Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Cognitive behavioral therapy Related Abstracts

4 Predicting Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis Using Machine Learning and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Eva Tolmeijer, Emmanuelle Peters, Veena Kumari, Liam Mason

Abstract:

Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is effective in many but not all patients, making it important to better understand the factors that determine treatment outcomes. To date, no studies have examined whether neuroimaging can make clinically useful predictions about who will respond to CBTp. To this end, we used machine learning methods that make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level. Prior to receiving CBTp, 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a social-affective processing task during functional MRI. Multivariate pattern analysis assessed whether treatment response could be predicted by brain activation responses to facial affect that was either socially threatening or prosocial. The resulting models did significantly predict symptom improvement, with distinct multivariate signatures predicting psychotic (r=0.54, p=0.01) and affective (r=0.32, p=0.05) symptoms. Psychotic symptom improvement was accurately predicted from relatively focal threat-related activation across hippocampal, occipital, and temporal regions; affective symptom improvement was predicted by a more dispersed profile of responses to prosocial affect. These findings enrich our understanding of the neurobiological underpinning of treatment response. This study provides a foundation that will hopefully lead to greater precision and tailoring of the interventions offered to patients.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Schizophrenia, Cognitive behavioral therapy, psychosis

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3 Improving Depression, Anxiety and Distress Symptoms in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Authors: Seyed Reza Alvani, Norzarina Mohd Zaharim

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic, progressive illnesses that has reached a widespread level all over the world and considered an extreme life-threatening condition in South East Asian countries region include Malaysia. Co-morbid psychological factors like diabetes-related distress and low level of psychological well-being are related to high levels of blood sugar and hypo/hyperglycemia complications. As a result, the implementation of any effective psychological interventions among diabetes patients is necessary. One such intervention is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) that is approved and suggested by many professionals as an empirically-supported technique of treatment for people how are suffering from diabetes around the world where there is no clear evidence of using this technique in Malaysia. The target of this study was to see whether or not participation in group CBT would end in an improvement of psychological well-being (by decreasing the levels of depression and anxiety) and diabetes-related distress followed by lower level of blood sugar level. The sample of the present study was 60 type 2 diabetes adults (ages 20-65) with HbA1c ≥ 7 from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) clinic. All participants were selected by the convenience sampling technique. Participants completed Well-Being Questionaire (W-BQ) and Distress Scale (DDS-17) after signing written consent form. Those participants who were interested to join CBT groups were placed to the experimental groups, and people who were not interested were assigned to the control group. The experimental groups (n = 30) received group CBT, whereas participants in the control group (n = 30) did not receive any kind of psychological intervention. For testing the effect of intervention, mixed between-within ANOVA used. The entire intervention program took three months, and a significant improvement in the level of psychological well-being and decline in the level of diabetes distress observed among participants from experimental group, but not for those in the control group. Additionally, the result of the study suggested that group CBT could help participants in experimental group achieve more acceptable HbA1c levels in comparison with those in the control group. Malaysian Ministry of Health, researcher and governors should give due interest and commitment to psychological care as a pathway to diabetes mitigation among Malaysian adults.

Keywords: Well-being, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Malaysia, diabetes type 2, diabetes related distress

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2 Cognitive Behavior Therapy with a Migrant Pakistani in Malaysia: A Single Case Study of Conversion Disorder

Authors: Fahad R. Choudhry., Khadeeja Munawar

Abstract:

This clinical case presents a 24 years old, Muslim Pakistani girl with a history of conversion disorder. Her symptoms comprised fits, restlessness, numbness in legs, poor coordination and balance, burning during urination and retention. A cognitive-behavioral model was used for conceptualizing her problem and devising a management plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted coping statements. She took 13 therapy sessions and was presented with idiosyncratic case conceptualization. Psychoeducation, coping statements, extinction, verbal challenging, and behavioral activation techniques were practiced in a collaborative way for cognitive restructuring of the client. Focus of terminal sessions was on anger management. The client needed a couple of more sessions in order to help her manage her anger. However, the therapy was terminated on the part of the client after attainment of short term goals. The client reported to have a 75 % improvement in her overall condition and remained compliant throughout the therapy.

Keywords: Female, Cognitive behavioral therapy, muslim, pakistani, conversion disorder

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1 Investigating Role of Traumatic Events in a Pakistani Sample

Authors: Khadeeja Munawar, Shamsul Haque

Abstract:

The claim that traumatic events influence the recalled memories and mental health has received mixed empirical support. This study examines the memories of a sample drawn from Pakistan, a country that has witnessed many life-changing socio-political events, wars, and natural disasters in 72 years of its history. A sample of 210 senior citizens (Mage = 64.35, SD = 6.33) was recruited from Pakistan. The aim was to investigate if participants retrieved more memories related to past traumatic events using a word-cueing technique. Each participant reported ten memories to ten neutral cue words. The results revealed that past traumatic events were not adversely affecting the memories and mental health of participants. When memories were plotted with respect to the ages at which the events happened, a pronounced bump at 11-20 years of age was seen. Memories within as well as outside of the bump were mostly positive. The multilevel logistic regression modelling showed that the memories recalled were personally important and played a role in enhancing resilience. The findings revealed that despite facing an array of ethnic, religious, political, economic, and social conflicts, the participants were resilient, recalled predominantly positive memories, and had intact mental health. The findings have clinical implications in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The patients can be made aware of their negative emotions, troublesome/traumatic memories, and the distorted thinking patterns and their memories can be restructured. The findings can also be used to teach Memory Specificity Training (MEST) by psycho-educating the patients around changes in memory functioning and enhancing the recall of memories, which are more specific, vivid, and filled with sensory details.

Keywords: Trauma, Mental Health, Resilience, Cognitive behavioral therapy, memories

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