Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Community Related Abstracts

58 How to Empower People to Provide Good Nutrition to Children: Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrition Workshop)

Authors: Anggun Yuliana Putri, Melisa Rahmadini

Abstract:

The Ministry of National Development Planning in Indonesia has reported that more than eight million Indonesian children are still malnourished. Based on national statistics, and a recent ranking from NGO Save the Children, Indonesia is one of 15 countries making the fastest gains in cutting child malnutrition among 165 developing countries. According to a United Nations Children’s Fund, at least 7.6 million Indonesian children under the age of 5 or one out of every three suffer from stunted growth, a primary manifestation of malnutrition in early childhood, the report ranked Indonesia as having the fifth largest number of children under 5 suffering from stunted growth worldwide. Addressing the problem of malnutrition in Indonesia, Aksi Cepat Tanggap (ACT) Foundation, a humanitarian organization working with Carrefour, acts as donor and pursues several solutions to the problem, especially of malnourished children and infants in South Tangerang area, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to examine the community empowerment driven by ACT Foundation in order to maintain the good status continuity of child and toddler after the children malnutrition recovered. Research was conducted using qualitative approach through in-depth interview and observation to find out how the Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrion Workshop) programs make people empowered. Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (BGT) is divided into 3 sequences of activities, there were: integrated malnutrition rehabilitation; provision of health education to mothers of infants and young children; and family economic empowerment to head of household. Results showed that after empowerment process has been done through training and provision of knowledge to the mothers and families about the important of nutrition and health, there were 30 of 100 mothers who participated actively. Then, there were 45 of 100 heads of household who participated in business training were able to open a business on their own which provided and controlled by ACT as stakeholder in this program. The further findings revealed that BGT programs are able to form community health workers and provide employment opportunities to community. This study believes that integrated nutrition workshop program is the solution to maintain good nutrition among children in South Tangerang, through empowerment of parents and community members, via education and business training program. Both programs prepared parents with economic sustenance and necessary information, a pre-requisite to end malnutrition in children.

Keywords: Malnutrition, training, Community, Empowerment

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57 The Concept of Community Participation and Identified Tertiary Education Problems, Strategies and Methods

Authors: Ada Adoga James

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This paper discussed the concept of community participation and identified tertiary education problems; strategies and methods communities could be involved to reduce conflict witnessed in our tertiary institutions of learning due to government inability to fund education. The paper pointed out that community participation through the use of Parent Teachers Association (PTA), age grade, traditional leaders, village based associations, religious and political organs could be sensitized to raise financial resources. The paper identified different sources of conflicts, the outcome of which causes prolonged academic activities, destruction of lives and properties and in some cased render school environment completely insecure for serious academic activities. It recommends involvement of community participation in assisting government, proper handling of tertiary institutions in management, and more democratic procedure in conflict resolution like cordial relationship between staff, students and trade unions in decision making process.

Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Community, Conflict Resolution, tertiary education

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56 Forms of Promoting and Disseminating Traditional Local Wisdom to Create Occupations among the Elderly in Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Doong District, Udonthani Province

Authors: Pennapa Palapin

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This research sought to study the traditional local wisdom and study the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom in order to find the forms of promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly at Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Dung District, UdonThani Province. The criterion used to select the research sample group was, being a person having a role involved in the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly at Nonmueng Community, Muang Sub-District, Baan Dung District, UdonThani Province; being an experienced person whom the residents of Nonmueng Community find trustworthy; and having lived in Nonmueng Community for a long time so as to be able to see the development and change that occurs. A total of 16 people were selected. Data was gathered as a qualitative study, through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The collected data was then summarised and discussed according to the research objectives. Finally, the data was presented in a narrative format. Results found that the identifying traditional local wisdom of the community (which grew from the residents’ experience and beneficial usage in daily life, passed down from generation to generation) was the weaving of cloth and basketry. As for the manner of promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom, the skills were passed down through teaching by example to family members, relatives and others in the community. This was done by the elders or elderly members of the community. For the promotion and dissemination of traditional local wisdom to create occupations among the elderly, the traditional local wisdom should be supported in every way through participation of the community members. For example, establish a museum of traditional local wisdom for the collection of traditional local wisdom in various fields, both in the past and at present. This would be a source of pride for the community, in order to make traditional local wisdom widely known and to create income for the community’s elderly. Additional ways include exhibitions of products made by traditional local wisdom, finding both domestic and international markets, as well as building both domestic and international networks aiming to find opportunities to market products made by traditional local wisdom.

Keywords: Community, Elderly, occupation, traditional local wisdom

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55 Community Participation for Sustainable Development Tourism in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad, Bua Srikos

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The purpose is to study the model and characteristic of participation of the suitable community to lead to develop permanent water marketing in Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti District, Samutsongkhram Province. A total of 342 survey questionnaires were administered to potential respondents. The researchers interviewed the leader of the community. Appreciation Influence Control (AIC) was used to talk with 20 villagers on arena. The findings revealed that overall, most people had the middle level of the participation in developing the durable Bang Noi Floating Market, Bangkonti, Samutsongkhram Province and in aspects of gaining benefits from developing it with atmosphere and a beautiful view for tourism. For example, the landscape is beautiful with public utilities. The participation in preserving and developing Bang Noi Floating Market remains in the former way of life. The basic factor of person affects to the participation of people such as age, level of education, career, and income per month. Most participants are the original hosts that have houses and shops located in the marketing and neighbor. These people involve with the benefits and have the power to make a water marketing strategy, the major role to set the information database. It also found that the leader and the villagers play the important role in setting a five-physical database. Data include level of information such as position of village, territory of village, road, river, and premises. Information of culture consists of a two-level of information, interesting point, and Itinerary. The information occurs from presenting and practicing by the leader and villagers in the community.All of phases are presented for listening and investigating database together in both the leader and villagers in the process of participation.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Tourism, Community, Participation, encouragement

