Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

comparative study Related Abstracts

20 A Comparative Study on Creep Modeling in Composites

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Behzad Mazhari

Abstract:

Composite structures, having incredible properties, have gained considerable popularity in the last few decades. Among all types, polymer matrix composites are being used extensively due to their unique characteristics including low weight, convenient fabrication process and low cost. Having polymer as matrix, these type of composites show different creep behavior when compared to metals and even other types of composites since most polymers undergo creep even in room temperature. One of the most challenging topics in creep is to introduce new techniques for predicting long term creep behavior of materials. Depending on the material which is being studied the appropriate method would be different. Methods already proposed for predicting long term creep behavior of polymer matrix composites can be divided into five categories: (1) Analytical Modeling, (2) Empirical Modeling, (3) Superposition Based Modeling (Semi-empirical), (4) Rheological Modeling, (5) Finite Element Modeling. Each of these methods has individual characteristics. Studies have shown that none of the mentioned methods can predict long term creep behavior of all PMC composites in all circumstances (loading, temperature, etc.) but each of them has its own priority in different situations. The reason to this issue can be found in theoretical basis of these methods. In this study after a brief review over the background theory of each method, they are compared in terms of their applicability in predicting long-term behavior of composite structures. Finally, the explained materials are observed through some experimental studies executed by other researchers.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Modeling, Creep, comparative study

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19 A Longitudinal Survey Study of Izmir Commuter Rail System (IZBAN)

Authors: Yalcin Alver, Samet Sen

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Before Izmir Commuter Rail System (IZBAN), most of the respondents along the railway were making their trips by city buses, minibuses or private cars. After IZBAN was put into service, some people changed their previous trip behaviors and they started travelling by IZBAN. Therefore a big travel demand in IZBAN occurred. In this study, the characteristics of passengers and their trip behaviors are found out based on the longitudinal data conducted via two wave trip surveys. Just after one year from IZBAN's opening, the first wave of the surveys was carried out among 539 passengers at six stations during morning peak hours between 07.00 am-09.30 am. The second wave was carried out among 669 passengers at the same six stations two years after the first wave during the same morning peak hours. As a result of this study, the respondents' socio-economic specifications, the distribution of trips by region, the impact of IZBAN on transport modes, the changes in travel time and travel cost and satisfaction data were obtained. These data enabled to compare two waves and explain the changes in socio-economic factors and trip behaviors. In both waves, 10 % of the respondents stopped driving their own cars and they started to take IZBAN. This is an important development in solving traffic problems. More public transportation means less traffic congestion.

Keywords: public transportation, comparative study, commuter rail system, longitudinal survey

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18 A Comparative Study of Language Learning Strategy Use of Iranian Kurdish Bilingual and Persian Monolingual in EFL Context

Authors: Reza Khani, Ziba Hosseini

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This study was an attempt to investigate the difference between learners of Iranian Kurdish–Persian bilingual language and Persian monolinguals, regarding language strategy use (LLS). The participants of the study were 120 monolingual Persian and 120 bilingual Kurdish studying English as a foreign language (EFL). Data were collected using strategy inventory for language learning SILL. The results show bilingual reported higher use of language learning strategies in all categories of SILL except memory strategies.

Keywords: Language Learning, Memory, comparative study, monolingual

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17 Varieties of Capitalism and Small Business CSR: A Comparative Overview

