Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Color Related Abstracts

22 Tomato Fruit Color Changes during Ripening of Vine

Authors: P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė, A.Radzevičius

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9592.

Keywords: Color, ripening, color index, tomato

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21 Performance Evaluation of Content Based Image Retrieval Using Indexed Views

Authors: Tahir Iqbal, Mumtaz Ali, Syed Wajahat Kareem, Muhammad Harris

Abstract:

Digital information is expanding in exponential order in our life. Information that is residing online and offline are stored in huge repositories relating to every aspect of our lives. Getting the required information is a task of retrieval systems. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) is a retrieval system that retrieves the required information from repositories on the basis of the contents of the image. Time is a critical factor in retrieval system and using indexed views with CBIR system improves the time efficiency of retrieved results.

Keywords: Image Retrieval, Color, Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), indexed view, cross correlation

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20 Changes on Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Red Beetroot Juice during Ultrasound Pretreatment

Authors: Serdal Sabanci, Mutlu Çevik, Derya Tezcan, Cansu Çelebi, Filiz Içier

Abstract:

Ultrasound is defined as sound waves having frequencies higher than 20 kHz, which is greater than the limits of the human hearing range. In recent years, ultrasonic treatment is an emerging technology being used increasingly in the food industry. It is applied as an alternative technique for different purposes such as microbial and enzyme inactivation, extraction, drying, filtration, crystallization, degas, cutting etc. Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a root vegetable which is rich in mineral components, folic acid, dietary fiber, anthocyanin pigments. In this study, the application of low frequency high intensity ultrasound to the red beetroot slices and red beetroot juice for different treatment times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 min) was investigated. Ultrasonicated red beetroot slices were also squeezed immediately. Changes on colour, betanin, pH and titratable acidity properties of red beetroot juices (the ultrasonicated juice (UJ) and the juice from ultrasonicated slices (JUS)) were determined. Although there was no significant difference statistically in the changes of color value of JUS samples due to ultrasound application (p>0.05), the color properties of UJ samples ultrasonicated for low durations were statistically different from raw material (p<0.05). The difference between color values of UJ and raw material disappeared (p>0.05) as the ultrasonication duration increased. The application of ultrasound to red beet root slices adversely affected and decreased the betanin content of JUS samples. On the other hand, the betanin content of UJ samples increased as the ultrasonication duration increased. Ultrasound treatment did not affect pH and titratable acidity of red beetroot juices statistically (p>0.05). The results suggest that ultrasound technology is the simple and economical technique which may successfully be employed for the processing of red beetroot juice with improved color and betanin quality. However, further investigation is still needed to confirm this.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Color, red beetroot, betanin

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19 Effects of Microwave Heating Rate on the Color, Total Anthocyanin Content and Total Phenolics of Elderberry Juice during Come-up-Time

Authors: Balunkeswar Nayak, Hanjun Cao, Xinruo Zhang

Abstract:

Elderberry could protect human health from oxidative stress, and reduce aging and certain cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity. However, these bioactive phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic acids, are susceptible to degradation during processing of elderberries to juice, jam, and powder due to intensity and duration of thermal exposure. The effects of microwave heating rate during come-up-times, using a domestic 2450 MHz microwave, on the color, total anthocyanin content and total phenolics on elderberry juice was studied. With a variation of come-up-time from 30 sec to 15 min at different power levels (10–50 % of total wattage), the temperature of elderberry juice vary from 40.6 °C to 91.5 °C. However, the color parameters (L, A, and B), total anthocyanin content (using pH differential method) and total phenolics did not vary significantly when compared to the control samples.

Keywords: Microwave, Color, elderberry, thermal exposure

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18 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets

Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara

Abstract:

In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.

