Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

comfort Related Abstracts

20 Anthropometric Parameters of Classroom Furniture in Public and Private Universities of Karachi

Authors: Farhan Iqbal

Abstract:

Ergonomics has its implication in classroom. Present study aimed at finding out the comfort level of students at university level due to classroom furniture which may affect students learning. Two public and one private institution was targeted. Purposive sampling was done. Four hundred and seventy five students volunteered to reply to a questionnaire. Different furniture were measured and descriptively compared with ISO 5970 standard. Overall discomfort was found to be statistically significant as compared to comfort. Comfort and discomfort were found to be negatively correlated. Gender did not differ on upper body discomfort, though, the median score found men to be more comfortable at upper body. GPA was found to be independent of comfort level. Most afflicted areas were neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back and pelvic. The present study will be helpful for all educational institutions of Pakistan. Future studies may be carried out with structural and functional anthropometric data of students for redesigning of the classroom furniture.

Keywords: Learning, Anthropometry, classroom furniture, comfort, discomfort

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19 Museums: The Roles of Lighting in Design

Authors: Fernanda S. Oliveira

Abstract:

The architectural science of lighting has been mainly concerned with technical aspects and has tended to ignore the psychophysical. There is a growing evidence that adopting passive design solutions may contribute to higher satisfaction. This is even more important in countries with higher solar radiation, which should take advantage of favourable daylighting conditions. However, in art museums, the same light that stimulates vision can also cause permanent damage to the exhibits. Not only the visitors want to see the objects, but also to understand their nature and the artist’s intentions. This paper examines the hypothesis that the more varied and exciting the lighting (and particularly the daylight) in museums rooms, over space and time, the more likely it is that visitors will stay longer, enjoy their experience and be willing to return. This question is not often considered in museums that privilege artificial lighting neglecting the various qualities of daylight other than its capacity to illuminate spaces. The findings of this paper show that daylight plays an important role in museum design, affecting how visitors perceive the exhibition space, as well as contributing to their overall enjoyment in the museum. Rooms with high luminance means were considered more pleasant (r=.311, p<.05) and cheerful (r=.349, p<.05). Lighting conditions also have a direct effect on the phenomenon of museum fatigue with the overall room quality showing an effect on how tired visitors reported to be (r=.421, p<.01). The control and distribution of daylight in museums can therefore contribute to create pleasant conditions for learning, entertainment and amusement, so that visitors are willing to return.

Keywords: Museums, comfort, visitor, daylight, luminance

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18 Dimensions of Public Spaces: Feelings through Human Senses

Authors: Piyush Hajela

Abstract:

The significance of public spaces is on a rise in Indian cities as a strong interaction space across cultures and community. It is a pertinent gathering space for people across age and gender, where the face keeps changing with time. A public space is directly related to the social dimension, people, comfort, safety, and security, that, it proposes to provide, as inherent qualities. The presence of these and other dimensions of space, together with related equitable environments, impart certain quality to a public space. The higher the optimum contents of these dimensions, the better the quality of public space. Public is represented by PEOPLE through society and community, and space is created by dimensions. Society contains children, women and the elderly, community is composed of social, and religious groups. These behave differently in a different setting and call for varied quality of spaces, created and generated. Public spaces are spread across a city and have more or less established their existence and prominence in a social set up. While few of them are created others are discovered by the people themselves in their constant search for desirable interactive public spaces. These are the most sought after gathering spaces that have the quality of promoting social interaction, providing free accessibility, provide desirable scale etc. The emergence of public space dates back to the times when people started forming communities, display cultures and traditions publicly, gathered for religious observations and celebrations, and address the society. Traditional cities and societies in India were feudal and orthodox in their nature and yet had public spaces. When the gathering of people at one point in a city became more frequent the point became more accessible and occupied. Baras (large courts, Chowks (public squares) and Maidans (large grounds) became well-known gathering spaces in the towns and cities. As the population grew such points grew in number, each becoming a public space in itself and with a different and definite social character. The author aims at studying the various dimensions of public spaces with which a public space has power to hold people for a significant period of time. The human senses here are note referred to as taste, sight, hearing, touch or smell, but how human senses collectively respond to when stationed in a given public space. The collectives may reflect in dimensions like comfort, safety, environment, freedom etc. Various levels of similar other responses would be studied through interviews, observations and other scientific methods for both qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Keywords: Society, Accessibility, Interaction, people, comfort, enclosure