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54 Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-Based Sample

Authors: Cao Yuping, Li Longfei, Zhao Xingfu, Zhang Yalin

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Purpose: This study examined the effects of exposure to domestic physical violence (DPV) on children’s behavior in a community sample. Method: Ninety-three 12-16 year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were matched with 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV based on age, gender, family composition and parental age and education level. Participation included assessment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by the adolescents and their parents respectively. Results: CBCL total score and anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing scores were significantly higher in adolescents exposed to DPV than those in controls (all ps<0.05).The CBCL total score and scores of anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing behaviors of boys were significantly higher in the research group than in the controls (all ps<0.05). Delinquency scores in abused adolescents were significantly higher than in DPV witnessed (p<0.05), but no other scores of CBCL were significant different. Different subtypes of behavioral problems were associated with different types of abuse. Conclusions: DPV exposure is associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witness DPV alone have similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors.

Keywords: Behavior, Community, Child, Domestic Violence, China

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53 Our Shared Humanity: Bridging the Great Divide of Different Religions

Authors: Aida Raissi, Holly Wong, Elma Raissi

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Background: Connection is a primal need established during infancy and reiterated in many forms of social interaction. When we make connections with others we experience growth, continuity, and gain an understanding of the other’s sense of the world. Feeling socially connected to another individual or community has been shown to increase self-esteem, happiness, and meaning. However, feeling connected to another individual or a specific community may also decrease the motivation to seek connection with more distant individuals or communities. Furthermore, we allow ourselves to interact with those in other communities as apart from us, and in some cases, to dehumanize their existence. Objective: The aim of this project is to bridge the gap between different communities, specifically religious communities and foster feelings of connection as one with all members through the medium of art, specifically photography. Method: Members of all major faiths including Agnosticism, Atheism, Buddhism, Catholicism, Christianity, Ismaili, Jewish, Ja’far Shia, Sunni will be interviewed. Participants will be asked to partake in a brief interview of two parts: A. Answering two questions: 1. What are you most looking forward to in the future, and why? 2. What does religion mean to you? B. Having their picture taken. Our questions aim to elicit individual stories that together, show that we have more in common, than differences, despite our faiths. With the completion of the interviews, the responses will be compiled together and major themes will be identified. Impact: The resulting stories and corresponding individual pictures provide an excellent opportunity to encourage and inspire people to get to know those of other beliefs and values, participate in each other’s communities and develop a sense of oneness within our shared humanity. Knowledge translation: The personal stories, and the common themes they illustrate, will be shared with various audiences, including the general public, academia and targeted groups such as students. This will be done through displaying the photographs and responses at art galleries, conferences, in print and online.

Keywords: Social Justice, Community, understanding, Religion, connection

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52 The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household: A Case Study of Tha Wasukri, Bangkok

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat, Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee

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The research on “The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household” aims to study 1) the way of life of the people who live in the civil servant community in Tha Wasukri, and 2) the model of community administration of civil servants under the Bureau of the Royal Household. This research is conducted qualitatively and quantitatively by collecting data from interviews, focus group discussion, participant and non-participant observation along with the data from the questionnaire based on age groups which include elder group, working age group and youth group. The result of the research shows that the origin of this community is related to the history during the Rama V’s reign. It has been a harbor for the king to boat in any royal ceremonies; this custom is still maintained until today. The status or position of person who serves the king in terms of working is often inherited from the bureau of the Royal Household based on his/her consanguinity and, hence, further receives the rights to live in the Tha Wasukri area. Therefore, this community has some special characteristics demonstrating the way of living influenced by the regulation of the Bureau of the Royal Household such as respecting elders and interdependence in which there is internal social organization with the practice of bureaucracy in going in and out the community. The person who has rights to live here must be friendly to everybody so that this community will be a safe place for lives and property. The administration based on the model of Bangkok for local administration was used as an external structure only, but the way of living still follows the practice of the Bureau of the Royal Household.

Keywords: Community, way of life, Tha Wasukri, Bureau of the Royal Household

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51 Career Development for Benjarong Porcelain Handicraft Communities in Central Thailand

Authors: Suwaree Yordchim, Chutikarn Sriwiboon

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Benjarong handicraft product is one of the most important handicraft products from Thailand. It involves the management of traditional wisdom of arts and Thai culture. This paper drew upon data collection from local communities by using an in-depth interview technique which was conducted in Thailand during summer of 2014. The survey was structured primarily to obtain local wisdom and concerns toward their career development. This research paper was a qualitative research conducted by focus groups with a total of 51 cooperative women and occupational groups around Thailand which produced the Benjarong products. The data were significantly collected from many sources and many communities, which totaled 24,430 handicraft products, in which the 668 different patterns of Benjarong products were produced by 51 local community network groups in Thailand. The findings revealed that after applying the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, there was a significantly positive change in their career development and the process of knowledge management enables local community to enhance their personal development and career.

