Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Cognition Related Abstracts

38 EEG Neurofeedback Training – Healing the Wounded Brain

Authors: Jamuna Rajeswaran

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In the past two decades, with a population of more than a billion. India is passing through a major socio-demographic and epidemiological transition with consequent changes in health scenario. TBI constitute significant burden on health care resources in India The impact on a person and family can be devastating. Patients with TBI experience persistent cognitive deficits, emotional changes, which contribute to the disruption of life activities. The recovery of TBI would be maximized by appropriate rehabilitation. Neurofeedback is an emerging neuroscience-based clinical application. Sixty patients were recruited for this study after obtaining informed consent. Rivermead Head Injury Follow-up Questionnaire, Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale were used to assess the behavioral and symptomotolgy associated with post TBI. Neuropsychological assessment was carried out using NIMHANS neuropsychological battery 2004. The Intervention group received neurofeedback training and the waitlist group did not receive any treatment during this phase. Patients were allocated to intervention and waitlist group at random. There were 30 patients in each group. Patients were given 20 sessions of NFT Patients were trained on the O1 and O2 channels for alpha theta training. Each session was of 40 minutes duration with 5-6 sessions per week. The post-training assessment was carried out for the intervention group after 20 sessions of NFT. The waitlist group underwent assessment after one month. Results showed neurofeedback training is effective in ameliorating deficits in cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with TBI. Improvements were corroborated by the clinical interview with patients and significant others post NFT.

Keywords: Cognition, Rehabilitation, Assessment, EEG neurofeedback

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37 Dual-Task–Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

Authors: M. Liebherr, P. Schubert, S. Kersten, C. Dietz, L. Franz, C. T. Haas

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With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of task-interrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematization of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Keywords: Cognition, Measurement, Interference, dual-task

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36 Myth in Political Discourse as a Form of Linguistic Consciousness

Authors: Kuralay Kenzhekanova, Akmaral Dalelbekkyzy

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The article is devoted to the problem of political discourse and its reflection on mass cognition. This article is dedicated to describe the myth as one of the main features of political discourse. The dominance of an expressional and emotional component in the myth is shown. Precedent phenomenon plays an important role in distinguishing the myth from the linguistic point of view. Precedent phenomena show the linguistic cognition, which is characterized by their fame and recognition. Four types of myths such as master myths, a foundation myth, sustaining myth, eschatological myths are observed. The myths about the national idea are characterized by national specificity. The main aim of the political discourse with the help of myths is to influence on the mass consciousness in order to motivate the addressee to certain actions so that the target purpose is reached owing to unity of forces.

Keywords: Cognition, political discourse, myth, linguistic consciousness, types of myths, political myth, precedent phenomena

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35 Investigating Early Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease Using a Combination of Cognitive Tests and MRI to Probe Changes in Hippocampal Anatomy and Functionality

Authors: Netasha Shaikh, Bryony Wood, Demitra Tsivos, Michael Knight, Risto Kauppinen, Elizabeth Coulthard

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Background: Effective treatment of dementia will require early diagnosis, before significant brain damage has accumulated. Memory loss is an early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The hippocampus, a brain area critical for memory, degenerates early in the course of AD. The hippocampus comprises several subfields. In contrast to healthy aging where CA3 and dentate gyrus are the hippocampal subfields with most prominent atrophy, in AD the CA1 and subiculum are thought to be affected early. Conventional clinical structural neuroimaging is not sufficiently sensitive to identify preferential atrophy in individual subfields. Here, we will explore the sensitivity of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences designed to interrogate medial temporal regions as an early marker of Alzheimer’s. As it is likely a combination of tests may predict early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) better than any single test, we look at the potential efficacy of such imaging alone and in combination with standard and novel cognitive tasks of hippocampal dependent memory. Methods: 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 20 with mild-moderate AD and 20 age-matched healthy elderly controls (HC) are being recruited to undergo 3T MRI (with sequences designed to allow volumetric analysis of hippocampal subfields) and a battery of cognitive tasks (including Paired Associative Learning from CANTAB, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and a novel hippocampal-dependent abstract word memory task). AD participants and healthy controls are being tested just once whereas patients with MCI will be tested twice a year apart. We will compare subfield size between groups and correlate subfield size with cognitive performance on our tasks. In the MCI group, we will explore the relationship between subfield volume, cognitive test performance and deterioration in clinical condition over a year. Results: Preliminary data (currently on 16 participants: 2 AD; 4 MCI; 9 HC) have revealed subfield size differences between subject groups. Patients with AD perform with less accuracy on tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, and MCI patient performance and reaction times also differ from healthy controls. With further testing, we hope to delineate how subfield-specific atrophy corresponds with changes in cognitive function, and characterise how this progresses over the time course of the disease. Conclusion: Novel sequences on a MRI scanner such as those in route in clinical use can be used to delineate hippocampal subfields in patients with and without dementia. Preliminary data suggest that such subfield analysis, perhaps in combination with cognitive tasks, may be an early marker of AD.