Keywords: Hardness, erosion, Tablets, Color, Powder, disintegration time, date (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

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17 Effect of Thistle Ecotype in the Physical-Chemical and Sensorial Properties of Serra da Estrela Cheese

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia, Marlene I. C. Tenreiro, Ana C. Correia, Paulo Barracosa

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Serra da Estrela cheese and compare these results with those of the sensory analysis. For the study were taken six samples of Serra da Estrela cheese produced with 6 different ecotypes of thistle in a dairy situated in Penalva do Castelo. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture content, protein, fat, ash, chloride and pH; the physical properties studied were color and texture; and finally a sensory evaluation was undertaken. The results showed moisture varying in the range 40-48%, protein in the range 15-20%, fat between 41-45%, ash between 3.9-5.0% and chlorides varying from 1.2 to 3.0%. The pH varied from 4.8 to 5.4. The textural properties revealed that the crust hardness is relatively low (maximum 7.3 N), although greater than flesh firmness (maximum 1.7 N), and also that these cheeses are in fact soft paste type, with measurable stickiness and intense adhesiveness. The color analysis showed that the crust is relatively light (L* over 50), and with a predominant yellow coloration (b* around 20 or over) although with a slight greenish tone (a* negative). The results of the sensory analysis did not show great variability for most of the attributes measured, although some differences were found in attributes such as crust thickness, crust uniformity, and creamy flesh.

Keywords: Texture, Chemical Composition, Color, sensorial analysis, Serra da Estrela cheese

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16 Implementation of a Photo-Curable 3D Additive Manufacturing Technology with Grey Capability by Using Piezo Ink-jets

Authors: Y. L. Cheng, Ming-Jong Tsai, Y. L. Kuo, S. Y. Hsiao, P. H. Liu, D. H. Chen, J. W. Chen

Abstract:

The 3D printing is a combination of digital technology, material science, intelligent manufacturing and control of opto-mechatronics systems. It is called the third industrial revolution from the view of the Economist Journal. A color 3D printing machine may provide the necessary support for high value-added industrial and commercial design, architectural design, personal boutique, and 3D artist’s creation. The main goal of this paper is to develop photo-curable color 3D manufacturing technology and system implementation. The key technologies include (1) Photo-curable color 3D additive manufacturing processes development and materials research (2) Piezo type ink-jet head control and Opto-mechatronics integration technique of the photo-curable color 3D laminated manufacturing system. The proposed system is integrated with single Piezo type ink-jet head with two individual channels for two primary UV light curable color resins which can provide for future colorful 3D printing solutions. The main research results are 16 grey levels and grey resolution of 75 dpi.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Color, photo-curable, Piezo type ink-jet, UV Resin

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15 Local Texture and Global Color Descriptors for Content Based Image Retrieval

Authors: Tajinder Kaur, Anu Bala

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An image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching, and retrieving images from a large database of digital images a new algorithm meant for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is presented in this paper. The proposed method combines the color and texture features which are extracted the global and local information of the image. The local texture feature is extracted by using local binary patterns (LBP), which are evaluated by taking into consideration of local difference between the center pixel and its neighbors. For the global color feature, the color histogram (CH) is used which is calculated by RGB (red, green, and blue) spaces separately. In this paper, the combination of color and texture features are proposed for content-based image retrieval. The performance of the proposed method is tested on Corel 1000 database which is the natural database. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and CH.

Keywords: Image Retrieval, Feature Extraction, Texture, Color, local binary patterns

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14 History of Textiles and Fashion: Gender Symbolism in the Context of Colour

Authors: Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Abstract:

Historically, the color-coded attire demarcated differences, for example, differences in social position and differences in gender, etc. Distinctive colors are worn by different classes in medieval England. By the twentieth-century Western society, certain colors were firmly associated with the specific gender; as pink for girls, and blue for boys. The color-coded gender phenomenon was a novelty at the turn of the twentieth-century and became widely practiced after World War II. Prior to that era, there were no distinctions or differences in the dress of younger children, in relation to their gender. In the nineteenth century, pink suits were highly acceptable for gentlemen’s attire. Frenchmen in the eighteenth-century wore colors with an infinite range of hues like pink, plum, white, cream, blue, yellow, puce and sea green. Nineteenth-century European male austerity, primarily caused by the usage of sombre colors such as black, white and grey, has been described as an element for dignity, control and morality. In the nineteenth century, there were many color-associated distinctions, as certain colors were reserved for the unmarried, the single or the aged. Two luminous colors in one dress was ‘vulgar’ and yellow was generally regarded as unladylike. Yellow was the color utilised for most correctional attire. Orange was prohibited for the unmarried. Fashionable dressing in the nineteenth century was more gender-differentiated than in previous centuries. Masculine austerity, emphasized a shift in class relations. As a result of that shift, male attire became more uniform, homogeneous and integrated (amongst the classes), than its traditional hierarchal approach.