Keywords: Community, Career Development, Benjarong, handicraft

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50 Innovation and Creativity: Inspiring the Next Generation in the Ethekwini Municipality

Authors: Anneline Chetty

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Innovation is not always born in a sterile lab or is not always about applications and technology. Innovative solutions to community challenges can be borne out of the creativity of community members. This was proven by Professor Anil Gupta who for more than two decades scoured rural India for its hidden innovations motivated by the belief that the most powerful ideas for fighting poverty and hardship will not come from corporate research labs, but from ordinary people struggling to survive. The Ethekwini Municipality is a city in South Africa which adopted a similar approach, recognising the innovativeness of youth (students and school pupils) in its area. The intention was to make the youth a part of the solution to challenges faced by the Municipality. In this regard, five areas were selected and five groups of students were identified. Each group was sent into the community to identify challenges and engage with community leaders as well as members. Each group was tasked to come with solutions to these challenges which were to be presented at an Innovation Summit. The presented solutions were judged and the winning solution would be implemented by the Municipality. This paper, documents the experience of the students as well as the kinds of solutions that were presented. The purpose is to highlight the importance of using the ingenious minds and creativity of youth and channel their energy into becoming part of society’s solutions as opposed to being the problem

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Community, Indigenous

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49 Understanding Social Networks in Community's Coping Capacity with Floods: A Case Study of a Community in Cambodia

Authors: Ourn Vimoil, Kallaya Suntornvongsagul

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Cambodia is considered as one of the most disaster prone countries in South East Asia, and most of natural disasters are related to floods. Cambodia, a developing country, faces significant impacts from floods, such as environmental, social, and economic losses. Using data accessed from focus group discussions and field surveys with villagers in Ba Baong commune, prey Veng province, Cambodia, the research would like to examine roles of social networks in raising community’s coping capacity with floods. The findings indicate that social capital play crucial roles in three stages of floods, namely preparedness, response, and recovery to overcome the crisis. People shared their information and resources, and extent their assistances to one another in order to adapt to floods. The study contribute to policy makers, national and international agencies working on this issue to pay attention on social networks as one factors to accelerate flood coping capacity at community level.

Keywords: Flood, Social Network, Community, coping capacity, Cambodia

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48 Ecological and Economical Indicators of Successful Community Based Forest Management: A Case of Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal

Authors: Bikram Jung Kunwar, Pralhad Kunwor

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The Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) approach is often glorified as the best forest management alternatives in the developing countries. However, how the approach has been understood by the local user households, who implement it is remained unanswered for many planners, policy makers, and sometimes researcher as well. The study attempts to assess the understanding of ecology and economics of CBFM in Nepal, where community forest program has been implemented since the 1970s. In order to understand the impacts of the program, eight criteria and sixteen indicators for ecological conservation and similarly same number of criteria and indicators for socio-economic impacts of the program were designed and compared between before and after the program implementation. The community forestry program has positive effects in forest ecology conservation and at the same time rural livelihood improvement of local people. The study revealed that collective understanding of forest ecology and economics leads the CBFM approach towards the sustainability of the program in a win-win situation. The recommendations of the study are expected to be useful to natural resource managers, planners, and policy makers.

Keywords: Economics, Ecology, Community, Forest Management, Nepal

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47 State Forest Management Practices by Indigenous Peoples in Dharmasraya District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia

Authors: Abdul Mutolib, Yonariza Mahdi, Hanung Ismono

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The existence of forests is essential to human lives on earth, but its existence is threatened by forest deforestations and degradations. Forest deforestations and degradations in Indonesia is not only caused by the illegal activity by the company or the like, even today many cases in Indonesia forest damage caused by human activities, one of which cut down forests for agriculture and plantations. In West Sumatra, community forest management are the result supported the enactment of customary land tenure, including ownership of land within the forest. Indigenous forest management have a positive benefit, which gives the community an opportunity to get livelihood and income, but if forest management practices by indigenous peoples is not done wisely, then there is the destruction of forests and cause adverse effects on the environment. Based on intensive field works in Dhamasraya District employing some data collection techniques such as key informant interviews, household surveys, secondary data analysis, and satellite image interpretation. This paper answers the following questions; how the impact of forest management by local communities on forest conditions (foccus in Forest Production and Limited Production Forest) and knowledge of the local community on the benefits of forests. The site is a Nagari Bonjol, Dharmasraya District, because most of the forest in Dharmasraya located and owned by Nagari Bonjol community. The result shows that there is damage to forests in Dharmasraya because of forest management activities by local communities. Damage to the forest area of 33,500 ha in Dharmasraya because forests are converted into oil palm and rubber plantations with monocultures. As a result of the destruction of forests, water resources are also diminishing, and the community has experienced a drought in the dry season due to forest cut down and replaced by oil palm plantations. Knowledge of the local community on the benefits of low forest, the people considered that the forest does not have better benefits and cut down and converted into oil palm or rubber plantations. Local people do not understand the benefits of ecological and environmental services that forests. From the phenomena in Dharmasraya on land ownership, need to educate the local community about the importance of protecting the forest, and need a strategy to integrate forests management to keep the ecological functions that resemble the woods and counts the economic benefits for the welfare of local communities. One alternative that can be taken is to use forest management models agroforestry smallholders in accordance with the characteristics of the local community who still consider the economic, social and environmental.

