Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Comparative Analysis Related Abstracts

22 Comparative Analysis of Enzyme Activities Concerned in Decomposition of Toluene

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

In recent years, pollutions of the environment by toxic substances become a serious problem. While there are many methods of environmental clean-up, the methods by microorganisms are considered to be reasonable and safety for environment. Compost is known that it catabolize the meladorous substancess in its production process, however the mechanism of its catabolizing system is not known yet. In the catabolization process, organic matters turn into inorganic by the released enzymes from lots of microorganisms which live in compost. In other words, the cooperative of activated enzymes in the compost decomposes malodorous substances. Thus, clarifying the interaction among enzymes is important for revealing the catabolizing system of meladorous substance in compost. In this study, we utilized statistical method to infer the interaction among enzymes. We developed a method which combined partial correlation with cross correlation to estimate the relevance between enzymes especially from time series data of few variables. Because of using cross correlation, we can estimate not only the associative structure but also the reaction pathway. We applied the developed method to the enzyme measured data and estimated an interaction among the enzymes in decomposition mechanism of toluene.

Keywords: Enzyme Activities, Comparative Analysis, compost, toluene

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21 Comparative Analysis of Classification Methods in Determining Non-Active Student Characteristics in Indonesia Open University

Authors: Dewi Juliah Ratnaningsih, Imas Sukaesih Sitanggang

Abstract:

Classification is one of data mining techniques that aims to discover a model from training data that distinguishes records into the appropriate category or class. Data mining classification methods can be applied in education, for example, to determine the classification of non-active students in Indonesia Open University. This paper presents a comparison of three methods of classification: Naïve Bayes, Bagging, and C.45. The criteria used to evaluate the performance of three methods of classification are stratified cross-validation, confusion matrix, the value of the area under the ROC Curve (AUC), Recall, Precision, and F-measure. The data used for this paper are from the non-active Indonesia Open University students in registration period of 2004.1 to 2012.2. Target analysis requires that non-active students were divided into 3 groups: C1, C2, and C3. Data analyzed are as many as 4173 students. Results of the study show: (1) Bagging method gave a high degree of classification accuracy than Naïve Bayes and C.45, (2) the Bagging classification accuracy rate is 82.99 %, while the Naïve Bayes and C.45 are 80.04 % and 82.74 % respectively, (3) the result of Bagging classification tree method has a large number of nodes, so it is quite difficult in decision making, (4) classification of non-active Indonesia Open University student characteristics uses algorithms C.45, (5) based on the algorithm C.45, there are 5 interesting rules which can describe the characteristics of non-active Indonesia Open University students.

Keywords: Data Mining, Comparative Analysis, naive Bayes, clasiffication, Bagging, C.45, non-active students, Indonesia Open University

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20 Reference Management Software: Comparative Analysis of RefWorks and Zotero

Authors: Sujit K. Basak

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison of reference management software between RefWorks and Zotero. The results were drawn by comparing two software and the novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of software and it has shown that ReftWorks can import more information from the Google Scholar for the researchers. This finding could help to know researchers to use the reference management software.

Keywords: Analysis, Comparative Analysis, reference management software, researchers

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19 A Comparative Analysis of Zotero and Mendeley Reference Management Software

Authors: Sujit K. Basak

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison of the reference management software between Zotero and Mendeley and the results were drawn by comparing the two software’s. The novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the software and it has shown that Mendeley can import more information from the Google Scholar for the researchers. This finding can help to know researchers to use the reference management software.

Keywords: Analysis, Comparative Analysis, researchers, zotero, Mendeley

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18 Analysis of Expert Information in Linguistic Terms

Authors: O. Poleshchuk, E. Komarov

Abstract:

In this paper, semantic spaces with the properties of completeness and orthogonality (complete orthogonal semantic spaces) were chosen as models of expert evaluations. As the theoretical and practical studies have shown all the properties of complete orthogonal semantic spaces correspond to the thinking activity of experts that is why these semantic spaces were chosen for modeling. Two methods of construction such spaces were proposed. Models of comparative and fuzzy cluster analysis of expert evaluations were developed. The practical application of the developed methods has demonstrated their viability and validity.