Authors: Stéphanie Looser, Walter Wehrmeyer

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Given the limited research on Small and Mediumsized Enterprises’ (SMEs) contribution to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and even scarcer research on Swiss SMEs, this paper helps to fill these gaps by enabling the identification of supranational SME parameters and to make a contribution to the evolving field of these topics. Thus, the paper investigates the current state of SME practices in Switzerland and across 15 other countries. Combining the degree to which SMEs demonstrate an explicit (or business case) approach or see CSR as an implicit moral activity with the assessment of their attributes for “variety of capitalism” defines the framework of this comparative analysis. According to previous studies, liberal market economies, e.g. in the United States (US) or United Kingdom (UK), are aligned with extrinsic CSR, while coordinated market systems (in Central European or Asian countries) evolve implicit CSR agendas. To outline Swiss small business CSR patterns in particular, 40 SME owner-managers were interviewed. The transcribed interviews were coded utilising MAXQDA for qualitative content analysis. A secondary data analysis of results from different countries (i.e., Australia, Austria, Chile, Cameroon, Catalonia (notably a part of Spain that seeks autonomy), China, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong (a special administrative region of China), Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, UK, US) lays groundwork for this comparative study on small business CSR. Applying the same coding categories (in MAXQDA) for the interview analysis as well as for the secondary data research while following grounded theory rules to refine and keep track of ideas generated testable hypotheses and comparative power on implicit (and the lower likelihood of explicit) CSR in SMEs retrospectively. The paper identifies Swiss small business CSR as deep, profound, “soul”, and an implicit part of the day-to-day business. Similar to most Central European, Mediterranean, Nordic, and Asian countries, explicit CSR is still very rare in Swiss SMEs. Astonishingly, also UK and US SMEs follow this pattern in spite of their strong and distinct liberal market economies. Though other findings show that nationality matters this research concludes that SME culture and its informal CSR agenda are strongly formative and superseding even forces of market economies, nationally cultural patterns, and language. In a world of “big business”, explicit “business case” CSR, and the mantra that “CSR must pay”, this study points to a distinctly implicit small business CSR model built on trust, physical closeness, and virtues that is largely detached from the bottom line. This pattern holds for different cultural contexts and it is concluded that SME culture is stronger than nationality leading to a supra-national, monolithic SME CSR approach. Hence, classifications of countries by their market system or capitalism, as found in the comparative capitalism literature, do not match the CSR practices in SMEs as they do not mirror the peculiarities of their business. This raises questions on the universality and generalisability of management concepts.

Keywords: CSR, Small, comparative study, cultures of capitalism, medium-sized enterprises

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16 Comparative Study of Arch Bridges with Varying Rise to Span Ratio

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Arnab Kumar Sinha

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This paper presents a comparative study of Arch bridges based on their varying rise to span ratio. The comparison is done between different steel Arch bridges which have variable span length and rise to span ratio keeping the same support condition. The aim of our present study is to select the optimum value of rise to span ratio of Arch bridge as the cost of the Arch bridge increases with the increasing of the rise. In order to fulfill the objective, several rise to span ratio have been considered for same span of Arch bridge and various structural parameters such as Bending moment, shear force etc have been calculated for different model. A comparative study has been done for several Arch bridges finally to select the optimum rise to span ratio of the Arch bridges. In the present study, Finite Element model for medium to long span, with different rise to span ratio have been modeled and are analyzed with the help of a Computational Software named MIDAS Civil to evaluate the results such as Bending moments, Shear force, displacements, Stresses, influence line diagrams, critical loads. In the present study, 60 models of Arch bridges for 80 to 120 m span with different rise to span ratio has been thoroughly investigated.

Keywords: Analysis, comparative study, arch bridge, rise to span ratio

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15 Illness Representations of Injury: A Comparison of Patients and Their Primary Caregivers

Authors: Bih-O Lee, Hsiu-Wan Hsieh, Hsiu-Chen Liu, Mer Yu Pan

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Background: Illness perceptions are developed when people face health-threatening situations. Previous research suggests that understanding discrepancies between illness perceptions of patients and caregivers may need to improve quality of health care. Objective: This study examined the differences between illness perceptions of injured patients and those of their caregivers. Methods: Comparative study design was used. The study setting was the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Participants were 127 pairs of injured patients and their caregivers. The participants completed socio-demographic data and completed the Chinese Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised-Trauma, which comprises eight subscales. Clinical data of the injured patients was obtained from medical records. Results: This study found that injured patients were more pessimistic than their caregivers about the injury. There were significant differences between patients and caregivers insofar as patients perceived more physical symptoms, scored higher in terms of reasons for their injury, had more negative emotions and experienced more consequences than caregivers. Elderly caregivers and caregivers for patients who were over 65, severely injured and admitted to an ICU perceived more negative perceptions about the injury. Conclusions: This study indicated that patients and caregivers had negative illness representations several months after injury although the intensity of their perceptions was different. The interventions should highlight the need to assist patients and caregivers after injury.