Keywords: Community, customary land, farmer plantations, and forests

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46 The Impact of Land Use Ex-Concession to the Environment in Dharmasraya District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia

Authors: Yurike, Yonariza, Rudi Febriamansyah, Syafruddin Karimi

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Forest is a natural resource that has an important function as a supporting element of human life. Forest degradation enormous impact on global warming is a reality we have experienced together, that disruption of ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, disruption of water management system watersheds and the threat of natural disasters as floods, landslides and droughts, even disruption food security. Dharmasraya is a district in the province of West Sumatra, which has an area of 92.150 ha of forest, which is largely a former production forest concessions (Forest Management Rights) which is supposed to be a secondary forest. This study answers about the impact of land use in the former concession area Dharmasraya on the environment. The methodology used is the household survey, key informants, and satellite data / GIS. From the results of the study, the former concession area in Dharmasraya experienced a reduction of forest cover over time significantly. Forest concessions should be secondary forests in Dharmasraya, now turned conversion to oil palm plantations. Population pressures and growing economic pressures, resulting in more intensive harvesting. As a result of these forest disturbances caused changes in forest functions. These changes put more emphasis towards economic function by ignoring social functions or ecological function. Society prefers to maximize their benefits today and pay less attention to the protection of natural resources. This causes global warming is increasing and this is not only felt by people around Dharmasraya but also the world. Land clearing by the community through a process in slash and burn. This fire was observed by NOAA satellites and recorded by the Forest Service of West Sumatra. This demonstrates the ability of trees felled trees to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) to be lost, even with forest fires accounted for carbon dioxide emitted into the air, and this has an impact on global warming. In addition to the change of control of land into oil palm plantations water service has been poor, people began to trouble the water and oil palm plantations are located in the watershed caused the river dried up. Through the findings of this study is expected to contribute ideas to the policy makers to pay more attention to the former concession forest management as the prevention or reduction of global warming.

Keywords: Climate Change, Environment, Community, concession forests

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45 Women Empowerment and Sustainable Community Development: Understanding the Challenges for Responsive Action

Authors: Albert T. Akume, Ankama G. Rosecana, Micheal Solomon

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Every citizen has rights that must be respected by others in the community. Ironically however, women in most communities are not accorded some of those rights as the male folks. This has not only facilitated their disempowerment but inhibited them from being treated with equal dignity that they deserve as their male counterpart; despite their valuable contribution to the society. Those forces against women empowerment are not limited to socio-cultural practices alone, but the character and nature of the state in Nigeria point to indicators of systemic and structural exclusion embedded in its framework. The consequence of this is that the vital contributions of women to sustainable community development have eluded many communities in Nigeria with adverse tell-tell signs on the environment. It is for this reason that the objective of this study is not only to highlight the causes and challenges associated with women disempowerment, but also to draw attention to the need to correct those anomaly against women in order to genuinely empower them to contribute to sustainable community development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Community, Social Sustainability, Women Empowerment, capacity development

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44 Pricing Effects on Equitable Distribution of Forest Products and Livelihood Improvement in Nepalese Community Forestry

Authors: Laxuman Thakuri

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Despite the large number of in-depth case studies focused on policy analysis, institutional arrangement, and collective action of common property resource management; how the local institutions take the pricing decision of forest products in community forest management and what kinds of effects produce it, the answers of these questions are largely silent among the policy-makers and researchers alike. The study examined how the local institutions take the pricing decision of forest products in the lowland community forestry of Nepal and how the decisions affect to equitable distribution of benefits and livelihood improvement which are also objectives of Nepalese community forestry. The study assumes that forest products pricing decisions have multiple effects on equitable distribution and livelihood improvement in the areas having heterogeneous socio-economic conditions. The dissertation was carried out at four community forests of lowland, Nepal that has characteristics of high value species, matured-experience of community forest management and better record-keeping system of forest products production, pricing and distribution. The questionnaire survey, individual to group discussions and direct field observation were applied for data collection from the field, and Lorenz curve, gini-coefficient, χ²-text, and SWOT (Strong, Weak, Opportunity, and Threat) analysis were performed for data analysis and results interpretation. The dissertation demonstrates that the low pricing strategy of high-value forest products was supposed crucial to increase the access of socio-economically weak households, and to and control over the important forest products such as timber, but found counter productive as the strategy increased the access of socio-economically better-off households at higher rate. In addition, the strategy contradicts to collect a large-scale community fund and carry out livelihood improvement activities as per the community forestry objectives. The crucial part of the study is despite the fact of low pricing strategy; the timber alone contributed large part of community fund collection. The results revealed close relation between pricing decisions and livelihood objectives. The action research result shows that positive price discrimination can slightly reduce the prevailing inequality and increase the fund. However, it lacks to harness the full price of forest products and collects a large-scale community fund. For broader outcomes of common property resource management in terms of resource sustainability, equity, and livelihood opportunity, the study suggests local institutions to harness the full price of resource products with respect to the local market.