Keywords: Fuzzy cluster analysis, Comparative Analysis, expert evaluation, theoretical and practical studies

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17 The Comparative Study of the Characteristics of Chinese and Foreign Excellent Woman’s Single Players’ Serve, Receive Tactic Author

Authors: Zhai Yuan, Wu Xueqing

Abstract:

This article statistics the technology which used by Chinese and foreign excellent players in the game, including types and serves areas,receive technology and effect and utilization ratio receiving and losing points. The sample is che videos which is world's top matches of excellent badminton athletes of che single, including Chinese players’ 43 games and foreign players’ 38 games. Conclusion: For the serving, Chinese and foreign single players are to give priority to forehand short-low serve and the long-high serve. And Chinese and foreign players in using forehand short-low serve and drive server exist significant differences; For the serves areas, Chinese and foreign players serve area is concentrated in area 1,5,6. Area 6 has the highest rate of all the district areas, following by the area 1and area 5. Among the 2ed serve area Sino-foreign player, there exist significant differences; In the receiver, when returning the frontcourt shutter, players is given priority to net lift and push. When returning the backcourt shutter, receiver's the best ball is smash, followed by clear and drop shot. Foreign players have higher utilization rate in smash than Chinese players in the backcourt; In the receiver result, Chinese players give priority to actively and equally situation than foreign players, but in negatively receiving is just opposite.

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Badminton, woman’s singles, technique and tactics

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16 Comparative Analysis of Soil Enzyme Activities between Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

Soil enzyme activities in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined to determine levels of mineralization and metabolism. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and Pw) trees for analysis. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and protease activities were higher in BB-1 samples those in BB-2 samples. These activity levels corresponded to the distribution of cellulose and hemicellulose in the soil horizons. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in soil from the Pw forest than in that from the BB-2 forest. The relationships between the soil enzymes calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation indicate that the interactions between enzymes in BB-2 samples were more complex than those in Pw samples.

Keywords: Enzyme Activities, Forest Soil, Comparative Analysis, Spearman's rank correlation

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15 Gesture in the Arabic and Malay Languages a Comparative Study

Authors: Siti Sara binti Hj Ahmad, Adil Elshiekh Abdalla

Abstract:

The Arabic and Malay languages belong to different language’s families; while the Arabic language descends from the Semitic language, Malay belongs to the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family. Hence, the grammatical systems of the two languages differ from each other. Arabic, being a language found in the heart of the dessert, and Malay is the language found in the heart of thick equatorial forests, is another source of vital cultural differences. Consequently, it is expected that this situation will create differences in the ways of how speakers of the two languages perceive the world around them, convey and understand their messages. On the other hand, as the majority of the speakers of Malay language are Muslims, Arabic language found its way in this region; currently, Arabic is widely taught in school, some terms of it found their way in the Malay language. Accordingly, the Arabic language and culture have widely penetrated into the Malay language. This study is proposed with the aim to find out the differences and similarities between the two languages, in the term of the nonverbal communication. The result of this study will be of high significance, as it will help in enhancing the mutual understanding between the speakers of these languages. The comparative analysis approach will be utilized in this study.

Keywords: Arabic language, gesture, Comparative Analysis, Malay language

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14 Marketing and Pharmaceutical Analysis of Medical Cosmetics in Bulgaria and Japan

Authors: V. Petkova, V. Valchanova, D. Grekova, K. Andreevska, S. T. Geurguiev, V. Madgarov, D. Grekov

Abstract:

Introduction: Production, distribution and sale of cosmetics is a global industry, which played a key role in the European Union (EU), the US and Japan. A major participant EU whose market cosmetics is greater than in the US and 2 times greater than that in Japan. The output value of the cosmetics industry in the EU is estimated at about € 35 billion in 2001. Nearly 5 billion cosmetic products (number of packages) are sold annually in the EU, and the main markets are France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. The aim of the study is legal and marketing analysis of cosmetic products dispensed in a pharmacy. Materials and methodology: Historical legislative analysis - the method is applied in the analysis of changes in the legislative regulation of the activities of cosmetic products in Japan and Bulgaria Comparative legislative analysis - the method is applied when comparing the legislative requirements for cosmetic products in the already mentioned countries. Both methods are applied to the following regulations: 1) Japanese Pharmaceuticals Affairs Law, Tokyo, Japan, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; 2) Law on Medicinal Products for Human Use; effective from 3.01.2014. Results: The legislative framework for cosmetic products in Bulgaria and Japan is close and generally includes general guidelines: Definition of a medicinal product; Categorization of drugs (with differences in sub-categories); Pre-registration and marketing approval of the competent authorities; Compulsory compliance with gmp (unlike cosmetics); Regulatory focus on product quality, efficacy and safety; Obligations for labeling of such products; Created systems Pharmacovigilance and commitment of all parties - industry and health professionals; The main similarities in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Full producer responsibility for product safety; Surveillance of market regulatory authorities; No need for pre-registration or pre-marketing approval (a basic requirement for notification); Without restrictions on sales channels; GMP manuals for cosmetics; Regulatory focus on product safety (than over efficiency); General requirements in labeling: The main differences in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Details in the regulation of cosmetic products; Future convergence of regulatory frameworks can contribute to the removal of barriers to trade, to encourage innovation, while simultaneously ensuring a high level of protection of consumer safety.

Keywords: Cosmetics, Legislation, Comparative Analysis, Japan, Bulgaria

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13 Analysis of Weather Variability Impact on Yields of Some Crops in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Idowu Ojo, Oluwatobi Peter Olowo

Abstract:

The study developed a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database and mapped inter-annual changes in crop yields of cassava, cowpea, maize, rice, melon and yam as a response to inter-annual rainfall and temperature variability in Southwest, Nigeria. The aim of this project is to study the comparative analysis of the weather variability impact of six crops yield (Rice, melon, yam, cassava, Maize and cowpea) in South Western States of Nigeria (Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo, Ogun and Lagos) from 1991 – 2007. The data was imported and analysed in the Arch GIS 9 – 3 software environment. The various parameters (temperature, rainfall, crop yields) were interpolated using the kriging method. The results generated through interpolation were clipped to the study area. Geographically weighted regression was chosen from the spatial statistics toolbox in Arch GIS 9.3 software to analyse and predict the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the different crops (Cowpea, maize, rice, melon, yam, and cassava).

Keywords: GIS, temperature, Rainfall, Comparative Analysis, crop yields, weather variability

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12 The Comparison of Personality Background of Volunteer and Non-Volunteer Subjects

Authors: Laszlo Dorner

Abstract:

Background: In the last few decades there has been a significant discussion within the researchers of prosocial behavior about to what extent personality characteristics matter in determining the quality and frequency of helping behaviors. Of these community activities the most important is formal volunteering which mainly realises in civil services and organizations. Recently many researches have been showed up regarding the personality factors and motivations behind volunteering). Most of these researches found strong correlation between Agreeableness and Extraversion as global traits and the time spent on volunteering and its frequency as well. Aims of research: In this research we investigate the relation between formal volunteer activities and global traits in a Hungarian volunteer sample. We hypothetise that the results appeared in the previous researches show the same pattern in Hungary as well: volunteering would be related to Agreeableness and Extraversion. We also assume that the time spent on volunteering is related to these traits, since these traits would serve as an indicator of long-term volunteering. Methods: We applied the Hungarian adaptation of Big Five Questionnaire created by Caprara, Barbaranelli és Borgogni. This self-reported questionnaire contains 132 items, and explore 5 main traits examining the person’s most important emotional and motivational features regarding its personality. This research took into account the most important socio-economical factors (age, gender, religiosity, income) which can determine volunteer activities per se. The data is evaluated by SPSS 19.0 Statistical Software. Sample: 92 volunteer (formal, mainly the volunteers of Hungarian Red Cross and Hospice Organizations)and 92 non volunteer person, with matched subsamples by the factors of age, gender and qualification. Results: The volunteer subsample shows higher values of Energy and significantly higher values of Agreeableness and Openness, however, regarding Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability the differences are not significant between the volunteer and non-volunteer subsamples.