Keywords: Cognition, Dementia, Memory, alzheimer's disease, Hippocampus

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34 Functional Vision of Older People with Cognitive Impairment Living in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane

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Poor vision is common among older people, and several studies show connections between visual impairment and cognitive function. 15 older adult live in Galician Government nursing homes, and cognitive decline is one of the main reasons of admission. Objectives: (1) To evaluate functional far and near vision of older people with cognitive impairment. (2) To determine connections between visual and cognitive state of “our” residents. Methodology: A total of 364 older adults (aged 65 years or more) underwent a visual and cognitive screening. We tested presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn) for distance and near vision (E-Snellen, usual working distance for near vision). Binocular presenting visual acuity less than 0.3 was used as cut point for diagnosis of visual impairment. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. To screen cognition we employed the mini-mental examination test (Spanish version). Analysis of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We utilized Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest (SPSS 19.0 version). Results: the percentage of residents with cognitive decline reaches 32.2% Prevalence of visual impairment for distance and near vision increases among those subjects with cognitive impairment respect those with normal cognition. Shift correlation exists between distance visual acuity and mini-mental test (age and sex controlled), and moderate association was found in case of near vision (p<0.01). Conclusion: First results shows that people with cognitive impairment have poor functional distance and near vision than those with normal cognition. Next step will be to analyse the individual contribution of distance and near vision loss on cognition.

Keywords: Cognition, Aging, nursing homes, Visual Impairment

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33 A Linguistic Relativity Appraisal of an African Drama: The Lion and The Jewel

Authors: T. O. Adekunle, R. L. Makhubu, C. N. Ngwane

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This research was designed to assess the validity of the Sapir Whorf hypothesis in relation to the linguistic and cultural notions of the Yoruba and Zulu language speakers’ via the evaluation of the culture enriched dramatic text The Lion and The Jewel by Wole Soyinka. The study queried both the hypothesis’ strong version, (language governs thought: linguistic classifications restrain and influence mental classifications); and its weak version, (linguistic classifications and their use influence thought as well as some other classes of non-linguistic activities) and their possible reliability. Participants were purposively selected and their ages ranged from 16-46 years old. The participants amounted to 38 (18 Yoruba and 20 Zulu) students of DUT who all speak both English and Zulu (Zulu participants) and English and Yoruba (Yoruba participants) and the mixed methods approach was used. Thus with the use of questionnaire and interviews the research questions were answered and the findings provided support for validity of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, languages indeed influence thought. The findings also revealed that linguistic influence on cognition is not limited to different language users alone, but also same language speakers per level of exposure to other languages and concepts.

Keywords: Cognition, Culture, Language, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Thought, DUT, linguistic relativity hypothesis, The Lion and The Jewel, Wole Soyinka, Yoruba, Zulu

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32 Cognitive Performance and Everyday Functionality in Healthy Greek Seniors

Authors: George Pavlidis, Ana Vivas

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The demographic change into an aging population has stimulated the examination of seniors’ mental health and ability to live independently. The corresponding literature depicts the relation between cognitive decline and everyday functionality with aging, focusing largely in individuals that are reaching or have bridged the threshold of various forms of neuropathology and disability. In this context, recent meta-analysis depicts a moderate relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality in AD sufferers. However, there has not been an analogous effort for the examination of this relation in the healthy spectrum of aging (i.e, in samples that are not challenged from a neurodegenerative disease). There is a consensus that the assessment tools designed to detect neuropathology with those that assess cognitive performance in healthy adults are distinct, thus their universal use in cognitively challenged and in healthy adults is not always valid. The same accounts for the assessment of everyday functionality. In addition, it is argued that everyday functionality should be examined with cultural adjusted assessment tools, since many vital everyday tasks are heterotypical among distinct cultures. Therefore, this study was set out to examine the relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality a) in the healthy spectrum of aging and b) by adjusting the everyday functionality tools EPT and OTDL-R in the Greek cultural context. In Greece, 107 cognitively healthy seniors ( Mage = 62.24) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and everyday functionality tests. Both were carefully chosen to be sensitive in fluctuations of performance in the healthy spectrum of cognitive performance and everyday functionality. The everyday functionality assessment tools were modified to reflect the local cultural context (i.e., EPT-G and OTDL-G). The results depicted that performance in all everyday functionality measures decline with age (.197 < r > .509). Statistically significant correlations emerged between cognitive performance and everyday functionality assessments that range from r =0.202 to r=0.510. A series of independent regression analysis including the scores of cognitive assessments has yield statistical significant models that explained 20.9 < AR2 > 32.4 of the variance in everyday functionality scored indexes. All everyday functionality measures were independently predicted by the TMT B-A index, and indicator of executive function. Stepwise regression analyses depicted that TMT B-A and age were statistically significant independent predictors of EPT-G and OTDL-G. It was concluded that everyday functionality is declining with age and that cognitive performance and everyday functional may be related in the healthy spectrum of aging. Age seems not to be the sole contributing factor in everyday functionality decline, rather executive control as well. Moreover, it was concluded that the EPT-G and OTDL-G are valuable tools to assess everyday functionality in Greek seniors that are not cognitively challenged, especially for research purposes. Future research should examine the contributing factors of a better cognitive vitality especially in executive control, as vital for the maintenance of independent living capacity with aging.