Keywords: Community, Forest, livelihood, Nepal, socioeconomic, equitable

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43 Breaking the Silence and Rewriting the Script

Authors: Carlette Groome

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This paper examined the role of drama in the lives of four women. The researcher concluded that drama can be an avenue of healing and could be an effective means of social work intervention in the communities as well as female empowerment. The participants in the study were able to, through the dramatic process; re-write their life’s scripts by resolving paradoxes and conflicts related to the themes unearthed. The research conducted examined the role of drama in the lives of four women living in volatile communities in Jamaica, who were each exposed to violence in one, or multiple, forms. The women were trained by Sistren Theatre Collective in the use of drama for education (edutainment), and were actresses in Sistren's street theatre drama group. Using their own personal and collective experiences, they used drama to raise social consciousness at the community level, about violence and other issues affecting women. The study employed a narrative case study approach and was grounded in a constructivist paradigm. This paradigm was coupled with a basic interpretive qualitative method and the concept of the reflective practitioner provided the foundation for the analysis. Through individual conversations with the women, themes of abuse, resilience, self- esteem, and empowerment arose sharply. The women explored drama and understood it to be instrumental in healing different aspects of their lives. Also, through the dramatic process; they were able to re-write their life’s scripts by resolving paradoxes and conflicts related to the themes unearthed.

Keywords: Women, Community, drama, Healing

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42 The Role of Social Networking in Activating the Participation of Youth in the Community

Authors: Raya Hamed Hial Al Maamari

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The gulf societies have been undergoing radical changes because of the technology transfer. It altered the humanities attitudes. Especially, youth habits so they become a fond of using social networking. This study aimed to find out the ratio of social networking in Directing youth to participate with government institutions in decision-making and improving their societies. The study considered a descriptive study, social survey method was used on a sample of 100 young men from different gulf countries, using an electronic questionnaire, with some interviews with famous leaders of youth groups. Finally, the researchers suggested many effective views to activate youth efforts using social networks as an effective manner to plan for the development policy and Implemented accurately in the community. The findings illustrated that social networks play a vital role in encouraging youth to participate Enthusiastically in providing the service. As it notices these networks contain large numbers of youth. Therefore, the influences become widely and feasible. Moreover, the study indicated the fact that most of youth teamwork started in these social networks. Then, it has been growing to the real society.

Keywords: Community, Social Work, Youth, volunteering

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41 Empowering Rural Women Entrepreneurs via Microcredit

Authors: Salwana Hassan, Rashidah Abdul Rahman

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Poverty in rural Malaysia remains unresolved and contribute 7.8% to the whole poverty figure in Malaysia. Among the rural folks, 50% is women. Thus, women, as the significant human capital to fight the long lost battle of poverty , is indispensable. This will also serve as an equal opportunity for women to play active and positive roles to develop the society that has been the tasks for men all this while. More importantly rural women folks have the potential to offer better quality of life for their family by providing extra income and monetary support whenever their husbands are not able to work. The reality in this, however, cannot be solved easily as there are many factors that stand in the way and prevent the resolutions to be observed.In this regard, this paper describes a model that has been used to resolve such issues in rural Malaysia. The model utilizes a synergetic effort between an academic institution, an NGO that govern the rural women folks and a private trading company that sell the finished product. The project was conducted in rural area of Selangor and has been in operations since the end of 2013. It shows positive outcome and could be used in other rural areas of Malaysia. The project captures the influence of the NGO programs upon rural women entrepreneurship and how a private trading company can facilitate to help develop a community. As a result the project reveals that self-income generating activities by entrepreneurship are the important contributing factor to empowering rural women folks in Malaysia.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Rural, Poverty, Community, Empowerment

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40 Motherhood Practices and Symbolic Capital: A Study of Teen Mothers in Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Ampai Muensit, Maniemai Thongyou, Patcharin Lapanun

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Teen mothers have been viewed as ‘a powerless’ facing numerous pressures including poverty, immaturity of motherhood, and especially social blame.This paper argues that, to endure as an agent, they keep struggling to overcome all difficulties in their everyday life by using certain symbols to negotiate the situations they encounter, and to obtain a social position without surrendering to the dominating socio-cultural structure. Guided by Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this study looks at how teen mothers use symbolic capital in their motherhood practices. Although motherhood practices can be found in different contexts with various types of capital utilization, this paper focuses on the use of symbolic capitals in teen mothers’ practices within the contexts of the community. The study employs a qualitative methodology; data was collected from 12 informants through life history, in-depth interview, observation and the content analytical method was employed for data analysis. The findings show that child and motherhood were key symbolic capitals in motherhood practices. Employing such capitals teen mothers can achieve an acceptance from community – particularly from the new community. These symbolic capitals were the important sources of teen mothers’ power to turn the tide by changing their status – from “the powerless” to be “the agent”. The use of symbolic capitals also related to habitus of teen mothers in better compromising for an appropriate social position.

Keywords: Community, teen mother, motherhood practice, symbolic capital

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39 Socializing Young Females towards Sports

Authors: Mohinder Kumar

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Sports are considered as the very prominent social institution in almost every society because it reflects the mores, values, and general culture of a society. Sports activity tend to pave the foundation for learning acceptable values and beliefs and for acquiring desirable character traits such as self-discipline, sportsmanship, and an appreciation for hard work, fairness, self-respect, leadership, followership, justice, perseverance, competition, and goal attainment. The present study focuses on ideal ways of socializing youngsters into sports. Influences of some socializing agents (e.g. family, school, community) are reviewed and suggestions made as to how these socializing agents can be oriented and made effective in carrying out functional processes toward target ends.

