Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Columns Related Abstracts

13 Use of Regression Analysis in Determining the Length of Plastic Hinge in Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Mehmet Alpaslan Köroğlu, Musa Hakan Arslan, Muslu Kazım Körez

Abstract:

Basic objective of this study is to create a regression analysis method that can estimate the length of a plastic hinge which is an important design parameter, by making use of the outcomes of (lateral load-lateral displacement hysteretic curves) the experimental studies conducted for the reinforced square concrete columns. For this aim, 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests results have been collected from the existing literature. The parameters which are thought affecting the plastic hinge length such as cross-section properties, features of material used, axial loading level, confinement of the column, longitudinal reinforcement bars in the columns etc. have been obtained from these 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests. In the study, when determining the length of plastic hinge, using the experimental test results, a regression analysis have been separately tested and compared with each other. In addition, the outcome of mentioned methods on determination of plastic hinge length of the reinforced concrete columns has been compared to other methods available in the literature.

Keywords: Regression analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Columns, plastic hinge length

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12 Seismic Retrofit of Rectangular Columns Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: E. L. Elghazy, A. M. Sanad, M. G. Ghoneim

Abstract:

Over the past two decades research has shown that fiber reinforced polymers can be efficiently, economically and safely used for strengthening and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Designing FRP confined concrete columns requires reliable analytical tools that predict the level of performance and ductility enhancement. A numerical procedure is developed aiming at determining the type and thickness of FRP jacket needed to achieve a certain level of ductility enhancement. The procedure starts with defining the stress strain curve, which is used to obtain moment curvature relationship then displacement ductility ratio of reinforced concrete cross-sections subjected to bending moment and axial force. Three sets of published experimental tests were used to validate the numerical procedure. Comparisons between predicted results obtained by using the proposed procedure and actual results of experimental tests proved the reliability of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Numerical, Columns, Ductility, FRP, confinement

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11 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth

Abstract:

In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: Columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

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10 Dynamic Test for Stability of Columns in Sway Mode

Authors: Elia Efraim, Boris Blostotsky

Abstract:

Testing of columns in sway mode is performed in order to determine the maximal allowable load limited by plastic deformations or their end connections and a critical load limited by columns stability. Motivation to determine accurate value of critical force is caused by its using as follow: - critical load is maximal allowable load for given column configuration and can be used as criterion of perfection; - it is used in calculation prescribed by standards for design of structural elements under combined action of compression and bending; - it is used for verification of theoretical analysis of stability at various end conditions of columns. In the present work a new non-destructive method for determination of columns critical buckling load in sway mode is proposed. The method allows performing measurements during the tests under loads that exceeds the columns critical load without losing its stability. The possibility of such loading is achieved by structure of the loading system. The system is performed as frame with rigid girder, one of the columns is the tested column and the other is additional two-hinged strut. Loading of the frame is carried out by the flexible traction element attached to the girder. The load applied on the tested column can achieve values that exceed the critical load by choice of parameters of the traction element and the additional strut. The system lateral stiffness and the column critical load are obtained by the dynamic method. The experiment planning and the comparison between the experimental and theoretical values were performed based on the developed dependency of lateral stiffness of the system on vertical load, taking into account semi-rigid connections of the column's ends. The agreement between the obtained results was established. The method can be used for testing of real full-size columns in industrial conditions.

Keywords: Columns, buckling, dynamic method, end-fixity factor, sway mode

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9 Dynamic Test for Sway-Mode Buckling of Columns

Authors: Elia Efraim, Boris Blostotsky

Abstract:

Testing of columns in sway mode is performed in order to determine the maximal allowable load limited by plastic deformations or their end connections and a critical load limited by columns stability. Motivation to determine accurate value of critical force is caused by its using as follow: - critical load is maximal allowable load for given column configuration and can be used as criterion of perfection; - it is used in calculation prescribed by standards for design of structural elements under combined action of compression and bending; - it is used for verification of theoretical analysis of stability at various end conditions of columns. In the present work a new non-destructive method for determination of columns critical buckling load in sway mode is proposed. The method allows performing measurements during the tests under loads that exceeds the columns critical load without losing its stability. The possibility of such loading is achieved by structure of the loading system. The system is performed as frame with rigid girder, one of the columns is the tested column and the other is additional two-hinged strut. Loading of the frame is carried out by the flexible traction element attached to the girder. The load applied on the tested column can achieve a values that exceed the critical load by choice of parameters of the traction element and the additional strut. The system lateral stiffness and the column critical load are obtained by the dynamic method. The experiment planning and the comparison between the experimental and theoretical values were performed based on the developed dependency of lateral stiffness of the system on vertical load, taking into account a semi-rigid connections of the column's ends. The agreement between the obtained results was established. The method can be used for testing of real full-size columns in industrial conditions.