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17 The Impact and Performances of Controlled Ventilation Strategy on Thermal Comfort and Indoor Atmosphere in Building

Authors: Abbes Azzi, Selma Bouasria, Mahi Abdelkader, Herouz Keltoum

Abstract:

Ventilation in buildings is a key element to provide high indoor air quality. Its efficiency appears as one of the most important factors in maintaining thermal comfort for occupants of buildings. Personal displacement ventilation is a new ventilation concept that combines the positive features of displacement ventilation with those of task conditioning or personalized ventilation. This work aims to study numerically the supply air flow in a room to optimize a comfortable microclimate for an occupant. The room is heated, and a dummy is designed to simulate the occupant. Two types of configurations were studied. The first consist of a room without windows; and the second one is a local equipped with a window. The influence of the blowing speed and the solar radiation coming from the window on the thermal comfort of the occupant is studied. To conduct this study we used the turbulence models, namely the high Reynolds k-e, the RNG and the SST models. The numerical tool used is based on the finite volume method. The numerical simulation of the supply air flow in a room can predict and provide a significant information about indoor comfort.

Keywords: Local, ventilation, comfort, thermique, internal environment

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16 Passive Solar Water Concepts for Human Comfort

Authors: Eyibo Ebengeobong Eddie

Abstract:

Taking advantage of the sun's position to design buildings to ensure human comfort has always been an important aspect in an architectural design. Using cheap and less expensive methods and systems for gaining solar energy, heating and cooling has always been a great advantage to users and occupants of a building. As the years run by, daily techniques and methods have been created and more are being discovered to help reduce the energy demands of any building. Architects have made effective use of a buildings orientation, building materials and elements to achieve less energy demand. This paper talks about the various techniques used in solar heating and passive cooling of buildings and through water techniques and concepts to achieve thermal comfort.

Keywords: Water, Solar, comfort, passive

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15 Portfolio Selection with Active Risk Monitoring

Authors: Marc S. Paolella, Pawel Polak

Abstract:

The paper proposes a framework for large-scale portfolio optimization which accounts for all the major stylized facts of multivariate financial returns, including volatility clustering, dynamics in the dependency structure, asymmetry, heavy tails, and non-ellipticity. It introduces a so-called risk fear portfolio strategy which combines portfolio optimization with active risk monitoring. The former selects optimal portfolio weights. The latter, independently, initiates market exit in case of excessive risks. The strategy agrees with the stylized fact of stock market major sell-offs during the initial stage of market downturns. The advantages of the new framework are illustrated with an extensive empirical study. It leads to superior multivariate density and Value-at-Risk forecasting, and better portfolio performance. The proposed risk fear portfolio strategy outperforms various competing types of optimal portfolios, even in the presence of conservative transaction costs and frequent rebalancing. The risk monitoring of the optimal portfolio can serve as an early warning system against large market risks. In particular, the new strategy avoids all the losses during the 2008 financial crisis, and it profits from the subsequent market recovery.