Keywords: Cognition, Aging, Cognitive Decline, Greece, Healthy Aging, everyday functionality

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31 A Possible Determinant of Musical Preference in Big Five Personality Traits

Authors: Peter S. Kim

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The increasing availability of music facilitated by new technology and open sourcing has eliminated many traditional limiting factors in musical taste, creating a culture of choice. This study tested 191 international subjects, mostly young adults more decisively shaped by emerging technologies like Facebook, the platform for the study. Using an aggregated Big Five personality test, subjects were asked to self-report on questions related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Subsequently, subjects listened to five pairs of musical works reflecting opposite extremes of one of five musical qualities: tempo (fast/slow), complexity (simple/complex), degree of dissonance (tonal/atonal), familiarity (familiar/unfamiliar), and extra-musical significance (significant/not significant). Subjects were then asked to record listening times and preferences among the selections. Strikingly, this study shows a relatively high positive correlation between agreeableness and musical preferences (predicting preferences for simple, familiar, and fast music), as compared to extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Thus, this research suggests that the not yet well-understood relationship between personality traits and musical qualities merits further study.

Keywords: Cognition, Psychology, Music Perception, Musical preference

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30 Evaluation of P300 and CNV Changes in Patients with Essential Tremor

Authors: Sehur Sibel Ozkaynak, Zakir Koc, Ebru Barcın

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Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders and has long been considered a monosymptomatic disorder. While ET has traditionally been categorized as a pure motor disease, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of cognition in ET have been demonstrated that these patients may have cognitive dysfunction. We investigated the neuro physiological aspects of cognition in ET, using event-related potentials (ERPs).Twenty patients with ET and 20 age-education and sex matched healthy controls underwent a neuro physiological evaluation. P300 components and Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) were recorded. The latencies and amplitudes of the P300 and CNV were evaluated. P200-N200 amplitude was significantly smaller in the ET group, while no differences emerged between patients and controls in P300 latencies. CNV amplitude was significantly smaller at Cz electrode site in the ET group. No differences were observed between in the two groups in CNV latencies. As a result, P300 and CNV parameters did not show significant differences between in the two groups, does not mean that there aren't mild cognitive changes in ET patients. In this regard, there is a need to further studies using electro physiological tests related to cognitive changes in ET patients.

Keywords: Cognition, essential tremor, event related potentials

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29 Nature, Elixir of Architecture: A Contemplation on Human, Nature and Architecture in Islam

Authors: A. Kabiri-Samani, M. J. Seddighi

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There is no doubt that a key factor in the manifestation of architecture is the interaction of human and nature. Explaining the type of relationship defined by “the architect” between architecture and nature opens a window towards understanding the theoretical conceptions of the architect as the creator of “architecture”. Now, if these theoretical foundations are put under scrutiny from the viewpoint of Islam, and an architect considers the relationship of human and nature within the context of Islam, he would let nature to manifest itself in architecture. The reasons for such a relationship is explicable in terms of the degree and nature of knowledge of the architect about nature; while the way it comes to existence is explained by defining the force of nature – ruling the entire nature – and its acts. It is by the scientific command of the architect and his mastery in the hermetic force of nature that the material bodies of buildings evolve from artificial to natural. Additionally, the presence of nature creates hermetic architectural spaces for the spiritual development of humans while serving for living at different levels.

Keywords: Cognition, Islam, Science, Nature, presence, elixir

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28 Applying Cognitive Psychology to Education: Translational Educational Science

Authors: Hammache Nadir

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The scientific study of human learning and memory is now more than 125 years old. Psychologists have conducted thousands of experiments, correlational analyses, and field studies during this time, in addition to other research conducted by those from neighboring fields. A huge knowledge base has been carefully built up over the decades. Given this backdrop, we may ask ourselves: What great changes in education have resulted from this huge research base? How has the scientific study of learning and memory changed practices in education from those of, say, a century ago? Have we succeeded in building a translational educational science to rival medical science (in which biological knowledge is translated into medical practice) or types of engineering (in which, e.g., basic knowledge in chemistry is translated into products through chemical engineering)? The answer, I am afraid, is rather mixed. Psychologists and psychological research have influenced educational practice, but in fits and starts. After all, some of the great founders of American psychology—William James, Edward L. Thorndike, John Dewey, and others—are also revered as important figures in the history of education. And some psychological research and ideas have made their way into education—for instance, computer-based cognitive tutors for some specific topics have been developed in recent years—and in years past, such practices as teaching machines, programmed learning, and, in higher education, the Keller Plan were all important. These older practices have not been sustained. Was that because they failed or because of a lack of systematic research showing they were effective? At any rate, in 2012, we cannot point to a well-developed translational educational science in which research about learning and memory, thinking and reasoning, and related topics is moved from the lab into controlled field trials (like clinical trials in medicine) and the tested techniques, if they succeed, are introduced into broad educational practice. We are just not there yet, and one question that arises is how we could achieve a translational educational science.