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, volunteering, Big Five, global traits

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11 Juxtaposing South Africa’s Private Sector and Its Public Service Regarding Innovation Diffusion, to Explore the Obstacles to E-Governance

Authors: Petronella Jonck, Freda van der Walt

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Despite the benefits of innovation diffusion in the South African public service, implementation thereof seems to be problematic, particularly with regard to e-governance which would enhance the quality of service delivery, especially accessibility, choice, and mode of operation. This paper reports on differences between the public service and the private sector in terms of innovation diffusion. Innovation diffusion will be investigated to explore identified obstacles that are hindering successful implementation of e-governance. The research inquiry is underpinned by the diffusion of innovation theory, which is premised on the assumption that innovation has a distinct channel, time, and mode of adoption within the organisation. A comparative thematic document analysis was conducted to investigate organisational differences with regard to innovation diffusion. A similar approach has been followed in other countries, where the same conceptual framework has been used to guide document analysis in studies in both the private and the public sectors. As per the recommended conceptual framework, three organisational characteristics were emphasised, namely the external characteristics of the organisation, the organisational structure, and the inherent characteristics of the leadership. The results indicated that the main difference in the external characteristics lies in the focus and the clientele of the private sector. With regard to organisational structure, private organisations have veto power, which is not the case in the public service. Regarding leadership, similarities were observed in social and environmental responsibility and employees’ attitudes towards immediate supervision. Differences identified included risk taking, the adequacy of leadership development, organisational approaches to motivation and involvement in decision making, and leadership style. Due to the organisational differences observed, it is recommended that differentiated strategies be employed to ensure effective innovation diffusion, and ultimately e-governance. It is recommended that the results of this research be used to stimulate discussion on ways to improve collaboration between the mentioned sectors, to capitalise on the benefits of each sector.

Keywords: ICT, e-Governance, Comparative Analysis, innovation diffusion

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10 Comparative Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaameran Raahemifar

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This paper presents comparative analysis of photovoltaic systems (PVS) and proposes practical techniques to improve operational efficiency of the PVS. The best engineering and construction practices for PVS are identified and field oriented recommendation are made. Comparative analysis of central and string inverter based, as well as 600 and 1000 VDC PVS are performed. In addition, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) module based systems are compared. Comparison shows that 1000 V DC String Inverters based PVS is the best choice.

Keywords: Photovoltaic systems, Comparative Analysis, photovoltaic module, operational efficiency improvement

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9 A Comparative Analysis on the Perspectives of Secular and Non-Secular Male Groups on Female Masturbation

Authors: Marc Angelo C. Balon, Maxine Joy A. Yongoyong

Abstract:

Female masturbation has been an age-old controversy. In fact, it is not widely talked about specifically in the Philippines since the Filipino culture still preserves the space for conservativeness. Although, considering the numerous and emerging studies on female masturbation, this study will focus on the perspectives of secular and non-secular male groups with regard to female masturbation. The objectives of this study is to identify the perceptions of these male groups and their taking on considering women who masturbate as their sexual partner, as a sexual object, and as a life partner and lastly, to have a comparative analysis of the perceptions of these male groups drawing out their sense of meaning on the masturbation of women. The researchers made use of purposive sampling technique and interview guide questionnaire. The secular male group were psychology students while the non-secular male group was drawn from a Catholic Church seminary in Tagaytay City, Cavite. Results showed that the secular male group had scientific perspectives such as exploring the genitals, contradicting moral perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice, while the non-secular male groups had theological perspectives in accordance with the fundamental moral theology, moral perspectives and perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice. Moreover, men who came from the non-secular group highly believe that masturbation is immoral. Otherwise, men who came from the secular group noted that masturbation is primary physiological need.

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, secular, non-secular, masturbation

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8 Framework for the Assessment of National Systems of Innovation in Biotechnology

Authors: Andrea Schiffauerova, Amnah Alzeyoudi

Abstract:

This paper studies patterns of innovation within national constitutional context. Its objective is to examine national systems of innovation in biotechnology in six leading innovative countries: the US, Japan, Germany, the UK, France and Canada. The framework proposed for this purpose consists of specific factors considered critical for the development of national systems of innovation, which are industry size, innovative activities, area of specialization, industry structure, national policy, the level of government intervention, the stock of knowledge in universities and industries, knowledge transfer from universities to industry and country-specific conditions for start-ups. The paper then uses the framework to provide detailed cross-country comparisons while highlighting particular features of national institutional context which affect the creation and diffusion of scientific knowledge within the system. The study is primarily based on the extensive survey of literature and it is complemented by the quantitative analysis of the patent data extracted from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The empirical analysis provides numerous insights and greatly complements the data gained from the literature and other sources. The final cross-country comparative analysis identifies three patterns followed by the national innovation systems in the six countries. The proposed cross-country relative positioning analysis may help in drawing policy implications and strategies leading to the enhancement of national competitive advantage and innovation capabilities of nations.