Keywords: Society, Sports, Community, Family, socializing

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38 Local Community Participation and the Adoption of Agricultural Technology in Kayunga District, Uganda

Authors: Barbara Kyampeire, Gerald Karyeijja

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This study investigated the influence of local community participation on the adoption of new agricultural technology in Uganda, using the case study of Smooth Cayenne Pineapples in Kayunga District, Uganda. The mechanism of adoption of new technologies is often not fully understood and this prompted the study. The study adopted a descriptive, co relational, survey design. The researcher used questionnaire survey, focus group discussion as methods of data collection. A total of 152 respondents including adopters and non-adopters of new technology for producing pineapples were selected from 8 farmer groups in Kayunga District. The results indicated that the participation of the community in the planning, implementation and the monitoring and evaluation of the adoption of the new technology for producing pineapples was low thus reducing the adoption of the new technology in the District. The researcher concluded that community participation significantly influences the adoption of new agricultural technology by members of a particular community. The study thus recommended that: first, there is need for maximum involvement of members of the community in the planning, implementation and monitoring of any new agricultural technology; secondly, there is need for continued sharing of information about new agricultural technologies being introduced; and finally, community members must be equipped with Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) skills in order to make them monitor the progress made by the new agricultural technologies.

Keywords: Community, Technology, Implementation, Adoption

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37 Moving Beyond the Limits of Disability Inclusion: Using the Concept of Belonging Through Friendship to Improve the Outcome of the Social Model of Disability

Authors: Luke S. Carlos A. Thompson

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The medical model of disability, though beneficial for the medical professional, is often exclusionary, restrictive and dehumanizing when applied to the lived experience of disability. As a result, a critique of this model was constructed called the social model of disability. Much of the language used to articulate the purpose behind the social model of disability can be summed up within the word inclusion. However, this essay asserts that inclusiveness is an incomplete aspiration. The social model, as it currently stands, does not aid in creating a society where those with impairments actually belong. Rather, the social model aids in lessening the visibility, or negative consequence of, difference. Therefore, the social model does not invite society to welcome those with physical and intellectual impairments. It simply aids society in ignoring the existence of impairment by removing explicit forms of exclusion. Rather than simple inclusion, then, this essay uses John Swinton’s concept of friendship and Jean Vanier’s understanding of belonging to better articulate the intended outcome of the social model—a society where everyone can belong.

Keywords: Disability, Inclusion, Community, Exclusion, Friendship, belong, differently-able, normality

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36 The Use of Social Media in a UK School of Pharmacy to Increase Student Engagement and Sense of Belonging

Authors: Luke Taylor, Samantha J. Hall, Kenneth I. Cumming, Jakki Bardsley, Scott S. P. Wildman

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Medway School of Pharmacy – a joint collaboration between the University of Kent and the University of Greenwich – is a large school of pharmacy in the United Kingdom. The school primarily delivers the accredited Master or Pharmacy (MPharm) degree programme. Reportedly, some students may feel isolated from the larger student body that extends across four separate campuses, where a diverse range of academic subjects is delivered. In addition, student engagement has been noted as being limited in some areas, as evidenced in some cases by poor attendance at some lectures. In January 2015, the University of Kent launched a new initiative dedicated to Equality, Diversity and Inclusivity (EDI). As part of this project, Medway School of Pharmacy employed ‘Student Success Project Officers’ in order to analyse past and present school data. As a result, initiatives have been implemented to i) negate disparities in attainment and ii) increase engagement, particularly for Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) students which make up for more than 80% of the pharmacy student cohort. Social media platforms are prevalent, with global statistics suggesting that they are most commonly used by females between the ages of 16-34. Student focus groups held throughout the academic year brought to light the school’s need to use social media much more actively. Prior to the EDI initiative, social media usage for Medway School of Pharmacy was scarce. Platforms including: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, The Student Room and University Blogs were either introduced or rejuvenated. This action was taken with the primary aim of increasing student engagement. By using a number of varied social media platforms, the university is able to capture a large range of students by appealing to different interests. Social media is being used to disseminate important information, promote equality and diversity, recognise and celebrate student success and also to allow students to explore the student life outside of Medway School of Pharmacy. Early data suggests an increase in lecture attendance, as well as greater evidence of student engagement highlighted by recent focus group discussions. In addition, students have communicated that active social media accounts were imperative when choosing universities for 2015/16. It allows students to understand more about the University and community prior to beginning their studies. By having a lively presence on social media, the university can use a multi-faceted approach to succeed in early engagement, as well as fostering the long term engagement of continuing students.

Keywords: Social Media, Pharmacy, Community, Engagement

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35 Preparedness Level of Disaster Management Institutions in Context of Floods in Delhi

Authors: Aditi Madan, Jayant Kumar Routray

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Purpose: Over the years flood related risks have compounded due to increasing vulnerability caused by rapid urbanisation and growing population. This increase is an indication of the need for enhancing the preparedness of institutions to respond to floods. The study describes disaster management structure and its linkages with institutions involved in managing disasters. It addresses issues and challenges associated with readiness of disaster management institutions to respond to floods. It suggests policy options for enhancing the current state of readiness of institutions to respond by considering factors like institutional, manpower, financial, technical, leadership & networking, training and awareness programs, monitoring and evaluation. Methodology: The study is based on qualitative data with statements and outputs from primary and secondary sources to understand the institutional framework for disaster management in India. Primary data included field visits, interviews with officials from institutions managing disasters and the affected community to identify the challenges faced in engaging national, state, district and local level institutions in managing disasters. For focus group discussions, meetings were held with district project officers and coordinators, local officials, community based organisation, civil defence volunteers and community heads. These discussions were held to identify the challenges associated with preparedness to respond of institutions to floods. Findings: Results show that disasters are handled by district authority and the role of local institutions is limited to a reactive role during disaster. Data also indicates that although the existing institutional setup is well coordinated at the district level but needs improvement at the local level. Wide variations exist in awareness and perception among the officials engaged in managing disasters. Additionally, their roles and responsibilities need to be clearly defined with adequate budget and dedicated permanent staff for managing disasters. Institutions need to utilise the existing manpower through proper delegation of work. Originality: The study suggests that disaster risk reduction needs to focus more towards inclusivity of the local urban bodies. Wide variations exist in awareness and perception among the officials engaged in managing disasters. In order to ensure community participation, it is important to address their social and economic problems since such issues can overshadow attempts made for reducing risks. Thus, this paper suggests development of direct linkages among institutions and community for enhancing preparedness to respond to floods.