Keywords: Textiles, Fashion, Color, gender symbolism

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13 Use and Effects of Kanban Board from the Aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited

Authors: Yamin Rekhu, Kazi Rizvan

Abstract:

Due to high competitiveness in industries throughout the world, every industry is trying hard to utilize all their resources to keep their productivity as high as possible. Many tools have been being used to ensure smoother flow of an operation, to balance tasks, to maintain proper schedules for tasks, to maintain proper sequence for tasks, to reduce unproductive time. All of these tools are used to augment productivity within an industry. Kanban board is one of them and of the many important tools of lean production system. Kanban Board is a visual depiction of the status of tasks. Kanban board shows the actual status of the tasks. It conveys the progress and issues of tasks as well. Using Kanban Board, tasks can be distributed among workers and operation targets can be visually represented to them. In this paper, an example of Kanban board from the aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited was taken and how the Kanban board system was implemented, how the board was designed and how it was made easily perceivable for the less literate or illiterate workers. The Kanban board was designed for the packing section of Brothers Furniture Limited. It was implemented for the purpose of representing the tasks flow to the workers and to mitigate the time that was wasted while the workers remained wondering about what task they should start after they finish one. Kanban board subsumed seven columns and there was a column for comments where if any problem occurred during working on the tasks. Kanban board was helpful for the workers as the board showed the urgency of the tasks. It was also helpful for the store section as they could understand which products and how much of them could be delivered to store at any certain time. Kanban board had all the information centralized which is why the work-flow got paced up and idle time was minimized. Regardless of many workers being illiterate or less literate, Kanban board was still explicable for the workers as the Kanban cards were colored. Since the significance of colors can be conveniently interpretable to them, colored cards helped a great deal in that matter. Hence, the illiterate or less literate workers didn’t have to spend time wondering about the significance of the cards. Even when the workers weren’t told the significance of the colored cards, they could grow a feeling about their meaning as colors can trigger anyone’s mind to perceive the situation. As a result, the board elucidated the workers about what board required them to do, when to do and what to do next. Kanban board alleviated excessive time between tasks by setting day-plan for targeted tasks and it also reduced time during tasks as the workers were acknowledged of forthcoming tasks for a day. Being very specific to the tasks, Kanban board helped the workers become more focused on their tasks helped them do their job with more perfection. As a result, The Kanban board helped achieve a 8.75% increase in productivity than the productivity before the Kanban board was implemented.

Keywords: Productivity, Literacy, Color, Kanban Board, Lean Tool, packing

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12 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method for Fresh Dates, Rutab

Authors: Salah Mohammed Al-Eid, Siddig Hussein Hamad, Fahad Mohammed Aljassas

Abstract:

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on microbial contamination, chemical and physical properties of fresh dates (Rutab stage) were studied. Khalas, Barhi and Hilali cultivars were treated at 200, 250, 300 and 350 MPa using HHP research apparatus. The objective of such treatments was to preserve fresh dates without adversely affecting its properties. Treating fresh dates at 300 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination in about 2.5 log cycles. Applying 250 MPa was enough to control Rutab contamination with molds, yeasts, and coliforms. Both treatments were enough to reduce Rutab microbial contamination to acceptable levels. HHP caused no significant effect on Rutab chemical properties (moisture, sugars, protein, pectin and acidity). However, a slight decrease in moisture contents due to HHP was observed. Rutab lightness (L*) significantly decreased due to the application of HHP. Only Rutab treated at 300 MPs gave lower redness (a*) values compared with an untreated sample. The effect of 300 MPa on increasing yellowness (b*) was observed for Barhi and Hilali but decreasing for Khalas. The hardness of all Rutab cultivars significantly decreased as a result of HHP application. In fact, the pressure applied at 300 MPa had an adverse effect on texture, which may limit its suitability for use in Rutab preservation.