Keywords: Education, Cognition, Affective, pshychology

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27 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: Cognition, Perception, Job Satisfaction, turnover intention, diversity sensitive orientation

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26 Noise of Aircraft Flyovers Affects Reading Saccades

Authors: Svea Missfeldt, Rainer Höger

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A number of studies show that aircraft noise around airports negatively affects the reading comprehension of children attending schools in the neighbourhood. Yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Explanatory approaches discuss the attention capturing effect of noise sources which occupy mental capacity. Research suggests that attentional capacities are especially demanded when different modalities are involved at the same time. To explore whether aircraft noise affects reading processes in specific manners, students read texts in variable sound conditions while their eye movements were recorded. Besides noise caused by aircraft flyovers, which represent moving sound sources, saccades were also recorded under the condition of white noise, a natural sound setting and silence for comparison. Data showed an increase in regressive saccades when the sound of moving sources was presented. Interestingly, this effect was significantly high when the aircrafts moved in the opposite of the reading direction. Especially the latter result is not compatible with the hypothesis of a general impairment of cognitive processes by noise where the direction of movement should not have an influence. Reading is assumed to be based on two different attentional mechanisms: overt and covert attention, where the latter supports control and pre-planning of eye movements during reading. We believe that covert attention is affected by moving sound sources, resulting in an enhanced number of backwardly directed saccades.

Keywords: Cognition, Aircraft noise, Eye Movements, attentional processes, reading saccades

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25 Genome-Wide Significant SNPs Proximal to Nicotinic Receptor Genes Impact Cognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Mohammad Ahangari

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Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms that include cognitive deficits and nicotine has been suggested to have an effect on cognition. In recent years, the advents of Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWAS) has evolved our understanding about the genetic causes of complex disorders such as schizophrenia and studying the role of genome-wide significant genes could potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The current study identified six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) from schizophrenia and smoking GWAS that are located on or in close proximity to the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRN) and studied their association with cognition in an Irish sample of 1297 cases and controls using linear regression analysis. Further on, the interaction between CHRN gene cluster and Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) during working memory was investigated. The effect of these polymorphisms on nicotinic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, which is disrupted in schizophrenia, have been characterized in terms of their effects on memory, attention, social cognition and IQ as measured by a neuropsychological test battery and significant effects in two polymorphisms were found across global IQ domain of the test battery.

Keywords: Cognition, Schizophrenia, gwas, Dopamine, nicotine, SNPs

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24 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Samhani Ismail, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir

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Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: Cognition, Memory, Linguistic, eeg, auditory stimulation, Quranic recitation

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23 Investigating the Concept of Joy in Modern English Fiction

Authors: Zarine Avetisyan

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The paradigm of Modern Linguistics incorporates disciplines which allow to analyze both language and discourse units and to demonstrate the multi-layeredness of lingo-cultural consciousness. By implementing lingo-cognitive approach to discourse and communication studies, the present paper tries to create the integral linguistic picture of the concept of joy and to analyze the lexico-semantic groups and relevant lexico-semantic variants of its realization in the context of Modern English fiction.

Keywords: Cognition, concept of joy, lexico-semantic variant, semantic sign

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22 Teaching English to Engineers: Between English Language Teaching and Psychology

Authors: Irina-Ana Drobot

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Teaching English to Engineers is part of English for Specific Purposes, a domain which is under the attention of English students especially under the current conditions of finding jobs and establishing partnerships outside Romania. The paper will analyse the existing textbooks together with the teaching strategies they adopt. Teaching English to Engineering students can intersect with domains such as psychology and cultural studies in order to teach them efficiently. Textbooks for students of ESP, ranging from those at the Faculty of Economics to those at the Faculty of Engineers, have shifted away from using specialized vocabulary, drills for grammar and reading comprehension questions and toward communicative methods and the practical use of language. At present, in Romania, grammar is neglected in favour of communicative methods. The current interest in translation studies may indicate a return to this type of method, since only translation specialists can distinguish among specialized terms and determine which are most suitable in a translation. Engineers are currently encouraged to learn English in order to do their own translations in their own field. This paper will analyse the issue of the extent to which it is useful to teach Engineering students to do translations in their field using cognitive psychology applied to language teaching, including issues such as motivation and social psychology. Teaching general English to engineering students can result in lack of interest, but they can be motivated by practical aspects which will help them in their field. This is why this paper needs to take into account an interdisciplinary approach to teaching English to Engineers.

