Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Cognitive development Related Abstracts

7 Teacher Training in Saudi Arabia: A Blend of Old and New

Authors: Ivan Kuzio


The GIZ/TTC project is the first of its kind in the Middle East, which allows the development of a teaching training programme to degree level based on modern methodologies. The graduates from this college are part of the Saudization programme and will, over the next four years be part of and eventually run the new Colleges of Excellence. The new Colleges of Excellence are being developed to create a local vocationally trained workforce and will run initially alongside the current Colleges of Technology.

Keywords: pedagogy, training, Blended Learning, Cognitive development, Social Skills, key competencies

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6 Cognitive Development Theories as Determinant of Children's Brand Recall and Ad Recognition: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Ruchika Sharma


In the past decade, there has been an explosion of research that has examined children’s understanding of TV advertisements and its persuasive intent, socialization of child consumer and child psychology. However, it is evident from the literature review that no studies in this area have covered advertising messages and its impact on children’s brand recall and ad recognition. Copywriters use various creative devices to lure the consumers and very impressionable consumers such as children face far more drastic effects of these creative ways of persuasion. On the basis of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical basis for predicting/understanding children’s response and understanding, a quasi-experiment was carried out for the study, that manipulated measurement timing and advertising messages (familiar vs. unfamiliar) keeping gender and age group as two prominent factors. This study also examines children’s understanding of Advertisements and its elements, predominantly - Language, keeping in view Fishbein’s model. Study revealed significant associations between above mentioned factors and children’s brand recall and ad identification. Further, to test the reliability of the findings on larger sample, bootstrap simulation technique was used. The simulation results are in accordance with the findings of experiment, suggesting that the conclusions obtained from the study can be generalized for entire children’s (as consumers) market in India.

Keywords: Advertising, Cognitive development, Preferences, Brand Recall

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5 The Development of the Coherence of Moral Thinking

Authors: Hui-Tzu Lin, Wen-Ying Lin, Jenn-Wu Wang


The purpose of present research is to investigate whether the global coherence of moral thinking is increased by age. The author utilized two kinds of moral situations to evaluate the subjects’ responses to two contradictive arguments concerning behavior of stealing, cheating in an exam, each with two stories. The two stories will be focused on the main lead and provided two contradictory moral evaluations. Participants were 596 primary schoolchildren in Taiwan. The three age groups were 201 in grade two, 183 in grade three, and 212 in grade six. The result showed that sixth graders’ moral judgment is more coherent than third graders’. The coherence of moral thinking is increased by age which support the implication by Piaget and Kohlberg’s theoretical hypothesis. This indicates that people higher ability to detect contradiction may be involved in the development of the coherence of moral thinking.

Keywords: Cognitive development, Contradiction, Coherence, moral thinking, local coherence, global coherence

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4 Improving Working Memory in School Children through Chess Training

Authors: Veena Easvaradoss, Ebenezer Joseph, Sumathi Chandrasekaran, Sweta Jain, Aparna Anna Mathai, Senta Christy


Working memory refers to a cognitive processing space where information is received, managed, transformed, and briefly stored. It is an operational process of transforming information for the execution of cognitive tasks in different and new ways. Many class room activities require children to remember information and mentally manipulate it. While the impact of chess training on intelligence and academic performance has been unequivocally established, its impact on working memory needs to be studied. This study, funded by the Cognitive Science Research Initiative, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, analyzed the effect of one-year chess training on the working memory of children. A pretest–posttest with control group design was used, with 52 children in the experimental group and 50 children in the control group. The sample was selected from children studying in school (grades 3 to 9), which included both the genders. The experimental group underwent weekly chess training for one year, while the control group was involved in extracurricular activities. Working memory was measured by two subtests of WISC-IV INDIA. The Digit Span Subtest involves recalling a list of numbers of increasing length presented orally in forward and in reverse order, and the Letter–Number Sequencing Subtest involves rearranging jumbled alphabets and numbers presented orally following a given rule. Both tasks require the child to receive and briefly store information, manipulate it, and present it in a changed format. The Children were trained using Winning Moves curriculum, audio- visual learning method, hands-on- chess training and recording the games using score sheets, analyze their mistakes, thereby increasing their Meta-Analytical abilities. They were also trained in Opening theory, Checkmating techniques, End-game theory and Tactical principles. Pre equivalence of means was established. Analysis revealed that the experimental group had significant gains in working memory compared to the control group. The present study clearly establishes a link between chess training and working memory. The transfer of chess training to the improvement of working memory could be attributed to the fact that while playing chess, children evaluate positions, visualize new positions in their mind, analyze the pros and cons of each move, and choose moves based on the information stored in their mind. If working-memory’s capacity could be expanded or made to function more efficiently, it could result in the improvement of executive functions as well as the scholastic performance of the child.