Keywords: National systems of innovation, Patent analysis, Comparative Analysis, framework, United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)

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7 Effect of Double-Skin Facade Configuration on the Energy Performance of Office Building in Maritime Desert Climate

Authors: B. Umaru Mohammed, Faris A. Al-Maziad, Mohammad Y. Numan

Abstract:

One of the most important factors affecting the energy performance within a building is a carefully and efficiently designed facade. The primary aim of this research was to identify and present the potentiality of utilising Double-Skin Facade (DSF) construction and critically examine its effect on the energy consumption of an office building located within a maritime desert climate as to the conventional single-skin curtain wall system. A comparative analysis of the effect on the overall energy consumption within an office building was investigated in which a combination of various Double-Skin Facade configurations, systems, and cavity depths, glazing types and orientations were utilised. A computer dynamic modelling was utilised in order to ensure accurate calculations and efficient simulations of the various DSF systems due to the complex nature of the various functions within the Facade cavity. Through the use of the dynamic thermal modelling simulations, the best cavity size glazed type and orientation were determined to lead to a detailed analysis of the efficiency of each respective combination of Double-Skin Facade construction. As such the optimal facade combination for use within an office building located in a maritime desert climate was identified. Results demonstrated that a multi-story Facade, depending on its configuration, save up to 5% on annual cooling loads respect to a Corridor Facade and while vented can save unto 12% when compared to the single skin façade, on annual cooling load in the maritime desert climate. The selected configuration of the DSF from SSF saves an overall annual cooling load of 32%.A comparative analysis of the effect on the overall energy consumption within an office building was investigated in which a combination of various Double-Skin Facade configurations, systems, and cavity depths, glazing types and orientations were utilized. A computer dynamic modelling was utilized in order to ensure accurate calculations and efficient simulations of the various DSF systems due to the complex nature of the various functions within the Facade cavity. Through the use of the dynamic thermal modelling simulations, the best cavity size glazed type and orientation were determined to lead to a detailed analysis of the efficiency of each respective combination of Double-Skin Facade construction. As such the optimal facade combination for use within an office building located in a maritime desert climate was identified. Results demonstrated that a multi-story Facade, depending on its configuration, save up to 5% on annual cooling loads respect to a Corridor Facade and while vented can save unto 12% when compared to the single skin facade, on annual cooling load in the maritime desert climate. The selected configuration of the DSF from SSF saves an overall annual cooling load of 32%.

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, computer dynamics modelling, energy computation, double skin facade, single skin curtain wall, maritime desert climate

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6 Reliability and Probability Weighted Moment Estimation for Three Parameter Mukherjee-Islam Failure Model

Authors: Ariful Islam, Showkat Ahmad Lone

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The Mukherjee-Islam Model is commonly used as a simple life time distribution to assess system reliability. The model exhibits a better fit for failure information and provides more appropriate information about hazard rate and other reliability measures as shown by various authors. It is possible to introduce a location parameter at a time (i.e., a time before which failure cannot occur) which makes it a more useful failure distribution than the existing ones. Even after shifting the location of the distribution, it represents a decreasing, constant and increasing failure rate. It has been shown to represent the appropriate lower tail of the distribution of random variables having fixed lower bound. This study presents the reliability computations and probability weighted moment estimation of three parameter model. A comparative analysis is carried out between three parameters finite range model and some existing bathtub shaped curve fitting models. Since probability weighted moment method is used, the results obtained can also be applied on small sample cases. Maximum likelihood estimation method is also applied in this study.

