicates the varying degree of compatibility with the biocontrol.

Keywords: Resistance, Compatibility, maize, Striga asiaitca, F. oxysporum

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