Keywords: Columns, buckling, Semi-Rigid Connections, dynamic method, sway mode

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8 The Gezi Park Protests in the Columns

Authors: Süleyman Hakan Yilmaz, Yasemin Gülsen Yilmaz

Abstract:

The Gezi Park protests of 2013 have significantly changed the Turkish agenda and its effects have been felt historically. The protests, which rapidly spread throughout the country, were triggered by the proposal to recreate the Ottoman Army Barracks to function as a shopping mall on Gezi Park located in Istanbul’s Taksim neighbourhood despite the oppositions of several NGOs and when trees were cut in the park for this purpose. Once the news that construction vehicles entered the park on May 27 spread on social media, activists moved into the park to stop the demolition, against whom the police used disproportioned force. With this police intervention and the then prime-minister Tayyip Erdoğan's insistent statements about the construction plans, the protests turned into anti-government demonstrations, which then spread to the rest of the country, mainly in big cities like Ankara and Izmir. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ June 23rd reports, 2.5 million people joined the demonstrations in 79 provinces, that is all of them, except for the provinces of Bayburt and Bingöl, while even more people shared their opinions via social networks. As a result of these events, 8 civilians and 2 security personnel lost their lives, namely police chief Mustafa Sarı, police officer Ahmet Küçükdağ, citizens Mehmet Ayvalıtaş, Abdullah Cömert, Ethem Sarısülük, Ali İsmail Korkmaz, Ahmet Atakan, Berkin Elvan, Burak Can Karamanoğlu, Mehmet İstif, and Elif Çermik, and 8163 more were injured. Besides being a turning point in Turkish history, the Gezi Park protests also had broad repercussions in both in Turkish and in global media, which focused on Turkey throughout the events. Our study conducts content analysis of three Turkish reporting newspapers with varying ideological standpoints, Hürriyet, Cumhuriyet ve Yeni Şafak, in order to reveal their basic approach to columns casting in context of the Gezi Park protests. Columns content relating to the Gezi protests were treated and analysed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to understand the social effects of the Gezi Park protests through media samples with varying political attitudes towards news casting.

Keywords: Media, Columns, Gezi Park, news casting

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7 Investigating Elastica and Post Buckling Behavior Columns Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze the finite displacement of Columns by applying the Modified Newmark Method. This research will be performed on Columns subjected to compressive axial load, therefore the non-linearity of the geometry is also considered. If the considered strut is perfect, the governing differential equation contains a branching point in the solution path. Investigation into the Elastica is a part of generalizing the developed method. It presents the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in treating non-linear differential equations Derived from elastic strut stability problems. These include not only an approximate polynomial solution for the Elastica problems, but can also recognize the branching point and the stable solution. However, this investigation deals with the post-buckling response of elastic and pin ended columns subjected to central or equally eccentric axial loads.

Keywords: Columns, Structural modeling, structures & structural stability, loads

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6 Comparison between Experimental and Numerical Studies of Fully Encased Composite Columns

Authors: Md. Soebur Rahman, Mahbuba Begum, Raquib Ahsan

Abstract:

Composite column is a structural member that uses a combination of structural steel shapes, pipes or tubes with or without reinforcing steel bars and reinforced concrete to provide adequate load carrying capacity to sustain either axial compressive loads alone or a combination of axial loads and bending moments. Composite construction takes the advantages of the speed of construction, light weight and strength of steel, and the higher mass, stiffness, damping properties and economy of reinforced concrete. The most usual types of composite columns are the concrete filled steel tubes and the partially or fully encased steel profiles. Fully encased composite column (FEC) provides compressive strength, stability, stiffness, improved fire proofing and better corrosion protection. This paper reports experimental and numerical investigations of the behaviour of concrete encased steel composite columns subjected to short-term axial load. In this study, eleven short FEC columns with square shaped cross section were constructed and tested to examine the load-deflection behavior. The main variables in the test were considered as concrete compressive strength, cross sectional size and percentage of structural steel. A nonlinear 3-D finite element (FE) model has been developed to analyse the inelastic behaviour of steel, concrete, and longitudinal reinforcement as well as the effect of concrete confinement of the FEC columns. FE models have been validated against the current experimental study conduct in the laboratory and published experimental results under concentric load. It has been observed that FE model is able to predict the experimental behaviour of FEC columns under concentric gravity loads with good accuracy. Good agreement has been achieved between the complete experimental and the numerical load-deflection behaviour in this study. The capacities of each constituent of FEC columns such as structural steel, concrete and rebar's were also determined from the numerical study. Concrete is observed to provide around 57% of the total axial capacity of the column whereas the steel I-sections contributes to the rest of the capacity as well as ductility of the overall system. The nonlinear FE model developed in this study is also used to explore the effect of concrete strength and percentage of structural steel on the behaviour of FEC columns under concentric loads. The axial capacity of FEC columns has been found to increase significantly by increasing the strength of concrete.