Keywords: Texture, Microbial Contamination, Color, high hydrostatic pressure, fresh dates (Rutab)

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11 Impact of Colors, Space Design and Artifacts on Cognitive Health in Government Hospitals of Uttarakhand

Authors: Ila Gupta

Abstract:

The government hospitals in India by and large lack the necessary aesthetic therapeutic components, both in their interior and exterior space designs. These components especially in terms of color application are important to the emotional as well as physical well being of the patients and other participants of the space. The preliminary survey of few government hospitals in Uttarakhand, India, reveals that the government health care industry provides a wide scope for intervention. All most all of the spaces do not adhere to a proper therapeutic color scheme which directly helps the well-being of their patients and workers. The paper aims to conduct a survey and come up with recommendations in this regard. The government hospitals also lack a proper signage system which allows the space to be more user-friendly. The hospital spaces in totality also have scope for improvement in terms of space/landscape design which enhances the work environment in an efficient and positive way. This study will thus enable to come up with feasible recommendations for healthcare and built environment as well as retrofitting the existing spaces. The objective of the paper is mainly on few case studies. The present ambience in many government hospitals generally lacks a welcoming ambience. It is proposed to select one or two government hospitals and demonstrate application of appropriate and self-sustainable color schemes, placement of artifacts, changes in outdoor and indoor space design to bring about a change that is conducive for cognitive healing. Exterior changes to existing and old hospital buildings in depressed historic areas signify financial investment and change, and have the potential to play a significant role in both urban preservation and revitalization. Changes to exterior architectural colors are perhaps the most visible signifier of such revitalization, as the use of color changes as a tool in façade and interior improvement programs. The present project will provide its recommendations on the basis of case studies done in the Indian Public Health Care system. Furthermore, the recommendations will be in accordance with the extended study conducted in Indian Ayurvedic, Yogic texts as well as Vastu texts, which provides knowledge about built environments and healing properties of color.

Keywords: Environment, Community Development, Color, facade, architectural color history, interior improvement programs, district/government hospitals

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10 Comparison of Oven and Microwave Drying on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Gokcen Izli

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Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food. Drying is one of the oldest methods known for the preservation of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Drying of agricultural products enhances their storage life, minimizes losses during storage, and save shipping and transportation costs. Apples are considered excellent candidates for drying. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of microwave and oven processing on the quality of selected apple products. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were washed, peeled, and sliced. Drying experiments were performed in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C and in a microwave at 140 W and 210 W. Quality attributes such as color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of dried samples with different methods were compared with the fresh sample. A Minolta CR-300 Chroma Meter was used to examine color changes in the apples. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It was found that the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of dried samples under all drying conditions were decreased compared to the fresh samples. The phenolic contents of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W for both red and golden delicious apples were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C. Similarly, the antioxidant activities of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C for both types of apples. All color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were changed significantly depending on the drying methods and temperatures. The closest color values to the fresh sample were found for the microwave dried samples at 140 W. Microwave drying was proven to be more effective than oven drying.