Keywords: Portfolio Optimization, Financial Crises, comfort, risk monitoring

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14 Effect of Superabsorbent for the Improvement of Car Seat's Thermal Comfort

Authors: Adnan Mazari, Jakub Wiener, Antonin Havelka, Funda Buyuk Mazari, Jawad Naeem

Abstract:

The use of super absorbent polymers (SAP) for moisture absorption and comfort is still unexplored. In this research the efficiency of different SAP fibrous webs are determined under different moisture percentage to examine the sorption and desorption efficiency. The SAP fibrous web with low thickness and high moisture absorption are tested with multilayer sandwich structure of car seat cover to determine the moisture absorption through cover material. Sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP) from company Atlas is used to determine the moisture permeability of different car seat cover with superabsorbent layer closed with impermeable polyurethane foam. It is observed that the SAP fibrous layers are very effective in absorbing and desorbing water vapor under extreme high and low moisture percentages respectively. In extreme humid condition (95 %RH) the 20g of SAP layer absorbs nearly 3g of water vapor per hour and reaches the maximum absorption capacity in 6 hours.

Keywords: comfort, superabsorbent, car seat, SAF

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13 A Study of Indoor Comfort in Affordable Contemporary Courtyard Housing with Outdoor Welfare in Afghan Sustainable Neighborhoods

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Daishi Sakaguchi, Ahmad Javid Habib Mohammad Kamil Halimee

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to recognize indoor comfort in contemporary Afghan courtyard house with outdoor welfare in housing layout and neighborhood design where sustainability is a local consideration. This research focuses on three new neighborhoods (Gawoond) in three different provinces of Afghanistan. Since 2001, the capital Kabul and major cities including Kandahar, which will be compared with Peshawar city in Pakistan, have faced a fast, rough-and-tumble process of urban innovation. The effects of this innovation necessitate reconsideration of the formation of sustainable urban environments and in-house thermal comfort. The lack of sustainable urban life in many newly developed Afghan neighborhoods can pose a major challenge to the process of sustainable urban development. Several factors can affect the success or failure of new neighborhoods in the context of urban life. For thermal analysis, we divide our research into three different climatic zones. This study is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of the interior comfort of contemporary courtyard housing with the exterior welfare of neighborhood sustainable design strategy in dry and cold, semi-hot and arid, and semi-humid and hot climates in Afghan cities and Peshawar.

Keywords: Sustainability, welfare, comfort, climate zone, Afghanistan, neighbourhood, Afghan contemporary courtyard house, street pattern and housing layout

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12 Development of Personal Protection Equipment for Dental Surgeon

Authors: Thi. A. D. Tran, Matthieu Arnold, Dominique Adolphe, Laurence Schcher, Guillaume Reys

Abstract:

During daily oral health cares, dental surgeons are in contact with numerous potentially infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. In order to take into account these risks, a product development process has been unrolled to propose to the dental surgeon a personal protection equipment that is suitable with their expectations in terms of images, protection and comfort. After a consumer study, to evaluate how the users wear the garment and their expectations, specifications have been carried out and technical solutions have been developed in order to answer to the maximum of the desiderata. Thermal studies and comfort studies have been performed. The obtained results lead to define the technical solutions concerning the design of the new scrub. Three main functions have been investigated, the ergonomic aspect, the protection and the thermal comfort. In terms of ergonomic aspect, instrumented garments have been worn and pressure measurements have been done. The results highlight that a raglan shape for the sleeves has to be selected for a better dynamic comfort. Moreover, spray tests helped us to localize the potential contamination area and therefore protection devices have been placed on the garment. Concerning the thermal comfort, an I-R study was conducted in consulting room under the real working conditions; the heating zones have been detected. Based on these results, solutions have been proposed and implemented in a new gown. This new gown is currently composed of three different parts; a protective layer placed in the chest area to avoid contamination; a breathable layer placed in the back and in the armpits and a normal PET/Cotton fabric for the rest of the gown. Through the fitting tests conducted in hospital, it was obtained that the new design was highly appreciated. Some points can nevertheless be further improved. A final product will be produced based on necessary improvements.