Keywords: Injury, comparative study, illness representations, caregivers

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14 Comparative Study of Skeletonization and Radial Distance Methods for Automated Finger Enumeration

Authors: Mohammad Hossain Mohammadi, Saif Al Ameri, Sana Ziaei, Jinane Mounsef

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Automated enumeration of the number of hand fingers is widely used in several motion gaming and distance control applications, and is discussed in several published papers as a starting block for hand recognition systems. The automated finger enumeration technique should not only be accurate, but also must have a fast response for a moving-picture input. The high performance of video in motion games or distance control will inhibit the program’s overall speed, for image processing software such as Matlab need to produce results at high computation speeds. Since an automated finger enumeration with minimum error and processing time is desired, a comparative study between two finger enumeration techniques is presented and analyzed in this paper. In the pre-processing stage, various image processing functions were applied on a real-time video input to obtain the final cleaned auto-cropped image of the hand to be used for the two techniques. The first technique uses the known morphological tool of skeletonization to count the number of skeleton’s endpoints for fingers. The second technique uses a radial distance method to enumerate the number of fingers in order to obtain a one dimensional hand representation. For both discussed methods, the different steps of the algorithms are explained. Then, a comparative study analyzes the accuracy and speed of both techniques. Through experimental testing in different background conditions, it was observed that the radial distance method was more accurate and responsive to a real-time video input compared to the skeletonization method. All test results were generated in Matlab and were based on displaying a human hand for three different orientations on top of a plain color background. Finally, the limitations surrounding the enumeration techniques are presented.

Keywords: MATLAB, comparative study, hand recognition, fingertip detection, skeletonization, radial distance

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13 Presenting a Knowledge Mapping Model According to a Comparative Study on Applied Models and Approaches to Map Organizational Knowledge

Authors: Ahmad Aslizadeh, Farid Ghaderi

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Mapping organizational knowledge is an innovative concept and useful instrument of representation, capturing and visualization of implicit and explicit knowledge. There are a diversity of methods, instruments and techniques presented by different researchers following mapping organizational knowledge to reach determined goals. Implicating of these methods, it is necessary to know their exigencies and conditions in which those can be used. Integrating identified methods of knowledge mapping and comparing them would help knowledge managers to select the appropriate methods. This research conducted to presenting a model and framework to map organizational knowledge. At first, knowledge maps, their applications and necessity are introduced because of extracting comparative framework and detection of their structure. At the next step techniques of researchers such as Eppler, Kim, Egbu, Tandukar and Ebner as knowledge mapping models are presented and surveyed. Finally, they compare and a superior model would be introduced.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Business and Management, comparative study, knowledge mapping

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12 Is HR in a State of Transition? An International Comparative Study on the Development of HR Competencies

Authors: Barbara Covarrubias Venegas, Sabine Groblschegg, Bernhard Klaus, Julia Domnanovich

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Research Objectives: The roles and activities of human resource management (HRM) have changed a lot in the past years. Driven by a changing environment and therefore, new business requirements, the scope of human resource (HR) activities has widened. The extent to which these activities should focus on strategic issues to support the long-term success of a company has been discussed in science for many years. As many economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) experienced a phase of transition after the socialist era and are now recovering from the 2008 global crisis it is needed to examine the current state of HR positioning. Furthermore, a trend in HR work developing from rather administrative units to being strategic partners of management can be noticed. This leads to the question of better understanding the underlying competencies which are necessary to support organisations. This topic was addressed by the international study “HR Competencies in international comparison”. The quantitative survey was conducted by the Institute for Human Resources & Organisation of FHWien University of Applied Science of WKW (A) in cooperation with partner universities in the countries Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. Methodology: Using the questionnaire developed by Dave Ulrich we tested whether the HR Competency model can be used for Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. After performing confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis for the whole data set containing all five countries we could clearly distinguish between four competencies. In a further step, our analysis focused on median and average comparisons between the HR competency dimensions. Conclusion: Our literature review, in alignment with other studies, shows a relatively rapid pace of development of HR Roles and HR Competencies in BCSS in the past decades. Comparing data from BCSS and Austria we still can notice that regards strategic orientation there is a lack in BCSS countries, thus competencies are not as developed as in Austria. This leads us to the tentative conclusion that HR has undergone a rapid change but is still in a State of Transition from being a rather administrative unit to performing the role of a strategic partner.