Keywords: Microwave, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, total phenolic content, golden delicious, red delicious

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9 Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Quality: Phytochemical Attributes of Some Apricot Cultivars as Affected by Genotype and Ripening

Authors: Jamal Ayour, Mohamed Benichou

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Fruit quality is one of the main concerns of consumers, producers, and distributors. The evolution of apricot fruits undergoes a strong acceleration during maturation, and the rapidity of post-harvest evolution of the ripe fruit is particularly selective in the apricot. The objective of this study is to identify new cultivars with an interesting quality as well as a better yield allowing a more prolonged production over time. The evaluation of the fruit quality of new apricot cultivars from the Marrakech region was carried out by analyzing their physical and biochemical attributes during ripening. The results obtained clearly show a great diversity of the physicochemical attributes of the selected clones. Also, some genotypes of apricots showed contents of sugars, organic acids (vitamin C) and β carotene significantly higher than those of the most famous varieties of Morocco: Canino, Delpatriarca, and Maoui. Principal component analysis (PCA), taking into account the maturity stage and the diversity of cultivars, made it possible to define three groups with similar physicochemical attributes. The results of this study are of great use, particularly for the selection of genotypes with a better quality of fruit, both for consumption or industrial processing and with important contents of physicochemical attributes.

Keywords: Quality, Carotenoids, Acidity, Color, Sugar, apricot, vitamin C

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8 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao, Jyoti Kumari

Abstract:

Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs

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7 Development of Cost-Effective Protocol for Preparation of Dehydrated Paneer (Indian Cottage Cheese) Using Freeze Drying

Authors: Sadhana Sharma, P. K. Nema, Siddhartha Singha

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Paneer or Indian cottage cheese is an acid and heat coagulated milk product, highly perishable because of high moisture (58-60 %). Typically paneer is marble to light creamy white in appearance. A good paneer should have cohesive body with slight sponginess or springiness. The texture must be smooth and velvety with close-knit compactness. It should have pleasing mild acidic, slightly sweet and nutty flavour. Consumers today demand simple to prepare, convenient, healthy and natural foods. Dehydrated paneer finds numerous ways to be used. It can be used in curry preparation similar to paneer-in-curry, a delicacy in Indian cuisine. It may be added to granola/ trail mix yielding a high energy snack. If grounded to a powder, it may be used as a cheesy spice mix or used as popcorn seasoning. Dried paneer powder may be added to pizza dough or to a white sauce to turn it into a paneer sauce. Drying of such food hydrogels by conventional methods is associated with several undesirable characteristics including case hardening, longer drying time, poor rehydration ability and fat loss during drying. The present study focuses on developing cost-effective protocol for freeze-drying of paneer. The dehydrated product would be shelf-stable and can be rehydrated to its original state having flavor and texture comparable to the fresh form. Moreover, the final product after rehydration would be more fresh and softer than its frozen counterparts. The developed product would be shelf-stable at room temperature without any addition of preservatives.

Keywords: Texture, Color, freeze-drying, paneer

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6 Understanding the Impact of Ambience, Acoustics, and Chroma on User Experience through Different Mediums and Study Scenarios

Authors: Mushty Srividya

Abstract:

Humans that inhabit a designed space consciously or unconsciously accept the spaces which have an impact on how they perceive, feel and act accordingly. Spaces that are more interactive and communicative with the human senses become more interesting. Interaction in architecture is the art of building relationships between the user and the spaces. Often spaces are form-based, function-based or aesthetically pleasing spaces but they are not interactive with the user which actually has a greater impact on how the user perceives the designed space and appreciate it. It is very necessary for a designer to understand and appreciate the human character and design accordingly, wherein the user gets the flexibility to explore and experience it for themselves rather than the designed space dictating the user how to perceive or feel in that space. In this interaction between designed spaces and the user, a designer needs to understand the spatial potential and user’s needs because the design language varies with varied situations in accordance with these factors. Designers often have the tendency to construct spaces with their perspectives, observations, and sense the space in their range of different angles rather than the users. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the potential of the space by understanding different factors and improve the quality of space with the help of creating better interactive spaces. For an interaction to occur between the user and space, there is a need for some medium. In this paper, light, color, and sound will be used as the mediums to understand and create interactions between the user and space, considering these to be the primary sources which would not require any physical touch in the space and would help in triggering the human senses. This paper involves in studying and understanding the impact of light, color and sound on different typologies of spaces on the user through different findings, articles, case studies and surveys and try to get links between these three mediums to create an interaction. This paper also deals with understanding in which medium takes an upper hand in a varied typology of spaces and identify different techniques which would create interactions between the user and space with the help of light, color, and sound.