Keywords: Flood, Disaster, Community, Preparedness, response, institution

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34 Role of Community Youths in Conservation of Forests and Protected Areas of Bangladesh

Authors: Obaidul Fattah Tanvir, Zinat Ara Afroze

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Community living adjacent to forests and Protected Areas, especially in South Asian countries, have a common practice in extracting resources for their living and livelihoods. This extraction of resources, because the way it is done, destroys the biophysical features of the area. Deforestation, wildlife poaching, illegal logging, unauthorized hill cutting etc. are some of the serious issues of concern for the sustainability of the natural resources that has a direct impact on environment and climate as a whole. To ensure community involvement in conservation initiatives of the state, community based forest management, commonly known as Comanagement, has been in practice in 6 South Asian countries. These are -India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Involving community in forestry management was initiated first in Bangladesh in 1979 and reached as an effective co-management approach through a several paradigm shifts. This idea of Comanagement has been institutionalized through a Government Order (GO) by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of Bangladesh on November 23, 2009. This GO clearly defines the structure and functions of Co-management and its different bodies. Bangladesh Forest Department has been working in association with community to conserve and manage the Forests and Protected areas of Bangladesh following this legal document. Demographically young people constitute the largest segment of population in Bangladesh. This group, if properly sensitized, can produce valuable impacts on the conservation initiatives, both by community and government. This study traced the major factors that motivate community youths to work effectively with different tiers of comanagement organizations in conservation of forests and Protected Areas of Bangladesh. For the purpose of this study, 3 FGDs were conducted with 30 youths from the community living around the Protected Areas of Cox’s bazar, South East corner of Bangladesh, who are actively involved in Co-management organizations. KII were conducted with 5 key officials of Forest Department stationed at Cox’s Bazar. 2 FGDs were conducted with the representatives of 7 Co-management organizations working in Cox’s Bazar region and approaches of different community outreach activities conducted for forest conservation by 3 private organizations and Projects have been reviewed. Also secondary literatures were reviewed for the history and evolution of Co-management in Bangladesh and six South Asian countries. This study found that innovative community outreach activities that are financed by public and private sectors involving youths and community as a whole have played a pivotal role in conservation of forests and Protected Areas of the region. This approach can be replicated in other regions of Bangladesh as well as other countries of South Asia where Co-Management exists in practice.

Keywords: Forests, Conservation, Community, Youth, Protected Areas, co-management

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33 Situated Urban Rituals: Rethinking the Meaning and Practice of Micro Culture in Cities in East Asia

Authors: Heide Imai

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Contemporary cities, especially in Japan, have reached an indescribable complexity and excessive, global investments blur formal, rooted structures. Modern urban agglomerations blindly trust a macro understanding, whereas everyday activities which portray the human degree of living space are being suppressed and erased. The paper will draw upon the approach ‘Micro-Urbanism’ which focus on the sensitive and indigenous side of contemporary cities, which in fact can hold the authentic qualities of a city. Related to this approach is the term ‘Micro-Culture’ which is used to clarify the inner realities of the everyday living space on the example of the Japanese urban backstreet. The paper identifies an example of a ‘micro-zone’ in terms of ‘street space’, originally embedded in the landscape of the Japanese city. And although the approach ‘Micro-Urbanism’ is more complex, the understanding of the term can be tackled by a social analysis of the street, as shown on the backstreet called roji and closely linked examples of ‘situated’ urban rituals like (1) urban festivities, (2) local markets/ street vendors and (3) artistic, intellectual tactics. Likewise, the paper offers insights in a ‘community of streets’ which boundaries are specially shaped by cultural activity and social networks.

Keywords: Community, urban rituals, streets as micro-zone, everyday space

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32 Collapsed World Heritage Site: Supply Chain Effect: Case Study of Monument in Kathmandu Valley after the Devastating Earthquake in Nepal

Authors: Rajaram Mahat, Roshan Khadka

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Nepal has remained a land of diverse people and culture consisting more than hundred ethnic and caste groups with 92 different languages. Each ethnic and cast group have their own common culture. Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal is one of the multi-ethnic, lingual and cultural ancient places. Dozens of monuments with the history of more than thousand years are located in Kathmandu Valley. More or less all of the heritage site have been affected by devastating earthquake in April and May 2015. This study shows the most popular tourist and pilgrim’s destination like Kathmandu Darbar Square, Bhaktapur Darbarsquare, Patan Darbar Square, Swayambhunath temple complex, Dharahara Tower, Pasupatinath Hindu Religious Complex etc. have been massively destroyed. This paper analyses the socio economic consequence to the community people of world heritage site after devastating earthquake in Kathmandu Valley. Initial findings indicate that domestic and international current tourists flow have decreased by 41% and average 23% of local craft shop, curio shop, hotel, restaurant, grocery store, footpath shop including employment of tourist guide have been closed down as well as travel & tour business has decreased by 12%. Supply chain effect is noticeably shown in particular collapsed world heritage sites. It has also seen negative impact to National economy as well. This study has recommended to government of Nepal and other donor to reconstruct the collapse world heritage sites and to preserve the other existing world heritage site with treatment of earthquake resist structure as soon as possible.