Keywords: comparative study, HRM, HR competencies, HR roles

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11 Banking Control Law 1966 in Saudi Arabia, Shortcomings and Development: A Comparative Study in Banking Supervision between the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency and the Bank of England

Authors: Khalid Huwaydi Alshammari

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The paper examined the extent to which it was necessary for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), as a central bank, to update the Banking Control Law 1966 (BCL) in order to gain full independence, while ensuring that SAMA would have enough flexibility to develop the banking industry yet make sound decisions with regard to the issuance of new regulations related to banking supervision.Using a comparative study approach, the paper looked to find the best practices around these issues. The Bank of England, which was recently granted full independence, presented a good opportunity for a case study. The perspectives of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and commercial banks in Saudi Arabia are examined, including an analysis of their recommendations regarding SAMA regulations on banking supervision. This paper found several issues are important for SAMA as the central bank in a country which is a member of the G20, and which has recently faced unstable oil prices. The paper also discusses conflicts of interest which arose when the Saudi government became a shareholder in commercial banks while simultaneously regulating SAMA through the Ministry of Finance, resulting in a monopoly which disabled free competition in the banking market. The paper recommends further steps for SAMA to develop the banking industry, which is an important arm of Saudi’s economy, and examines the challenges SAMA faces in updating regulations such as the BCL under Sharia law. The author also suggests practical solutions to the difficulties. The paper found these difficulties could be avoiding them if SAMA focuses on Islamic banking product, and fixed the lacks of regulations of the related laws.

Keywords: comparative study, Saudi Arabian monetary agency, banking control law 1966, the bank of England

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10 Institutional Cooperation to Foster Economic Development: Universities and Social Enterprises

Authors: Khrystyna Pavlyk

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In the OECD countries, percentage of adults with higher education degrees has increased by 10 % during 2000-2010. Continuously increasing demand for higher education gives universities a chance of becoming key players in socio-economic development of a territory (region or city) via knowledge creation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge spillovers. During previous decade, universities have tried to support spin-offs and start-ups, introduced courses on sustainability and corporate social responsibility. While much has been done, new trends are starting to emerge in search of better approaches. Recently a number of universities created centers that conduct research in a field social entrepreneurship, which in turn underpin educational programs run at these universities. The list includes but is not limited to the Centre for Social Economy at University of Liège, Institute for Social Innovation at ESADE, Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship at Oxford, Centre for Social Entrepreneurship at Rosklide, Social Entrepreneurship Initiative at INSEAD. Existing literature already examined social entrepreneurship centers in terms of position in the institutional structure, initial and additional funding, teaching initiatives, research achievements, and outreach activities. At the same time, Universities can become social enterprises themselves. Previous research revealed that universities use both business and social entrepreneurship models. Universities which are mainly driven by a social mission are more likely to transform into social entrepreneurial institutions. At the same time, currently, there is no clear understanding of what social entrepreneurship in higher education is about and thus social entrepreneurship in higher education needs to be studied and promoted at the same time. Main roles which socially oriented university can play in city development include: buyer (implementation of socially focused local procurement programs creates partnerships focused on local sustainable growth.); seller (centers created by universities can sell socially oriented goods and services, e.g. in consultancy.); employer (Universities can employ socially vulnerable groups.); business incubator (which will help current student to start their social enterprises). In the paper, we will analyze these in more detail. We will also examine a number of indicators that can be used to assess the impact, both direct and indirect, that universities can have on city's economy. At the same time, originality of this paper mainly lies not in methodological approaches used, but in countries evaluated. Social entrepreneurship is still treated as a relatively new phenomenon in post-transitional countries where social services were provided only by the state for many decades. Paper will provide data and example’s both from developed countries (the US and EU), and those located in CIS and CEE region.

Keywords: Social Enterprise, Regional Economic Development, University, comparative study

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9 A Comparative Study of Corporate Cultural Values in Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: Renzhong Peng, Weiping Wu

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Based on the framework of Hofstede’s cultural dimension, this study conducted a comparative study on the similarities and differences between national cultures and corporate cultural values, analyzed and interpreted the reasons why Chinese overseas Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) cultural integration results in the success or failure. The findings of this study indicate that in the process of M&A, the corporate cultural values from Chinese and western corporations are proved to be quite different as a result of their diversities of national cultures, and the strategies for the integration of cultural corporate values are of vital importance and can determine the effects of the M&A, which can be referential to managers who intend to have the idea of M&A and those who have cultural integration in the process of M&A.