Keywords: Cognition, Psychology, Motivation, ESP

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21 Discourse Analysis: Where Cognition Meets Communication

Authors: Iryna Biskub

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The interdisciplinary approach to modern linguistic studies is exemplified by the merge of various research methods, which sometimes causes complications related to the verification of the research results. This methodological confusion can be resolved by means of creating new techniques of linguistic analysis combining several scientific paradigms. Modern linguistics has developed really productive and efficient methods for the investigation of cognitive and communicative phenomena of which language is the central issue. In the field of discourse studies, one of the best examples of research methods is the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA can be viewed both as a method of investigation, as well as a critical multidisciplinary perspective. In CDA the position of the scholar is crucial from the point of view exemplifying his or her social and political convictions. The generally accepted approach to obtaining scientifically reliable results is to use a special well-defined scientific method for researching special types of language phenomena: cognitive methods applied to the exploration of cognitive aspects of language, whereas communicative methods are thought to be relevant only for the investigation of communicative nature of language. In the recent decades discourse as a sociocultural phenomenon has been the focus of careful linguistic research. The very concept of discourse represents an integral unity of cognitive and communicative aspects of human verbal activity. Since a human being is never able to discriminate between cognitive and communicative planes of discourse communication, it doesn’t make much sense to apply cognitive and communicative methods of research taken in isolation. It is possible to modify the classical CDA procedure by means of mapping human cognitive procedures onto the strategic communicative planning of discourse communication. The analysis of the electronic petition 'Block Donald J Trump from UK entry. The signatories believe Donald J Trump should be banned from UK entry' (584, 459 signatures) and the parliamentary debates on it has demonstrated the ability to map cognitive and communicative levels in the following way: the strategy of discourse modeling (communicative level) overlaps with the extraction of semantic macrostructures (cognitive level); the strategy of discourse management overlaps with the analysis of local meanings in discourse communication; the strategy of cognitive monitoring of the discourse overlaps with the formation of attitudes and ideologies at the cognitive level. Thus, the experimental data have shown that it is possible to develop a new complex methodology of discourse analysis, where cognition would meet communication, both metaphorically and literally. The same approach may appear to be productive for the creation of computational models of human-computer interaction, where the automatic generation of a particular type of a discourse could be based on the rules of strategic planning involving cognitive models of CDA.

Keywords: Cognition, Communication, Strategy, discourse

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20 Enriching the Effects of Art Therapy Intervention: Reflecting upon Artworks Produced during Intervention to Restructure Adolescent’s Art Expression of Feelings and Emotions

Authors: L. K. Akila

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Art activities can fund as a clinical support tool (CST) between interventions in Art Therapy to direct the client back towards better outcome goals. In the present study, during free art sessions, researcher examined the possibilities of motivating the adolescent group to involve in art making process by reflecting upon art intervention administered. Results show that adolescents’ reflecting upon their art works generated during the intervention; could change their perceptions and cognitions to improve their positive approach by restructuring their art expressions. Consequently, such reflections triggered and improved their emotions, feelings and ideas, and produced secure attachment between family, peers and teachers. By the end of interference, transformations experienced were effective more upon depression, self-image, and self-efficacy, and to a certain extent on aggressive patterns represented.

Keywords: Cognition, Depression, Art, Adolescent, emotion, Adolescent Psychology, Aggression, self-image, art therapy

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19 A Comparitive Study of the Effect of Stress on the Cognitive Parameters in Women with Increased Body Mass Index before and after Menopause

Authors: Ramesh Bhat, Ammu Somanath, A. K. Nayanatara

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Background: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions. Aim: The present study aims to compare the effect of stress on the cognitive functions in overweight/obese women before and after menopause. Material and Methods: A total of 142 female subjects constituting women before menopause between the age group of 18–44 years and women after menopause between the age group of 45–60 years were included in the sample. Participants were categorized into overweight/obese groups based on the body mass index. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) the major tool was used for measuring the perception of stress. Based on the stress scale measurement each group was classified into with stress and without stress. Addenbrooke’s cognitive Examination-III was used for measuring the cognitive functions. Results: Premenopausal women with stress showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the cognitive parameters such as attention and orientation Fluency, language and visuospatial ability. Memory did not show any significant change in this group. Whereas, in the postmenopausal stressed women all the cognitive functions except fluency showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease after menopause stressed group. Conclusion: Stress is a significant factor on the cognitive functions of obese and overweight women before and after menopause. Practice of Yoga, Encouragement in activities like gardening, embroidery, games and relaxation techniques should be recommended to prevent stress. Insights into the neurobiology before and after menopause can be gained from future studies examining the effect on the HPA axis in relation to cognition and stress.

