Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

collision Related Abstracts

3 Selecting the Best Risk Exposure to Assess Collision Risks in Container Terminals

Authors: Mohammad Ali Hasanzadeh, Thierry Van Elslander, Eddy Van De Voorde

Abstract:

About 90 percent of world merchandise trade by volume being carried by sea. Maritime transport remains as back bone behind the international trade and globalization meanwhile all seaborne goods need using at least two ports as origin and destination. Amid seaborne traded cargos, container traffic is a prosperous market with about 16% in terms of volume. Albeit containerized cargos are less in terms of tonnage but, containers carry the highest value cargos amongst all. That is why efficient handling of containers in ports is very important. Accidents are the foremost causes that lead to port inefficiency and a surge in total transport cost. Having different port safety management systems (PSMS) in place, statistics on port accidents show that numerous accidents occur in ports. Some of them claim peoples’ life; others damage goods, vessels, port equipment and/or the environment. Several accident investigation illustrate that the most common accidents take place throughout transport operation, it sometimes accounts for 68.6% of all events, therefore providing a safer workplace depends on reducing collision risk. In order to quantify risks at the port area different variables can be used as exposure measurement. One of the main motives for defining and using exposure in studies related to infrastructure is to account for the differences in intensity of use, so as to make comparisons meaningful. In various researches related to handling containers in ports and intermodal terminals, different risk exposures and also the likelihood of each event have been selected. Vehicle collision within the port area (10-7 per kilometer of vehicle distance travelled) and dropping containers from cranes, forklift trucks, or rail mounted gantries (1 x 10-5 per lift) are some examples. According to the objective of the current research, three categories of accidents selected for collision risk assessment; fall of container during ship to shore operation, dropping container during transfer operation and collision between vehicles and objects within terminal area. Later on various consequences, exposure and probability identified for each accident. Hence, reducing collision risks profoundly rely on picking the right risk exposures and probability of selected accidents, to prevent collision accidents in container terminals and in the framework of risk calculations, such risk exposures and probabilities can be useful in assessing the effectiveness of safety programs in ports.

Keywords: container terminal, collision, seaborne trade, risk exposure, risk probability

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2 Analysis of the Gait Characteristics of Soldier between the Normal and Loaded Gait

Authors: Ji-il Park, Min Kyu Yu, Jong-woo Lee, Sam-hyeon Yoo

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the gait strategy between the normal and loaded gait. To this end, five male participants satisfied two conditions: the normal and loaded gait (backpack load 25.2 kg). As expected, results showed that additional loads elicited not a proportional increase in vertical and shear ground reaction force (GRF) parameters but also increase of the impulse, momentum and mechanical work. However, in case of the loaded gait, the time duration of the double support phase was increased unexpectedly. It is because the double support phase which is more stable than the single support phase can reduce instability of the loaded gait. Also, the directions of the pre-collision and after-collision were moved upward and downward compared to the normal gait. As a result, regardless of the additional backpack load, the impulse-momentum diagram during the step-to-step transition was maintained such as the normal gait. It means that human walk efficiently to keep stability and minimize total net works in case of the loaded gait.

Keywords: Gait Analysis, collision, normal gait, loaded gait, impulse, mechanical work, backpack load

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1 Elastic and Plastic Collision Comparison Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Gustavo Rodrigues, Hans Weber, Larissa Driemeier

Abstract:

The prevision of post-impact conditions and the behavior of the bodies during the impact have been object of several collision models. The formulation from Hertz’s theory is generally used dated from the 19th century. These models consider the repulsive force as proportional to the deformation of the bodies under contact and may consider it proportional to the rate of deformation. The objective of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the bodies during impact using the Finite Element Method (FEM) with elastic and plastic material models. The main parameters to evaluate are, the contact force, the time of contact and the deformation of the bodies. An advantage of using the FEM approach is the possibility to apply a plastic deformation to the model according to the material definition: there will be used Johnson–Cook plasticity model whose parameters are obtained through empirical tests of real materials. This model allows analyzing the permanent deformation caused by impact, phenomenon observed in real world depending on the forces applied to the body. These results are compared between them and with the model-based Hertz theory.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Hertz theory, collision, impact models

Procedia PDF Downloads 42