Keywords: mergers and acquisitions, comparative study, cultural integration, corporate cultural values

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8 Ag and Au Nanoparticles Fabrication in Cross-Linked Polymer Microgels for Their Comparative Catalytic Study

Authors: Luqman Ali Shah, Murtaza Sayed, Mohammad Siddiq

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Three-dimensional cross-linked polymer microgels with temperature responsive N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and pH-sensitive methacrylic acid (MAA) were successfully synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization with different amount of MAA. Silver and gold nanoparticles with size of 6.5 and 3.5 nm (±0.5 nm) respectively were homogeneously reduced inside these materials by chemical reduction method at pH 2.78 and 8.36 for the preparation of hybrid materials. The samples were characterized by FTIR, DLS and TEM techniques. The catalytic activity of the hybrid materials was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4- NP) using NaBH4 as reducing agent by UV-visible spectroscopy. The hybrid polymer network synthesized at pH 8.36 shows enhanced catalytic efficiency compared to catalysts synthesized at pH 2.78. In this study, it has been explored that catalyst activity strongly depends on amount of MAA, synthesis pH and type of metal nanoparticles entrapped.

Keywords: comparative study, metal nanoparticles, Catalytic activity, cross-linked polymer microgels, free radical polymerization

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7 The Different Essence of Death in the Elegies of Shelley's Adonais and Lord Tennyson's In Memoriam

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

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The topic about death and dying is interesting to discuss since it is strongly related to every individual life. As represented in its title, Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats is a mournful poem written in 1821 by Percy Bysshe Shelley to mourn the loss of young poet John Keats. To compare, In Memoriam A.H.H. is an elegy written in 1850 about the death of Lord Tennyson’s dearest friend, Arthur Henry Hallam. Although both elegies were written to grieve the authors’ loved ones, their grief affects differently to the psychological being of the narrators. Thus, this research aims to examine the essence of death in affecting the narrators psychologically. By using psychoanalytic criticism, this research reveals the different essence of death in the two elegies as the result of the analysis. Moreover, these two elegies also portray the concept of the afterlife, immortality, and the figure of God. In Adonais, the grief of the narrator to Keats leads him to question the very purpose of life. The loss of his favorite poet which makes him feel sorrowful and mad along his 55 stanzas brings him to a higher psychological level to understand himself. He even sees himself as a Christ-like figure, which shows the idea that God is imaginable. Different from Adonais, the narrator of In Memoriam finds something more spiritual by doing his passionate mourning to Hallam. Through some contemplation in his 133 cantos, in the end, he is convinced that the dear one now dwells with a great Spirit who controls the world. He believes that all of the creation in the universe has to follow one law which is set by God. Hence, it can be concluded that death might bring different consequence to the psyche of every living creature.

Keywords: comparative study, elegy, psychoanalytic criticism, the essence of death

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6 A Comparative Study of Social Entrepreneurship Centers in Universities of the World

Authors: Farnoosh Alami, Nazgol Azimi

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Universities have recently paid much attention to the subject of social entrepreneurship. As a result, many of the highly ranked universities have established centers in this regard. The present research aims to investigate vision and mission of social entrepreneurship centers of the best universities ranked under 50 by Shanghai List 2013. It tries to find the common goals and features of their mission, vision, and activities which lead to their present success. This investigation is based on the web content of the first top 10 universities; among which six had social entrepreneurship centers. This is a qualitative research, and the findings are based on content analysis of documents. The findings confirm that education, research, talent development, innovative solutions, and supporting social innovation, are shared in the vision of these centers. In regard to their missions, social participation, networking, and leader education are the most shared features. Their common activities are focused on five categories of education, research, support, promotion, and networking.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, comparative study, social entrepreneurship centers, universities in the world

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5 Pregnancy Outcomes among Syrian Refugee and Jordanian Women: A Comparative Study

Authors: Karimeh Alnuaimi, Manal Kassab, Reem Ali, Khitam Mohammad, Kholoud Shattnawi