Keywords: Cognition, stress, body mass index, premenopausal

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18 The Effect of Experimentally Induced Stress on Facial Recognition Ability of Security Personnel’s

Authors: Zunjarrao Kadam, Vikas Minchekar

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The facial recognition is an important task in criminal investigation procedure. The security guards-constantly watching the persons-can help to identify the suspected accused. The forensic psychologists are tackled such cases in the criminal justice system. The security personnel may loss their ability to correctly identify the persons due to constant stress while performing the duty. The present study aimed at to identify the effect of experimentally induced stress on facial recognition ability of security personnel’s. For this study 50, security guards from Sangli, Miraj & Jaysingpur city of the Maharashtra States of India were recruited in the experimental study. The randomized two group design was employed to carry out the research. In the initial condition twenty identity card size photographs were shown to both groups. Afterward, artificial stress was induced in the experimental group through the difficultpuzzle-solvingtask in a limited period. In the second condition, both groups were presented earlier photographs with another additional thirty new photographs. The subjects were asked to recognize the photographs which are shown earliest. The analyzed data revealed that control group has ahighest mean score of facial recognition than experimental group. The results were discussed in the present research.

Keywords: Cognition, Facial Recognition, experimentally induced stress, security personnel

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17 Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Renal Patients on Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Juliana Gomes Duarte, Gabriela Dutra Gesualdo

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Chronic renal disease (CKD), accompanied by hemodialysis, causes chronic renal failure in a number of situations that compromises not only physical, personal and environmental aspects, but also psychological, social and family aspects. Objective: To verify the level of cognitive impairment of chronic renal patients on hemodialysis. Methodology: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The present study was performed in a Dialysis Center of a city in the interior of the State of São Paulo. The inclusion criteria were: being 18 years or older; have a medical diagnosis of CKD; being in hemodialysis treatment in this unit; and agree to participate in the research, with the signature of the Informed Consent (TCLE). A total of 115 participants were evaluated through the Participant Characterization Instrument and the Addenbrooke Cognitive Exam - Revised Version (ACE-R), being scored from 0 to 100, stipulating the cut-off note for the complete battery <78 and subdivided into five domains: attention and guidance; memory; fluency; language; (66.9%) and caucasian (54.7%), 53.7 (±14.8) years old. Most of the participants were retired (74.7%), with incomplete elementary schooling (36.5%) and the average time of treatment was 46 months. Most of the participants (61.3%) presented impairment in the area of attention and orientation, 80.4% in the spatial visual domain. Regarding the total ACE-R score, 75.7% of the participants presented scores below the established cut grade. Conclusion: There was a high percentage (75.7%) below the cut-off score established for ACE-R, suggesting that there may be some cognitive impairment among these participants, since the instrument only performs a screening on cognitive health. The results of the study are extremely important so that possible interventions can be traced in order to minimize impairment, thus improving the quality of life of chronic renal patients.

Keywords: Cognition, Dialysis, chronic renal insufficiency, adult health

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16 A Self-Directed Home Yoga Program for Women with Breast Cancer during Chemotherapy

Authors: Hiroko Komatsu, Kaori Yagasaki

Abstract:

Background: Cancer-related cognitive impairment is a common problem seen in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Physical activity may show beneficial effects on the cognitive function in such patients. Therefore, we have developed a self-directed home yoga program for cancer patients with cognitive symptoms during chemotherapy. This program involves a DVD presenting a combination of yoga courses based on patient preferences to be practiced at home. This study was performed to examine the feasibility of this program. In addition, we also examined changes in cognitive function and quality of life (QOL) in these patients participating in the program. Methods: This prospective feasibility study was conducted in a 500-bed general hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The study population consisted of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy as the initial therapy. This feasibility study used a convenience sample with estimation of recruitment rate in a single facility with the availability of trained nurses and physicians to ensure safe yoga intervention. The aim of the intervention program was to improve cognitive function by means of both physical and mental activation via yoga, consisting of physical practice, breathing exercises, and meditation. Information on the yoga program was provided as a booklet, with an instructor-guided group yoga class during the orientation, and a self-directed home yoga program on DVD with yoga logs. Results: The recruitment rate was 44.7%, and the study population consisted of 18 women with a mean age of 43.9 years. This study showed high rates of retention, adherence, and acceptability of the yoga program. Improvements were only observed in the cognitive aspects of fatigue, and there were serious adverse events during the program. Conclusion: The self-directed home yoga program discussed here was both feasible and safe for breast cancer patients showing cognitive symptoms during chemotherapy. The patients also rated the program as useful, interesting, and satisfactory. Participation in the program was associated with improvements in cognitive fatigue but not cognitive function.