Keywords: Earthquake, Community, World Heritage, supply chain effect

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31 The Significance of Community Life in Promoting Unity in the Light of Acts 2:42

Authors: Takesure Mahohoma

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Community life is an epitome of the African axiom 'I am because we are, since we are therefore I am.' This culminates in the Ubuntu philosophy which is summarized in the Zulu words, 'umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu' (A person is a person through other people). This relationship gives honour to all people. This is the gist of the paper. This paper seeks to demonstrate the impact of community life in promoting unity from an African perspective. Using the proto-community in Acts 2:42, it is argued that community life is a solution to many social problems that divide African society today. The aim is to encourage all Africans and other people to cultivate a sense of belonging and valuing community life in the light of Acts 2:42. Hence we shall trace this theme from Old Testament, New Testament, and Christian history. The other section touches on the essence of community life and obstacles that hinder it. We shall offer spiritual suggestions and an integrative reflection. The nature of the paper is theology in general but spiritual in particular. As a spiritual paper, it is guided by the foundational approach. Thus, it employs the dialogical and integrative reflection method. The expected result is that freedom from all the miseries experienced is brought by living a community life. This is a life that gives greater assurance of enough food, education, health, peace, employment, and increased responsibility that values human dignity. Thus people are neighbours to each other. There is no stranger among them. The basic presumption is that there can be no development in any society without community life.

Keywords: Community, seged, koinonia, neighbor

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30 A Proposal of a Method to Measure the Satisfaction Indicator of the Local Community Concerning Tourism: A Case Study of Jalapão State Park, Tocantins

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

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Tourists bring many benefits to a local community, encouraging it to be involved in that activity; however, it may also have detrimental effects like garbage, noise, violence, external culture and the damaging of the natural environment among others, which may promote community dissatisfaction. The contact between the tourist and the local community is a concern, especially when the community is located near protected areas. In this case, the community must know the tourist destination well, so it can collaborate in the tourism development without harming the environment. In this context, the present article aims to demonstrate the results of a research study conducted as part of a doctorate program in Sciences from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. It had as an objective to elaborate a methodology proposal to measure the local community satisfaction indicator, with applicability on a case study in the Mateiros community located in the surrounding area of the Parque Estadual do Jalapão –PEJ conservation unit in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. This is a study of an interdisciplinary nature that had the deductive method as its guide. The indicator result is going to be presented in this study. It pointed out as negative factors: there is no involvement between the local community and the tourism sector, and there is also dissatisfaction with regard to the town’s basic services. The study showed as positive the local community knowledge about the various attractions in the surrounding area and that the group recognizes the importance of the tourism for the town and life. Concerning the methodology that was used, the results showed that it can collaborate in seeking actions of improvement and involvement of the community in the planning and development of the local tourism. It comes out as an efficient analysis tool, thus enabling the perceiving of the local community point of view.

Keywords: Tourism, Community, Jalapão, satisfaction indicator

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29 Effect of the Community Chair-Based Exercise Programme on the Balance of the Elderly in Hong Kong

Authors: Wai Sang Wu, Florence Pik Sze Mok

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Introduction: Ageing population is one of the hot topics nowadays in the world and this phenomenon is believed to exacerbate continuously in the future. According to the latest information from World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016, the proportion of people aged more than 60 years is projected to be doubled from 12% in 2015 to 22% in 2050 of the world's population. Similarly, according to figures released by the Census and Statistic Department of Hong Kong in 2015, the contribution of elderly aged more than 65 years olds is projected to increase from 15% in 2014 to 34% in 2064 in local community. On the other hand, falls in elderly is a common problem, and it can bring along many negative consequences among elders, such as reducing their mobility level as well as their quality of life. In addition, it can also increase the caring stress of their family caregivers and as well increase the reliance and burden on the medical care system of Hong Kong. Therefore, appropriate measures should be implemented in order to minimize the risk of fall among elders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the chair-based exercise programme in affecting the balance of the elderly in Hong Kong. Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects (males = 2; females = 11; mean age: 76.2 ± 7.8 years old) were recruited from an elderly social centre in the community to participate in a structural chair-based exercise programme for 6 weeks (1 session per week; 60-minutes per session). Subjects were being assessed on their balance ability using three commonly used clinical assessments, namely, 1) single leg stance (SLS) test, 2) functional reach test, and 3) 360-degree turn test, before and after their participation in the chair-based exercise programme. Pre and post within-subject comparison was adopted to assess the effectiveness of the programme. Results: There was significant improvement (p < 0.05) in all balance parameters of the subjects after their participation in the exercise programme. Elderly demonstrated significant improvement in SLS (p < 0.012), functional reach (p < 0.030) and 360 degree turn (p < 0.043). Conclusions: This study showed that a community chair-based exercise programme is effective in improving the balance ability of the elders. It seems to be another exercise regime that should be promoted among the elders in order to minimize their risk of falls and its negative consequence.

Keywords: Community, Elderly, Balance, chair-based exercise programme

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