Keywords: Thermal, Garment, comfort, dentists

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11 Contribution to the Development of a New Design of Dentist's Gowns: A Case Study of Using Infra-Red Technology and Pressure Sensors

Authors: Tran Thi Anh Dao, M. Arnold, L. Schacher, D. C. Adolphe, G. Reys

Abstract:

During tooth extraction or implant surgery, dentists are in contact with numerous infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. For that reason, dentist's clothes have to play their role of protection from contamination. In addition, dentist's apparels should be not only protective but also comfortable and breathable because dentists have to perform many operations and treatments on patients throughout the day with high concentration and intensity. However, this type of protective garments has not been studied scientifically, whereas dentists are facing new risks and eager for looking for a comfortable personal protective equipment. For that reason, we have proposed some new designs of dentist's gown. They were expected to diminish heat accumulation that are considered as an important factor in reducing the level of comfort experienced by users. Experiments using infra-red technology were carried out in order to compare the breathable properties between a traditional gown and a new design with open zones. Another experiment using pressure sensors was also carried out to study ergonomic aspects trough the flexibility of movements of sleeves. The sleeves-design which is considered comfortable and flexible will be chosen for the further step. The results from the two experiments provide valuable information for the development of a new design of dentists' gowns in order to achieve maximum levels of cooling and comfort for the human body.

Keywords: Design, Thermal, Protection, Garment, comfort, dentists

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10 Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, G. B. M. Carvalho

Abstract:

With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.

Keywords: Safety, Structure, comfort, dynamic vibration absorber, wind behavior

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9 An Overview of Bioclimatic Design Strategies for Energy Efficient Buildings: A Case Study of Semi-Arid Climate, Lahore

Authors: Beenish Mujahid, Sana Malik

Abstract:

Bioclimatic design Strategies plays a dynamic role in construction of Sustainable Buildings. This approach leads to reduction in the mechanical cooling of building which provides comfort to the occupants in sustainable manner. Such bioclimatic measures provide a complete framework of building design through responding to climatic features of particular site. The featured Passive cooling techniques for hot climatic region provides comfortable indoor temperature with ecological and financial benefits. The study is based on highlighting this approach to produce energy efficient buildings for Semi-Arid climate like Lahore, Pakistan. Being part of developing country, energy savings in Lahore city would help the Power Sector and resolves the World Issues of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion. This article reviews the bioclimatic design strategies and their critical analysis to drive guidelines for Sustainable buildings in Lahore. The study shows that the demand for mechanical cooling systems including air conditioning, fans, and air coolers can be reduced through regional climatic design.

Keywords: Buildings, Energy Efficient, bioclimatic design, Lahore, comfort

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8 Modelling of Hydric Behaviour of Textiles

Authors: A. Marolleau, F. Salaun, D. Dupont, H. Gidik, S. Ducept.

Abstract:

The goal of this study is to analyze the hydric behaviour of textiles which can impact significantly the comfort of the wearer. Indeed, fabrics can be adapted for different climate if hydric and thermal behaviors are known. In this study, fabrics are only submitted to hydric variations. Sorption and desorption isotherms obtained from the dynamic vapour sorption apparatus (DVS) are fitted with the parallel exponential kinetics (PEK), the Hailwood-Horrobin (HH) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) models. One of the major finding is the relationship existing between PEK and HH models. During slow and fast processes, the sorption of water molecules on the polymer can be in monolayer and multilayer form. According to the BET model, moisture regain, a physical property of textiles, show a linear correlation with the total amount of water taken in monolayer. This study provides potential information of the end uses of these fabrics according to the selected activity level.

Keywords: Modelling, comfort, hydric properties, underwears

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7 Improving Comfort and Energy Mastery: Application of a Method Based on Indicators Morpho-Energetic

Authors: Khadidja Rahmani, Nahla Bouaziz

Abstract:

The climate change and the economic crisis, which are currently running, are the origin of the emergence of many issues and problems, which are related to the domain of energy and environment in à direct or indirect manner. Since the urban space is the core element and the key to solve the current problem, particular attention is given to it in this study. For this reason, we rented to the later a very particular attention; this is for the opportunities that it provides and that can be invested to attenuate a little this situation, which is disastrous and worried, especially in the face of the requirements of sustainable development. Indeed, the purpose of this work is to develop a method, which will allow us to guide designers towards projects with a certain degree of thermo-aeraulic comfort while requiring a minimum energy consumption. In this context, the architects, the urban planners and the engineers (energeticians) have to collaborate jointly to establish a method based on indicators for the improvement of the urban environmental quality (aeraulic-thermo comfort), correlated with a reduction in the energy demand of the entities that make up this environment, in areas with a sub-humid climate. In order to test the feasibility and to validate the method developed in this work, we carried out a series of simulations using computer-based simulation. This research allows us to evaluate the impact of the use of the indicators in the design of the urban sets, on the economic and ecological plan. Using this method, we prove that an urban design, which carefully considered energetically, can contribute significantly to the preservation of the environment and the reduction of the consumption of energy.

Keywords: Simulation, Energy Consumption, comfort, energy mastery, morpho-energetic indicators, sub-humid climate, urban sets

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6 Methodology for Diagnosing Architecture Improvements in a Cancer Hospital in Brasilia

Authors: Mariana Sabino, Janes Cleiton de Oliveira, Carlos Luna de Melo

Abstract:

This paper presents a discussion about the importance and influence of the environment in the patient’s recovery process. Some users (employees and patients) were submitted to a questionnaire that helps to diagnoses the major problems of the hospital, specially related to comfort (aesthetic, thermal, acoustic, light, ergonomic), well-being, how does the flow of patients and employees works in the hospital and wayfinding as well. After a short literature review presenting the topic, the hospital will be characterized, showing photos, the projects available and describing the hospital as well (how many rooms, functions of each one, receptions, waiting rooms, between other things.), than the questionnaire will be applied to patients and to the employees. Lastly the results of the answers given will be analyzed in graphics, and it will help to identify which are the major improvements needed immediately. This paper has the intention to propose a methodology to diagnose architecture problems in a cancer hospital in Brasilia, Brazil, besides to open a space to hear the people that use the building to tell about their discomforts and perceptions of the environment, it also will give an opportunity to apply the possible improvements. It is important to tell that it will be considered if the hospital has a healing environment, and it will also be considered the ergonomic issues about comfort and the way the system of this particular hospital works in general.

Keywords: comfort, cancer hospital, diagnose, healing environment

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5 Evaluation Criteria for Performance of Knitted Terry Fabrics and Building Elements of Fashion: A Critical Review

Authors: Harpinder Kaur, Amit Madahar

Abstract:

The terry fabric is one of the fastest growing and challenging sub-sectors of the textile industry. Terry fabrics are produced using ground weft, ground warp, and pile yarns. The terry fabrics not only finds applications in towels but also in home textile products, sauna dressing- gowns, slippers, jackets, garments, apparels, outerwears, overcoats, sweatshirts, children’s clothes, and hygiene products for babies, beachwear, sleepwear, gloves, scarfs, shawls, etc. In some cases, these wide ranges of applications not only demand a high degree of absorption but also necessitate the due consideration for the handle properties of the fabrics. These fabrics are required to be accessed for their performance in terms of absorbency and comfort characteristics. Since material (yarns, colors, fabrics, fashion, patrons, accessories and fittings) are the core elements of structure of fashion, hence textile and fashion go hand in hand. This paper throws some light on the performance evaluation of terry fabrics. Here, characteristics/features that are required to be achieved for satisfactory performance of the terry fabrics with reference to fashion are discussed. The terry fabrics are being modified over the years in terms of the raw material requirements such as 100% cotton or blends or cotton with other fibers in order to obtain better performance as well as their structural parameters including stitch length and stitch density etc.