Keywords: Human Factors, Sound, Light, Color, communicative spaces, interactive spaces

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5 User-Controlled Color-Changing Textiles: From Prototype to Mass Production

Authors: Joshua Kaufman, Felix Tan, Morgan Monroe, Ayman Abouraddy

Abstract:

Textiles and clothing have been a staple of human existence for millennia, yet the basic structure and functionality of textile fibers and yarns has remained unchanged. While color and appearance are essential characteristics of a textile, an advancement in the fabrication of yarns that allows for user-controlled dynamic changes to the color or appearance of a garment has been lacking. Touch-activated and photosensitive pigments have been used in textiles, but these technologies are passive and cannot be controlled by the user. The technology described here allows the owner to control both when and in what pattern the fabric color-change takes place. In addition, the manufacturing process is compatible with mass-producing the user-controlled, color-changing yarns. The yarn fabrication utilizes a fiber spinning system that can produce either monofilament or multifilament yarns. For products requiring a more robust fabric (backpacks, purses, upholstery, etc.), larger-diameter monofilament yarns with a coarser weave are suitable. Such yarns are produced using a thread-coater attachment to encapsulate a 38-40 AWG metal wire inside a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. Conversely, products such as shirts and pants requiring yarns that are more flexible and soft against the skin comprise multifilament yarns of much smaller-diameter individual fibers. Embedding a metal wire in a multifilament fiber spinning process has not been realized to date. This research has required collaboration with Hills, Inc., to design a liquid metal-injection system to be combined with fiber spinning. The new system injects molten tin into each of 19 filaments being spun simultaneously into a single yarn. The resulting yarn contains 19 filaments, each with a tin core surrounded by a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. The color change we demonstrate is distinct from garments containing LEDs that emit light in various colors. The pigment itself changes its optical absorption spectrum to appear a different color. The thermochromic color-change is induced by a temperature change in the inner metal wire within each filament when current is applied from a small battery pack. The temperature necessary to induce the color change is near body temperature and not noticeable by touch. The prototypes already developed either use a simple push button to activate the battery pack or are wirelessly activated via a smart-phone app over Wi-Fi. The app allows the user to choose from different activation patterns of stripes that appear in the fabric continuously. The power requirements are mitigated by a large hysteresis in the activation temperature of the pigment and the temperature at which there is full color return. This was made possible by a collaboration with Chameleon International to develop a new, customized pigment. This technology enables a never-before seen capability: user-controlled, dynamic color and pattern change in large-area woven and sewn textiles and fabrics with wide-ranging applications from clothing and accessories to furniture and fixed-installation housing and business décor. The ability to activate through Wi-Fi opens up possibilities for the textiles to be part of the ‘Internet of Things.’ Furthermore, this technology is scalable to mass-production levels for wide-scale market adoption.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Color, activation, appearance

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4 Best-Performing Color Space for Land-Sea Segmentation Using Wavelet Transform Color-Texture Features and Fusion of over Segmentation

Authors: Seynabou Toure, Oumar Diop, Kidiyo Kpalma, Amadou S. Maiga

Abstract:

Color and texture are the two most determinant elements for perception and recognition of the objects in an image. For this reason, color and texture analysis find a large field of application, for example in image classification and segmentation. But, the pioneering work in texture analysis was conducted on grayscale images, thus discarding color information. Many grey-level texture descriptors have been proposed and successfully used in numerous domains for image classification: face recognition, industrial inspections, food science medical imaging among others. Taking into account color in the definition of these descriptors makes it possible to better characterize images. Color texture is thus the subject of recent work, and the analysis of color texture images is increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community. In optical remote sensing systems, sensors measure separately different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; the visible ones and even those that are invisible to the human eye. The amounts of light reflected by the earth in spectral bands are then transformed into grayscale images. The primary natural colors Red (R) Green (G) and Blue (B) are then used in mixtures of different spectral bands in order to produce RGB images. Thus, good color texture discrimination can be achieved using RGB under controlled illumination conditions. Some previous works investigate the effect of using different color space for color texture classification. However, the selection of the best performing color space in land-sea segmentation is an open question. Its resolution may bring considerable improvements in certain applications like coastline detection, where the detection result is strongly dependent on the performance of the land-sea segmentation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted on different color spaces in order to show the best-performing color space for land-sea segmentation. In this sense, an experimental analysis is carried out using five different color spaces (RGB, XYZ, Lab, HSV, YCbCr). For each color space, the Haar wavelet decomposition is used to extract different color texture features. These color texture features are then used for Fusion of Over Segmentation (FOOS) based classification; this allows segmentation of the land part from the sea one. By analyzing the different results of this study, the HSV color space is found as the best classification performance while using color and texture features; which is perfectly coherent with the results presented in the literature.

Keywords: classification, Color, coastline, sea-land segmentation

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3 The Impact of Encapsulated Raspberry Juice on the Surface Colour of Enriched White Chocolate

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Danica Zarić, Aleksandar Fistes

Abstract:

Chocolate is a complex rheological system usually defined as a suspension consisting of non-fat particles dispersed in cocoa butter as a continuous fat phase. Dark chocolate possesses polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated with beneficial effects. Milk chocolate is formulated with a lower percentage of cocoa bean liquor than dark chocolate and it often contains lower amounts of polyphenols, while in white chocolate the fat-free cocoa solids are left out completely. Following the current trend of development of functional foods, there is an idea to create enriched white chocolate with the addition of encapsulated bioactive compounds from berry fruits. The aim of this study was to examine the surface colour of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 6, 8, and 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins, in order to preserve the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active ingredients. The surface color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. The addition of raspberry encapsulates led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate. Raspberry encapsulate changed the values of the lightness (L*), a* (red tone) and b* (yellow tone) measured on the surface of enriched chocolate in accordance with applied concentrations. White chocolate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest L* (74.6) and b* (20.31) values of all samples indicating the bright surface of the white chocolate, as well as a high share of a yellow tone. At the same time, white chocolate has the negative a* value (-1.00) on its surface which includes green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulate has the darkest surface with significantly (p < 0.05) lowest value of L* (42.75), where increasing of its concentration in enriched chocolates decreases their L* values. Chocolate with 6% of encapsulate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest value of L* (60.56) in relation to enriched chocolate with 8% of encapsulate (53.57), and 10% of encapsulate (51.01). a* value measured on the surface of white chocolate is negative (-1.00) tending towards green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulates increases red tone in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amounts (23.22, 30.85, and 33.32 in enriched chocolates with 6, 8, and 10% encapsulated raspberry juice, respectively). The presence of yellow tones in enriched chocolates significantly (p < 0.05) decreases with the addition of E (with b* value 5.21), from 10.01 in enriched chocolate with a minimal amount of raspberry juice encapsulates to 8.91 in chocolate with a maximum concentration of raspberry juice encapsulate. The addition of encapsulated raspberry juice to white chocolate led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate with attractive color. The research in this paper was conducted within the project titled ‘Development of innovative chocolate products fortified with bioactive compounds’ (Innovation Fund Project ID 50051).

Keywords: polyphenols, Color, encapsulated raspberry juice, white chocolate

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2 Effects of Mild Heat Treatment on the Physical and Microbial Quality of Salak Apricot Cultivar

Authors: Bengi Hakguder Taze, Sevcan Unluturk

Abstract:

Şalak apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Şalak) is a specific variety grown in Igdir, Turkey. The fruit has distinctive properties distinguish it from other cultivars, such as its unique size, color, taste and higher water content. Drying is the widely used method for preservation of apricots. However, fresh consumption is preferred for Şalak apricot instead of drying due to its low dry matter content. Higher amounts of water in the structure and climacteric nature make the fruit sensitive against rapid quality loss during storage. Hence, alternative processing methods need to be introduced to extend the shelf life of the fresh produce. Mild heat (MH) treatment is of great interest as it can reduce the microbial load and inhibit enzymatic activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of mild heat treatment on the natural microflora found on Şalak apricot surfaces and some physical quality parameters of the fruit, such as color and firmness. For this purpose, apricot samples were treated at different temperatures between 40 and 60 ℃ for different periods ranging between 10 to 60 min using a temperature controlled water bath. Natural flora on the fruit surfaces was examined using standard plating technique both before and after the treatment. Moreover, any changes in color and firmness of the fruit samples were also monitored. It was found that control samples were initially containing 7.5 ± 0.32 log CFU/g of total aerobic plate count (TAPC), 5.8±0.31 log CFU/g of yeast and mold count (YMC), and 5.17 ± 0.22 log CFU/g of coliforms. The highest log reductions in TAPC and YMC were observed as 3.87-log and 5.8-log after the treatments at 60 ℃ and 50 ℃, respectively. Nevertheless, the fruit lost its characteristic aroma at temperatures above 50 ℃. Furthermore, great color changes (ΔE ˃ 6) were observed and firmness of the apricot samples was reduced at these conditions. On the other hand, MH treatment at 41 ℃ for 10 min resulted in 1.6-log and 0.91-log reductions in TAPC and YMC, respectively, with slightly noticeable changes in color (ΔE ˂ 3). In conclusion, application of temperatures higher than 50 ℃ caused undesirable changes in physical quality of Şalak apricots. Although higher microbial reductions were achieved at those temperatures, temperatures between 40 and 50°C should be further investigated considering the fruit quality parameters. Another strategy may be the use of high temperatures for short time periods not exceeding 1-5 min. Besides all, MH treatment with UV-C light irradiation can be also considered as a hurdle strategy for better inactivation results.

Keywords: Color, firmness, mild heat, natural flora, physical quality, şalak apricot

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1 Sensory Characteristics of White Chocolate Enriched with Encapsulated Raspberry Juice

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Danica Zarić, Aleksandar Fistes

Abstract:

Chocolate is a food that activates pleasure centers in the human brain. In comparison to black and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids and thus lacks bioactive components. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins (denoted as encapsulate). Chocolate is primarily intended for enjoyment, and therefore, the sensory expectation is a critical factor for consumers when selecting a new type of chocolate. Consumer acceptance of chocolate depends primarily on the appearance and taste, but also very much on the mouthfeel, which mainly depends on the particle size of chocolate. Chocolate samples were evaluated by a panel of 8 trained panelists, food technologists, trained according to ISO 8586 (2012). Panelists developed the list of attributes to be used in this study: intensity of red color (light to dark); glow on the surface (mat to shiny); texture on snap (appearance of cavities or holes on the snap surface that are seen - even to gritty); hardness (hardness felt during the first bite of chocolate sample in half by incisors - soft to hard); melting (the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state – slowly to quickly); smoothness (perception of evenness of chocolate during melting - very even to very granular); fruitiness (impression of fruity taste - light fruity notes to distinct fruity notes); sweetness (organoleptic characteristic of pure substance or mixture giving sweet taste - lightly sweet to very sweet). The chocolate evaluation was carried out 24 h after sample preparation in the sensory laboratory, in partitioned booths, which were illuminated with fluorescent lights (ISO 8589, 2007). Samples were served in white plastic plates labeled with three-digit codes from a random number table. Panelist scored the perceived intensity of each attribute using a 7-point scale (1 = the least intensity and 7 = the most intensity) (ISO 4121, 2002). The addition of 10% of encapsulate had a big influence on chocolate color, where enriched chocolate got a nice reddish color. At the same time, the enriched chocolate sample had less intensity of gloss on the surface. The panelists noticed that addition of encapsulate reduced the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state, increasing its hardness. The addition of encapsulate had a significant impact on chocolate flavor. It reduced the sweetness of white chocolate and contributed to the fruity raspberry flavor.

Keywords: Color, sensory characteristics, encapsulated raspberry juice, white chocolate

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