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Aim: To compare pregnancy outcomes of Syrian refugee women and Jordanian women. Background and introduction: The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Jordan. Pregnant refugee women are therefore facing many difficulties are known to increase the prevalence of poor reproductive health outcomes and antenatal complications. However, there is very little awareness of whether Syrian refugee women have different risks of pregnancy outcomes than Jordanian women. Methods: Using a retrospective cohort design, we examined pregnancy outcomes for Syrian refugee (N = 616) and Jordanian women (N = 644) giving birth at two governmental Hospitals in the north of Jordan, between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. A checklist of 13 variables was utilized. The primary outcome measures were delivery by Caesarean section, maternal complications, low birth weight (< 2500 g), Apgar score and preterm delivery (< 37 weeks' gestational age). Results: Statistical analysis revealed that refugee mothers had a significant increase in the rate of cesarean section and the higher rate of anemia, a lower neonates’ weight, and Apgar scores when compared to their Jordanian counterparts. Discussion and Conclusion: Results were congruent with findings from other studies in the region and worldwide. Minimizing inequalities in pregnancy outcomes between Syrian refugees and Jordan women is a healthcare priority. Implications for nursing and health policy: The findings could guide the planning and development of health policies in Jordan that would help to alleviate the situation regarding refugee populations. The action is required by the policy makers, specifically targeting public and primary health care services, to address the problem of adequately meeting the need for antenatal care of this vulnerable population.

Keywords: pregnancy, comparative study, Syrian refugee, Jordanian women

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4 A Comparative Semantic Network Study between Chinese and Western Festivals

Authors: Rob Law, Jianwei Qian

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With the expansion of globalization and the increment of market competition, the festival, especially the traditional one, has demonstrated its vitality under the new context. As a new tourist attraction, festivals play a critically important role in promoting the tourism economy, because the organization of a festival can engage more tourists, generate more revenues and win a wider media concern. However, in the current stage of China, traditional festivals as a way to disseminate national culture are undergoing the challenge of foreign festivals and the related culture. Different from those special events created solely for developing economy, traditional festivals have their own culture and connotation. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study on not only protecting the tradition, but promoting its development as well. This study conducts a comparative study of the development of China’s Valentine’s Day and Western Valentine’s Day under the Chinese context and centers on newspaper reports in China from 2000 to 2016. Based on the literature, two main research focuses can be established: one is concerned about the festival’s impact and the other is about tourists’ motivation to engage in a festival. Newspaper reports serve as the research discourse and can help cover the two focal points. With the assistance of content mining techniques, semantic networks for both Days are constructed separately to help depict the status quo of these two festivals in China. Based on the networks, two models are established to show the key component system of traditional festivals in the hope of perfecting the positive role festival tourism plays in the promotion of economy and culture. According to the semantic networks, newspaper reports on both festivals have similarities and differences. The difference is mainly reflected in its cultural connotation, because westerners and Chinese may show their love in different ways. Nevertheless, they share more common points in terms of economy, tourism, and society. They also have a similar living environment and stakeholders. Thus, they can be promoted together to revitalize some traditions in China. Three strategies are proposed to realize the aforementioned aim. Firstly, localize international festivals to suit the Chinese context to make it function better. Secondly, facilitate the internationalization process of traditional Chinese festivals to receive more recognition worldwide. Finally, allow traditional festivals to compete with foreign ones to help them learn from each other and elucidate the development of other festivals. It is believed that if all these can be realized, not only the traditional Chinese festivals can obtain a more promising future, but foreign ones are the same as well. Accordingly, the paper can contribute to the theoretical construction of festival images by the presentation of the semantic network. Meanwhile, the identified features and issues of festivals from two different cultures can enlighten the organization and marketing of festivals as a vital tourism activity. In the long run, the study can enhance the festival as a key attraction to keep the sustainable development of both the economy and the society.

Keywords: comparative study, Chinese context, festival tourism, semantic network analysis, valentine’s day

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3 System-Wide Impact of Energy Efficiency in the Industry Sector: A Comparative Study between Canada and Denmark