Keywords: Performance, Fashion, Cotton, comfort, absorbency, terry fabrics

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4 Development of Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabrics and Their Functional Properties

Authors: Jiri Militky, Vijay Baheti, Muhammad Zaman Khan

Abstract:

The present study is focused on the development of multifunctional cotton fabric while having good physiological comfort properties. The functional properties developed include superhydrophobicity (Lotus effect) and UV protection. For this, TiO₂ nanoparticles along with fluorocarbon and organic-inorganic binder have been used to optimize the multifunctional properties. Deposition of TiO₂ nanoparticles with water repellent finish on cotton fabric has been carried out using the pad dry cure method at fix parameters. The morphology and elemental composition of as-deposited particles have been studied by using SEM and EDS. The chemical composition of nanoparticles was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The treated samples exhibited excellent water repellency and UV protection factor. The study of the comfort properties of fabric showed that it had excellent physiological comfort properties. Optimized concentration of water repellent chemical (50g/l) was used in formulations with TiO₂ nanoparticles and organic-inorganic binder. Four formulations were prepared according to the design of the experiment. The formulations were applied to the cotton fabric by roller padding at room temperature (15–20°C). Surface morphology was investigated via SEM images. EDS analysis was also carried out to analyze the composition and atomic percentage of elements. The water contact angle (WCA) of cotton fabric increases with increase in TiO₂ nanoparticles concentration and reaches its maximum value (157°) when the concentration of TiO₂ is 20g/l. The water sliding angle (WSA) decreases and gains minimum value at the same concentration of TiO₂ at which WCA is highest. It was seen samples treated with formulations of TiO₂ nanoparticles exhibits excellent UPF, UV-A and UV-B blocking. However, there was no significant deterioration of air permeability. The water vapor permeability was also slightly decreased (4%) but is acceptable. It can be concluded that there is no significant change in both air and water vapor permeability after nanoparticles coating on the surface of the cotton fabric. The coated cotton fabric has little effect on the stiffness. The stiffness of coated samples was not increased significantly; thus comfort of cotton fabric is not decreased. This functionalized cotton fabric also exhibits good physiological comfort properties. ''The authors are also thankful to student grant competition 21312 provided at Technical University of Liberec''.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Functional, comfort, UV protective

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3 Crystallized Colored Towels Obtained by Special Coloration of Yarns

Authors: Hasan Eskin, Gizem Özmen, A. Nazmi Çeler

Abstract:

When we examine the home textile development process, it follows a parallel line with the other textile products especially in the garment fabrics in terms of raw materials, production technologies and pattern characteristics. As a result, the expectations of people regarding textile, comfort, pattern (texture) and color properties are increasing. One of the places where comfort is most sought after is bath, pool, sea and baths. In addition to the material and technique that make up the physical structure in woven fabrics, color has an impressive importance with its strong effects. Color is the most prominent element in the fabric, and the color and texture are visually reinforcing. Evaluation of color in fabric is a personal phenomenon. Factors that determine color determination in fabric are the amount of color used, color ratio and its relationship with other colors. In this project; Considering the effect of color dimensions on human, we are talking about the crystallized colored towel that we developed in terms of comfort and texture properties. The basis of the effect created in the towel; It is formed by bending the yarn from its own special blend and the harmonious appearance of the natural crystallized rainbow colors with the pattern effect it determines on the warp yarns by using the weft yarns in the weaving. In addition, by using different weaving techniques and colors, alternatives can be created and personalized patterns can be created. One side of the towel determines the properties related to color, while the pile part determines the comfort characteristics with its soft touch and water absorbency.

Keywords: comfort, color effect, towel, weaving technique

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2 Field Study on Thermal Performance of a Green Office in Bangkok, Thailand: A Possibility of Increasing Temperature Set-Points

Authors: T. Sikram, M. Ichinose, R. Sasaki

Abstract:

In the tropics, indoor thermal environment is usually provided by a cooling mode to maintain comfort all year. Indoor thermal environment performance is sometimes different from the standard or from the first design process because of operation, maintenance, and utilization. The field study of thermal environment in the green building is still limited in this region, while the green building continues to increase. This study aims to clarify thermal performance and subjective perception in the green building by testing the temperature set-points. A Thai green office was investigated twice in October 2018 and in May 2019. Indoor environment variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity) were collected continuously. The temperature set-point was normally set as 23 °C, and it was changed into 24 °C and 25 °C. The study found that this gap of temperature set-point produced average room temperature from 22.7 to 24.6 °C and average relative humidity from 55% to 62%. Thermal environments slight shifted out of the ASHRAE comfort zone when the set-point was increased. Based on the thermal sensation vote, the feeling-colder vote decreased by 30% and 18% when changing +1 °C and +2 °C, respectively. Predicted mean vote (PMV) shows that most of the calculated median values were negative. The values went close to the optimal neutral value (0) when the set-point was set at 25 °C. The neutral temperature was slightly decreased when changing warmer temperature set-points. Building-related symptom reports were found in this study that the number of votes reduced continuously when the temperature was warmer. The symptoms that occurred by a cooler condition had the number of votes more than ones that occurred by a warmer condition. In sum, for this green office, there is a possibility to adjust a higher temperature set-point to +1 °C (24 °C) in terms of reducing cold sensitivity, discomfort, and symptoms. All results could support the policy of changing a warmer temperature of this office to become “a better green building”.

Keywords: comfort, green office, thermal environment, temperature set-point

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1 Powered Two-Wheeler Rider’s Comfort over Road Sections with Skew Superelevation

Authors: Panagiotis Lemonakis, Nikolaos Moisiadis, Andromachi Gkoutzini, George Kaliabetsos, Nikos Eliou

Abstract:

The proper surface water drainage not only affects vehicle movement dynamics but also increases the likelihood of an accident due to the fact that inadequate drainage is associated with potential hydroplaning and splash and spray driving conditions. Nine solutions have been proposed to address hydroplaning in sections with inadequate drainage, e.g., augmented superelevation and longitudinal rates, reduction of runoff length, and skew superelevation. The latter has been extensively implemented in highways recently, enhancing the safety level in the applied road segments in regards to the effective drainage of the rainwater. However, the concept of the skew superelevation has raised concerns regarding the driver’s comfort when traveling over skew superelevation sections, particularly at high speeds. These concerns alleviated through the concept of the round-up skew superelevation, which reduces both the lateral and the vertical acceleration imposed to the drivers and hence, improves comfort and traffic safety. Various research studies aimed at investigating driving comfort by evaluating the lateral and vertical accelerations sustained by the road users and vehicles. These studies focused on the influence of the skew superelevation to passenger cars, buses and trucks, and the drivers themselves, traveling at a certain range of speeds either below or above the design speed. The outcome of these investigations which based on the use of simulations, revealed that the imposed accelerations did not exceed the statutory thresholds even when the travelling speed was significantly greater than the design speed. Nevertheless, the effect of the skew superelevation to other vehicle types for instance, motorcycles, has not been investigated so far. The present research study aims to bridge this gap by investigating the impact of skew superelevation on the motorcycle rider’s comfort. Power two-wheeler riders are susceptible to any changes on the pavement surface and therefore a comparison between the traditional superelevation practice and the skew superelevation concept is of paramount importance. The methodology based on the utilization of sophisticated software in order to design the model of the road for several values of the longitudinal slope. Based on the values of the slopes and the use of a mathematical equation, the accelerations imposed on the wheel of the motorcycle were calculated. Due to the fact that the final aim of the study is the influence of the skew superelevation to the rider, it was deemed necessary to convey the calculated accelerations from the wheel to the rider. That was accomplished by implementing the quarter car suspension model adjusted to the features of two-wheeler vehicles. Finally, the accelerations derived from this process evaluated according to specific thresholds originated from the International Organization for Standardization, which correspond to certain levels of comfort. The most important conclusion drawn is that the comfort of the riders is not dependent on the form of road gradient to a great extent due to the fact that the vertical acceleration imposed to the riders took similar values regardless of the value of the longitudinal slope.

Keywords: Safety, acceleration, comfort, motorcycle, skew superelevation

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