Keywords: Reliability, Comparative Analysis, maximum likelihood estimation, Mukherjee-Islam failure model, probability weighted moment estimation

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5 Political Party Mobilization Strategies in Ghana: A Comparative Analysis of Three Constituencies

Authors: F. Agbele

Abstract:

Elections are core democratic institutions. Consequently, voter participation during elections is paramount to democratic governance as it serves as a medium to legitimize authority and make the privileges of electoral democracy meaningful to citizens. To this effect, the topic of voter mobilization and subsequent turnout level have been largely studied in advanced democracies. In young and consolidating democracies, the debate has, however, revolves around the huge reliance on ethnic and regional appeals. According to the Author’s knowledge, studies on electoral mobilization especially within the African context have argued the use of ethnic linkages by political parties to mobilize voters during elections. Literature has however not differentiated between the level of democratic dispensation among African countries and the use of ethnic linkages. The question, however, is whether the state of the country’s democracy determines the strategies employed by political parties to induce voter participation. In other words, do parties simply play ethno-regional cards as strongly suggested by literature or will consider an arrayed of strategies to mobilize voters? Additionally, studies have not differentiated the impact of mobilization strategy within a country, i.e. between high to low turnout areas. They have also not distinguished between strategies employed by an incumbent or an opposition party. This paper, therefore, is a comparative analysis of voter mobilization in Ghana. It uses original survey and interview data from three constituencies in Ghana: Nanton, Assin North, and Ellembelle, which are typical cases of high, average and low turnout areas, respectively. The data were concurrently collected during fieldworks conducted in November 2016 to February 2017, and again from July to August 2017. The study found that political parties within a consolidating democracy employ a blend of strategies to ensure turnout by both parties’ faithful and swing voters. The dominant strategies used depends on whether the party is an incumbent or in opposition. While an incumbent may depend more on personalistic and clientelistic strategies, parties in opposition will largely use programmatic strategies, which entails making many campaign promises. Additionally, opposition parties do use clientelistic tactics, but not on the same level as the incumbent. Similarly, within the context of this study, the use of ethnic linkage by political parties to mobilize voters has not been found to be as strong as suggested in the literature. Further, location was key in determining the strategy to use. In all, the consolidation process of a democratic country like Ghana means the change of mobilization strategies used by political parties, which entail a gradual shift from ethnic linkages to programmatic and other forms of non-programmatic strategies.

Keywords: elections, Comparative Analysis, voter turnout, mobilization strategies

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4 Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Innovation Systems: An Appraisal of Literature

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

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In the last years, the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems has gained popularity. It reveals the importance of a supportive community and adequate economic environment for entrepreneurial activity, and thus the possibility of developing a different perspective on the innovation system. On the other hand, the (regional/technology) innovation system approach lacks in its analyses the presence of an entrepreneur as a key actor that develops innovations. In this regard, this paper examines the foundations of both theoretical approaches (the entrepreneurial ecosystems and the regional/technology systems of innovation) and their contributions to understand entrepreneurial activity at different levels of analyses, namely national, regional or local. The paper makes a literature review on both perspectives of innovation stressing the role played by entrepreneurs in these theoretical approaches. It concludes remarking that the regional/technology innovation systems approach and the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach have established themselves in their own right, but the regional/technology innovation system approach is a predecessor of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Ecosystems, Innovation systems, Comparative Analysis, entrepreneurial activity

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3 Comparative Study of Urban Structure between an Island-Type and a General-Type City

Authors: Hiroko Ono, Tomoya Oshiro

Abstract:

Japan's aging population is increasing due to the decrease in birthrate. It causes various problems like the decrease in the gross domestic product of the country. The reason is why the local government of Japan has been on the way to a sustainable city recently. Then it is essential to get control of an urban structure to make the compact city successful. There are many kinds of paper about the compact city; however, the paper about a compact city of the island-type city is less. The purpose of this study is to clarify difference of urban structure between an island-type and a general city type. The method which has conducted in this research has two steps. First of all, by using evaluation indexes in the handbook, we evaluated the urban structures among each same -population-class cities from 50,000 to 100,000 people. Next, to clear the difference about the urban structure and feature between island-type and general-type cities compare the radar chart which is composed with each evaluation indexes of urban structure. Moreover, in order to clarify the relationship between evaluation indexes and the place of residence by using GIS software to show up population density on the map. As a result of this research, the management of local government and the local economy in evaluation indexes are indicated to be negative point in comparison of island-type cities with general cities. However, evaluation indexes of safety/security and low-carbon/energy are proved to be positive point. The research to find the difference features of the island-type of urban structure proves that the management of local government or the local economy is negative point in these island-type cities. In addition, the public transportation coverage in Miyako Island, Sado Island, and Amakusa Island show low value compare with other islands and average value. Relationship between evaluation indexes of an urban structure and the place of residence prove that the place of residence is related to public transportation coverage. If the place of residence is spread out, the public transportation coverage will be decreased. The results of this research reveal that the finances in island-type cities are negative point compare to general cities. This problem is caused by declining population. In addition, the place of residence is related to the public transportation coverage. Even though, it needs a much money to increase the public transportation coverage. It is possibly to cause other problems furthermore the aspect of finance is influenced by that as well. The conclusion in this research suggests that it is important for creating the compact city in island-type cities that we first need to address solving the problems about the management of local government and the local economy.

Keywords: Geographic Information System, Sustainable City, Urban Structure, Comparative Analysis

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2 Comparative Analysis of Medical Tourism Industry among Key Nations in Southeast Asia

Authors: Nur A. Azmi, Suseela D. Chandran, Fadilah Puteh, Azizan Zainuddin

Abstract:

Medical tourism has been associated as a global phenomenon in developed and developing countries in the 21st century. Medical tourism is defined as an activity in which individuals who travel from one country to another country to seek or receive medical healthcare. Based on the global trend, the number of medical tourists is increasing annually, especially in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. Since the establishment of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967, the SEA nations have worked towards regional integration in medical tourism. The medical tourism in the SEA has become the third-largest sector that contributes towards economic development. Previous research has demonstrated several factors that affect the development of medical tourism. However, despite the already published literature on SEA's medical tourism in the last ten years there continues to be a scarcity of research on niche areas each of the SEA countries. Hence, this paper is significant in enriching the literature in the field of medical tourism particularly in showcasing the niche market of medical tourism among the SEA best players namely Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. This paper also contributes in offering a comparative analysis between the said nations whether they are complementing or competing with each other in the medical tourism sector. This then, will increase the availability of information in SEA region on medical tourism. The data was collected through an in-depth interview with various stakeholders and private hospitals. The data was then analyzed using two approaches namely thematic analysis (interview data) and document analysis (secondary data). The paper concludes by arguing that the ASEAN countries have specific niche market to promote their medical tourism industry. This paper also concludes that these key nations complement each other in the industry. In addition, the medical tourism sector in SEA region offers greater prospects for market development and expansion that witnessed the emerging of new key players from other nations.

Keywords: healthcare services, Medical Tourism, Comparative Analysis, medical tourists, SEA region

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1 Sustainable Housing Framework for the Czech Republic: A Comparative Analysis of International and National Strategies

Authors: Jakub Adamec, Svatava Janouskova, Tomas Hak

Abstract:

The necessity of sustainable housing is explicitly embedded in ‘The 2030 agenda for sustainable development’, in particular, goal 11 ‘sustainable cities and communities’. Every UN member state is obligated to implement strategies from the agenda, including a strategy for sustainable housing into the practice in the local context. As shown in many countries, the lack of knowledge represses the adaptation process of sustainable strategies by governments. Hence, this study explores the concept of sustainable housing within the Czech Republic. The research elaborates on this term, and its current definition concerning ‘Geneva UN Charter on Sustainable Housing’. To this day, the charter represents the most comprehensive framework for a sustainable housing concept. Researchers conducted a comparative analysis of 38 international and 195 Czech national strategic documents. As a result, the charter‘s and strategic documents‘ goals were interconnected, identifying the most represented targets (e.g. improved environmental and energy performance of dwellings, resilient urban settlements which use renewable energy, and sustainable and integrated transport systems). The research revealed, even though the concept of sustainable housing is still dominated by environmental aspects, that social aspects significantly increased its importance. Additionally, this theoretical framework will serve as a foundation for the sustainable housing index development for the Czech Republic.

Keywords: Sustainable Housing, Urban Theory, Comparative Analysis, Czech national strategy, Geneva un charter

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