Authors: M. Baldini, H. K. Jacobsen, M. Jaccard

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In light of the international efforts to comply with the Paris agreement and emission targets for future energy systems, Denmark and Canada are among the front-runner countries dealing with climate change. The experiences in the energy sector have seen both countries coping with trade-offs between investments in renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency, thus tackling the climate issue from the supply and demand side respectively. On the demand side, the industrial sector is going through a remarkable transformation, with implementation of energy efficiency measures, change of input fuel for end-use processes and forecasted electrification as main features under the spotlight. By looking at Canada and Denmark's experiences as pathfinders on the demand and supply approach to climate change, it is possible to obtain valuable experience that may be applied to other countries aiming at the same goal. This paper presents a comparative study on industrial energy efficiency between Canada and Denmark. The study focuses on technologies and system options, policy design and implementation and modelling methodologies when implementing industrial energy savings in optimization models in comparison to simulation models. The study identifies gaps and junctures in the approach towards climate change actions and, learning from each other, lessen the differences to further foster the adoption of energy efficiency measurements in the industrial sector, aiming at reducing energy consumption and, consequently, CO₂ emissions.

Keywords: Energy System Modelling, CO2 Reduction, comparative study, industrial energy efficiency

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2 Different Goals and Strategies of Smart Cities: Comparative Study between European and Asian Countries

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Yountaik Leem

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In this paper, different goals and the ways to reach smart cities shown in many countries during planning and implementation processes will be discussed. Each country dealt with technologies which have been embedded into space as development of ICTs (information and communication technologies) for their own purposes and by their own ways. For example, European countries tried to adapt technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission to overcome global warming while US-based global companies focused on the way of life using ICTs such as EasyLiving of Microsoft™ and CoolTown of Hewlett-Packard™ during last decade of 20th century. In the North-East Asian countries, urban space with ICTs were developed in large scale on the viewpoint of capitalism. Ubiquitous city, first introduced in Korea which named after Marc Weiser’s concept of ubiquitous computing pursued new urban development with advanced technologies and high-tech infrastructure including wired and wireless network. Japan has developed smart cities as comprehensive and technology intensive cities which will lead other industries of the nation in the future. Not only the goals and strategies but also new directions to which smart cities are oriented also suggested at the end of the paper. Like a Finnish smart community whose slogan is ‘one more hour a day for citizens,’ recent trend is forwarding everyday lives and cultures of human beings, not capital gains nor physical urban spaces.

Keywords: Smart Cities, comparative study, future direction, urban strategy

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1 The Story behind the Numbers: A Comparison of Two Qualitative Methodologies Employed in Different Social and Cultural Settings

Authors: Tia Simanovic, Ionut Cioarta

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This methodology paper will discuss the applicability of qualitative research methods in two contrasting research contexts, the community, and prison. It will examine the benefits and the pitfalls of using different philosophical frameworks, namely, critical realism and phenomenology, to guide social work research in the United Kingdom and Romania. This paper is a joint effort that arose from the methodology sections of two ongoing PhD studies examining populations on contrasting ends of a social spectrum; (1) social workers and the use of activism in their work and daily life, and (2) prisoners’ experiences of death-related grief prior to and/or during custody. While both studies employ interviews, the first one focuses on a critical realist approach to a complex phenomenon of social work activism through comparative research of practices in the UK and Romania, and the second study takes a phenomenological approach to understanding the interplay of bereavement and imprisonment in two Scottish prisons. The authors will argue that the different cultural and social environments of these two exploratory studies, as well as the power differentials between the participants and the researcher in each respective context, will steer the data collection and analysis, potentially leading to very discrete policy implications. In a world driven by numbers and exactness, it can be tempting to overlook the story behind the data, the motives behind one’s actions. Gathering those highly individualized accounts of a complex phenomenon can be time-consuming, involve different gatekeepers on various research stages, and be of limited generalizability and impact. Yet, personal experiences and drivers behind certain behaviors can elucidate individuals’ understanding of a phenomenon examined and provide an insight into participants’ inner world. This paper will emphasize the importance of conducting a comparison of research procedures in juxtaposed research settings with populations from opposite ends of a social work continuum, namely, practitioners and wards of the state. It will demonstrate that different social and cultural contexts of research can be challenging and constraining with regards to participant availability and recruitment, rapport building, data gathering, and making sense of the data. Different ontological and epistemological frameworks used will further impact the results, and many of these challenges will be mitigated or aggravated by researcher’s positionality, socio-cultural background, and experiences. Finally, an eclectic theoretical and philosophical approach used in each individual study could provide a new comprehension of the researched phenomena, their practical manifestation, as well as their influence on individual’s life, decision-making, and actions.

Keywords: Critical Realism, Qualitative Research Methods, comparative study, prison research

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