Keywords: Working memory, Cognitive development, School Children, Executive Functions, chess training

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3 Impact of Early Father Involvement on Middle Childhood Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

Authors: Jamel Slaughter


Father involvement across the development of a child has been linked to children’s psychological adjustment, fewer behavioral problems, and higher educational attainment. Conversely, there is much less research that highlights father involvement in relation to childhood development during early childhood period prior to preschool age (ages 1-3 years). Most research on fathers and child outcomes have been limited by its focus on the stages of adolescence, middle childhood, and infancy. This study examined the influence of father involvement, during the toddler stage, on 5th grade cognitive development, rule-breaking, and behavior outcomes measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores. Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) Study, 1996-2010: United States, a total of 3,001 children and families were identified in 17 sites (cities), representing a diverse demographic sample. An independent samples t-test was run to compare cognitive development, aggressive, and rule-breaking behavior mean scores among children who had early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months to children who did not have early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months. Multiple linear regression was conducted to determine if continuous, or non-continuous father involvement (14 month-36 months), can be used to predict outcome scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and cognitive development, at 5th grade. A statistically significant mean difference in cognitive development scores were found for children who had continuous father involvement (M=1.92, SD=2.41, t (1009) =2.81, p =.005, 95% CI=.146 to .828) compared to those who did not (M=2.60, SD=3.06, t (1009) =-2.38, p=.017, 95% CI= -1.08 to -.105). There was also a statistically significant mean difference in rule-breaking behavior scores between children who had early continuous father involvement (M=1.95, SD=2.33, t (1009) = 3.69, p <.001, 95% CI= .287 to .940), compared to those that did not (M=2.87, SD=2.93, t (1009) = -3.49, p =.001, 95% CI= -1.30 to -.364). No statistically significant difference was found in aggressive behavior scores. Multiple linear regression was performed using continuous father involvement to determine which has the largest relationship to rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development based on CBCL scores. Rule-breaking behavior was found to be significant (F (2, 1008) = 8.353, p<.001), with an R2 of .016. Cognitive development was also significant (F (2, 1008) = 4.44, p=.012), with an R2 of .009. Early continuous father involvement was a significant predictor of rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development at middle childhood. Findings suggest early continuous father involvement during the first 14 – 36 months of their children’s life, may lead to lower levels of rule-breaking behaviors and thought problems at 5th grade.

Keywords: Cognitive development, early continuous father involvement, middle childhood, rule-breaking behavior

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2 Cognitive Deficits and Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Authors: Sinead Morrison, Ann Swillen, Therese Van Amelsvoort, Samuel Chawner, Elfi Vergaelen, Michael Owen, Marianne Van Den Bree


22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the deletion of approximately 60 genes on chromosome 22 and is associated with high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The presentation of these disorders in 22q11.2DS is reported to be comparable to idiopathic forms and therefore presents a valuable model for understanding mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders. Cognitive deficits are thought to be a core feature of neurodevelopmental disorders, and possibly manifest in behavioural and emotional problems. There have been mixed findings in 22q11.2DS on whether the presence of ADHD or ASD is associated with greater cognitive deficits. Furthermore, the influence of developmental stage has never been taken into account. The aim was therefore to examine whether the presence of ADHD or ASD was associated with cognitive deficits in childhood and/or adolescence in 22q11.2DS. We conducted the largest study to date of this kind in 22q11.2DS. The same battery of tasks measuring processing speed, attention and spatial working memory were completed by 135 participants with 22q11.2DS. Wechsler IQ tests were completed, yielding Full Scale (FSIQ), Verbal (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ). Age-standardised difference scores were produced for each participant. Developmental stages were defined as children (6-10 years) and adolescents (10-18 years). ADHD diagnosis was ascertained from a semi-structured interview with a parent. ASD status was ascertained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. Interaction and main effects of cognitive performance of those with or without a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD in childhood or adolescence were conducted with 2x2 ANOVA. Significant interactions were followed up with t-tests of simple effects. Adolescents with ASD displayed greater deficits in all measures (processing speed, p = 0.022; sustained attention, p = 0.016; working memory, p = 0.006) than adolescents without ASD; there was no difference between children with and without ASD. There were no significant differences on IQ measures. Both children and adolescents with ADHD displayed greater deficits on sustained attention (p = 0.002) than those without ADHD. There were no significant differences on any other measures for ADHD. Magnitude of cognitive deficit in individuals with 22q11.2DS varied by cognitive domain, developmental stage and presence of neurodevelopmental disorder. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS and ASD showed greater deficits on all measures, which suggests there may be a sensitive period in childhood to acquire these domains, or reflect increasing social and academic demands in adolescence. The finding of poorer sustained attention in children and adolescents with ADHD supports previous research and suggests a specific deficit which can be separated from processing speed and working memory. This research provides unique insights into the association of ASD and ADHD with cognitive deficits in a group at high genomic risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Keywords: Cognitive development, Autism spectrum disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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1 Effectiveness of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Cognitive Development: Preliminary Analyses of a 12-Month Follow-Up

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy


Introduction: Over the last decade, researchers have implemented attachment-based interventions to promote parental interactive sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families. In the context of the present study, these interventions have been shown to be effective to enhance cognitive development when child outcome was measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child cognitive development one year post-intervention. Methods: Thirty-five mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, were included in this study: 21 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 14 dyads not exposed to the intervention and matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex and family status. Child cognitive development was measured using the WPPSI-IV, 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children was 54 months old. Findings: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the scores obtained on the WPPSI-IV for the two groups. In general, no differences were observed between the two groups. There was a significant difference on the fluid reasoning scale between children exposed to the intervention (M = 95,13, SD = 16,67) and children not exposed (M = 81, SD = 9,90). T (23) = -2,657; p= .014 (IC :-25.13;3.12). This difference was found only for children aged between 48 and 92 months old. Other results did not show any significant difference between the two groups (Global IQ or subscales). Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggest that relatively little effects of attachment-based intervention remain on the level of cognitive functioning 12-months post-intervention. It is possible that the significant findings concerning fluid reasoning may be pertinent in that fluid reasoning is linked to the capacity to analyse, to solve problems, and remember information, which may be important for promoting school readiness. As the study is completed and as more information is gained from other assessments of cognitive and socioemotional outcome, a clearer picture of the potential moderate-term impact of attachment-based intervention will emerge.

Keywords: Child Development, Cognitive development, attachment-based intervention, child protective services

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