Keywords: Experimental, Composite, Strength, Columns, finite element, fully encased

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5 Performance of Stiffened Slender Built up Steel I-Columns

Authors: M. E. Abou-Hashem El Dib, M. K. Swailem, M. M. Metwally, A. I. El Awady

Abstract:

The present work illustrates a parametric study for the effect of stiffeners on the performance of slender built up steel I-columns. To achieve the desired analysis, finite element technique is used to develop nonlinear three-dimensional models representing the investigated columns. The finite element program (ANSYS 13.0) is used as a calculation tool for the necessary nonlinear analysis. A validation of the obtained numerical results is achieved. The considered parameters in the study are the column slenderness ratio and the horizontal stiffener's dimensions as well as the number of stiffeners. The dimensions of the stiffeners considered in the analysis are the stiffener width and the stiffener thickness. Numerical results signify a considerable effect of stiffeners on the performance and failure load of slender built up steel I-columns.

Keywords: Columns, Local Buckling, slender, stiffener, thin walled section

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4 Effect of Reinforcement Steel Ratio on the Behavior of R. C. Columns Exposed to Fire

Authors: Hatem Ghith

Abstract:

This research paper experimentally investigates the effect of burning by fire flame from one face on the behavior and load carrying capacity for reinforced columns. Residual ultimate load carrying capacity, axial deformation, crack pattern and maximum crack width for column specimens with and without burning were recorded and discussed. Tested six reinforced concrete columns were divided into control specimen and two groups. The first group was exposed to a fire with a different temperature (300, 500, 700 °C) for an hour with reinforcement ratio 0.89% and the second group was exposed to a fire with a temperature 500 °C for an hour with different reinforcement ratio (0.89%, 2.18%, and 3.57%), then all columns were tested under short-term axial loading. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the fire parameters significantly influence the fire resistance of R.C columns. The fire parameters cause axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity that generated from the difference in temperature and consequently the compressive stresses of both faces of the columns but the increased reinforcement ratio enhanced the resistance of columns for axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity.

Keywords: Strength, Columns, reinforcement ratio, time exposure

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3 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strenghtened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) under Concentric Loading

Authors: Nasim Shatarat, Dana Abed, Mu`Tasim Abdel-Jaber

Abstract:

This study aims at investigating the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete short columns. Three sets of columns were built for this purpose: 200x200x1200 mm; 250x250x1500 mm and 300x300x1800 mm. Each set includes a control column and a strengthened column with one layer of CFRP sheets. All columns were tested under the effect of pure axial compression load. The results of the study show that using CFRP sheets resulted in capacity enhancement of 37%, 32% and 27% for the 200×200, 250×250, and 300×300 mm, respectively. The results of the experimental program demonstrated that the percentage of improvement in strength decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size of the column.

Keywords: Columns, CFRP, cross-sectional, concentric loading

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2 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Dana J. Abed, Mu'tasim S. Abdel-Jaber, Nasim K. Shatarat

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental study on twelve square columns was conducted to investigate the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete (RC) short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. The columns were divided into three groups with three cross sections (200×200×1200, 250×250×1500 and 300×300×1800 mm). Each group was tested under two different eccentricities: 10% and 20% of the width of samples measured from the center of the column cross section. Four columns were developed in each arrangement. Two columns in each category were left unwrapped as control samples, and two were wrapped with one layer CFRP perpendicular to the specimen surface. In general; CFRP sheets has enhanced the performance of the strengthened columns compared to the control columns. It was noticed that the percentage of compressive capacity enhancement was decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size, and increasing loading eccentricity generally leads to reduced load bearing capacity in columns. In the same group specimens, when the eccentricity increased the percentage of enhancement in load carrying capacity was increased. The study concludes that the optimum use of the CFRP sheets for axial strength enhancement is for smaller cross-section columns under higher eccentricities.

Keywords: Columns, CFRP, cross-sectional, eccentric loading

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1 Square Concrete Columns under Axial Compression

Authors: Suniti Suparp, Panuwat Joyklad, Qudeer Hussain

Abstract:

This is a well-known fact that the actual latera forces due to natural disasters, for example, earthquakes, floods and storms are difficult to predict accurately. Among these natural disasters, so far, the highest amount of deaths and injuries have been recorded for the case of earthquakes all around the world. Therefore, there is always an urgent need to establish suitable strengthening methods for existing concrete and steel structures. This paper is investigating the structural performance of square concrete columns strengthened using low cost and easily available steel clamps. The salient features of these steel clamps are comparatively low cost, easy availability and ease of installation. To achieve research objectives, a large-scale experimental program was established in which a total number of 12 square concrete columns were constructed and tested under pure axial compression. Three square concrete columns were tested without any steel lamps to serve as a reference specimen. Whereas, remaining concrete columns were externally strengthened using steel clamps. The steel clamps were installed at a different spacing to investigate the best configuration of the steel clamps. The experimental results indicate that steel clamps are very effective in altering the structural performance of the square concrete columns. The square concrete columns externally strengthened using steel clamps demonstrate higher load carrying capacity and ductility as compared with the control specimens.

Keywords: Concrete, steel, Strength, Columns, Ductility, axial compression, pre-stressed, Clamps, stress and strain

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