Keywords: Cognition, Chemotherapy, Breast Cancer, Quality of Life, Yoga

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15 Relationship between Functionality and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult Women from the Southeast of Mexico

Authors: Estrella C. Damaris, Ingrid A. Olais, Gloria P. Uicab

Abstract:

This study explores the relationship between the level of functionality and cognitive impairment in older adult women from the south-east of Mexico. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study; performed with 172 participants in total who attended a health institute and live in Merida, Yucatan Mexico. After a non-probabilistic sampling, Barthel and Pfeiffer scales were applied. The results show statistically significant correlation between the cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer) and the levels of independence and function (Barthel) (r =0.489; p =0.001). Both determine a dependence level so they need either a little or a lot of help. Society needs that the older woman be healthy and that the professionals of mental health develop activities to prevent and rehabilitate because cognitive impairment and function are directly related with the quality of life.

Keywords: Cognition, Cognitive Impairment, Functionality, routine activities

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14 Effect of Blood Sugar Levels on Short Term and Working Memory Status in Type 2 Diabetics

Authors: Mythri G., Manjunath ML, Girish Babu M., Shireen Swaliha Quadri

Abstract:

Background: The increase in diabetes among the elderly is of concern because in addition to the wide range of traditional diabetes complications, evidence has been growing that diabetes is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Aims and Objectives: To find out if there is any association between blood sugar levels and short-term and working memory status in patients of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 200 individuals aged between 40-65 years consisting of 100 diagnosed cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and 100 non-diabetics from OPD of Mc Gann Hospital, Shivamogga. Rye’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Visual Reproduction Test, Working Digit Span Test and Validation Span Test were used to assess short-term and working memory. Fasting and Post Prandial blood sugar levels were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21. Results: Memory test scores of type 2 diabetics were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) when compared to the memory scores of age and gender matched non-diabetics. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.837), VFT (r=-0.888), VRT(r=-0.787), WDST (r=-0.795) and VST (r=-0.943). Post- Prandial blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.922), VFT (r=-0.848), VRT(r=-0.707),WDST (r=-0.729) and VST (r=-0.880) Memory scores in all 5 tests were found to be negatively correlated with the FBS and PPBS levels in diabetic patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The decreased memory status in diabetic patients may be due to many factors like hyperglycemia, vascular disease, insulin resistance, amyloid deposition and also some of the factor combine to produce additive effects like, type of diabetes, co-morbidities, age of onset, duration of the disease and type of therapy. These observed effects of blood sugar levels of diabetics on memory status are of potential clinical importance because even mild cognitive impairment could interfere with todays’ activities.

Keywords: Cognition, Diabetes, Respiratory medicine, HRV

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13 Improving Perceptual Reasoning in School Children through Chess Training

Authors: Veena Easvaradoss, Ebenezer Joseph, Sumathi Chandrasekaran, S. Sundar Manoharan, David Chandran, T. R. Uma

Abstract:

Perceptual reasoning is the ability that incorporates fluid reasoning, spatial processing, and visual motor integration. Several theories of cognitive functioning emphasize the importance of fluid reasoning. The ability to manipulate abstractions and rules and to generalize is required for reasoning tasks. This study, funded by the Cognitive Science Research Initiative, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, analyzed the effect of 1-year chess training on the perceptual reasoning of children. A pretest–posttest with control group design was used, with 43 (28 boys, 15 girls) children in the experimental group and 42 (26 boys, 16 girls) children in the control group. The sample was selected from children studying in two private schools from South India (grades 3 to 9), which included both the genders. The experimental group underwent weekly 1-hour chess training for 1 year. Perceptual reasoning was measured by three subtests of WISC-IV INDIA. Pre-equivalence of means was established. Further statistical analyses revealed that the experimental group had shown statistically significant improvement in perceptual reasoning compared to the control group. The present study clearly establishes a correlation between chess learning and perceptual reasoning. If perceptual reasoning can be enhanced in children, it could possibly result in the improvement of executive functions as well as the scholastic performance of the child.

Keywords: Cognition, Intelligence, chess, perceptual reasoning

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12 Decrease in Olfactory Cortex Volume and Alterations in Caspase Expression in the Olfactory Bulb in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Majed Al Otaibi, Melissa Lessard-Beaudoin, Amel Loudghi, Raphael Chouinard-Watkins, Melanie Plourde, Frederic Calon, C. Alexandre Castellano, Stephen Cunnane, Helene Payette, Pierrette Gaudreau, Denis Gris, Rona K. Graham

Abstract:

Introduction: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Symptoms include memory dysfunction, and also alterations in attention, planning, language and overall cognitive function. Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of several neurological disorders including AD. Studying the mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunction may therefore lead to the discovery of potential biomarkers and/or treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Objectives: To determine if olfactory dysfunction predicts future cognitive impairment in the aging population and to characterize the olfactory system in a murine model expressing a genetic factor of AD. Method: For the human study, quantitative olfactory tests (UPSIT and OMT) have been done on 93 subjects (aged 80 to 94 years) from the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge) cohort accepting to participate in the ORCA secondary study. The telephone Modified Mini Mental State examination (t-MMSE) was used to assess cognition levels, and an olfactory self-report was also collected. In a separate cohort, olfactory cortical volume was calculated using MRI results from healthy old adults (n=25) and patients with AD (n=18) using the AAL single-subject atlas and performed with the PNEURO tool (PMOD 3.7). For the murine study, we are using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Result: Human Study: Based on the self-report, 81% of the participants claimed to not suffer from any problem with olfaction. However, based on the UPSIT, 94% of those subjects showed a poor olfactory performance and different forms of microsmia. Moreover, the results confirm that olfactory function declines with age. We also detected a significant decrease in olfactory cortical volume in AD individuals compared to controls. Murine study: Preliminary data demonstrate there is a significant decrease in expression levels of the proform of caspase-3 and the caspase substrate STK3, in the olfactory bulb of mice expressing human APOE4 compared with controls. In addition, there is a significant decrease in the expression level of the caspase-9 proform and caspase-8 active fragment. Analysis of the mature neuron marker, NeuN, shows decreased expression levels of both isoforms. The data also suggest that Iba-1 immunostaining is increased in the olfactory bulb of APOE4 mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusions: The activation of caspase-3 may be the cause of the decreased levels of STK3 through caspase cleavage and may play role in the inflammation observed. In the clinical study, our results suggest that seniors are unaware of their olfactory function status and therefore it is not sufficient to measure olfaction using the self-report in the elderly. Studying olfactory function and cognitive performance in the aging population will help to discover biomarkers in the early stage of the AD.

Keywords: Cognition, Neurodegenerative, alzheimer's disease, brain atrophy, caspase, APOE4, olfactory dysfunction

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11 Visual Aid and Imagery Ramification on Decision Making: An Exploratory Study Applicable in Emergency Situations

Authors: Priyanka Bharti

Abstract:

Decades ago designs were based on common sense and tradition, but after an enhancement in visualization technology and research, we are now able to comprehend the cognitive ability involved in the decoding of the visual information. However, many fields in visuals need intense research to deliver an efficient explanation for the events. Visuals are an information representation mode through images, symbols and graphics. It plays an impactful role in decision making by facilitating quick recognition, comprehension, and analysis of a situation. They enhance problem-solving capabilities by enabling the processing of more data without overloading the decision maker. As research proves that, visuals offer an improved learning environment by a factor of 400 compared to textual information. Visual information engages learners at a cognitive level and triggers the imagination, which enables the user to process the information faster (visuals are processed 60,000 times faster in the brain than text). Appropriate information, visualization, and its presentation are known to aid and intensify the decision-making process for the users. However, most literature discusses the role of visual aids in comprehension and decision making during normal conditions alone. Unlike emergencies, in a normal situation (e.g. our day to day life) users are neither exposed to stringent time constraints nor face the anxiety of survival and have sufficient time to evaluate various alternatives before making any decision. An emergency is an unexpected probably fatal real-life situation which may inflict serious ramifications on both human life and material possessions unless corrective measures are taken instantly. The situation demands the exposed user to negotiate in a dynamic and unstable scenario in the absence or lack of any preparation, but still, take swift and appropriate decisions to save life/lives or possessions. But the resulting stress and anxiety restricts cue sampling, decreases vigilance, reduces the capacity of working memory, causes premature closure in evaluating alternative options, and results in task shedding. Limited time, uncertainty, high stakes and vague goals negatively affect cognitive abilities to take appropriate decisions. More so, theory of natural decision making by experts has been understood with far more depth than that of an ordinary user. Therefore, in this study, the author aims to understand the role of visual aids in supporting rapid comprehension to take appropriate decisions during an emergency situation.

Keywords: Cognition, Decision Making, Recognition, Graphics, Visual

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10 Math Word Problems: Context and Achievement

Authors: Irena Smetackova

Abstract:

The important part of school mathematics are word problems which represent the connection between school knowledge and life reality. To find the reasons why students consider word problems to be difficult, it is necessary to take into consideration the motivational settings, besides mathematical knowledge and reading skills. Our goal is to identify whether the familiar or unfamiliar context of math word problem influences solving success rate and if so, whether the reasons are motivational or cognitive. For this purpose, we conducted three steps study in group of fifty pupils 9-10 years old. In the first step, we asked pupils to create ‘the best’ word problems for entered numerical formula. The set of 19 word problems with different contexts were selected. In the second step, pupils were asked to evaluate (without solving) how they like each item and how easy it is for them. The 6 word problems with low preference and low estimated success rate were selected and combined with other 6 problems with high preference and success rate. In the third step, the same pupils were asked to solve the word problems. The analysis showed that pupils attitudes and solving toward word problems varied by the context. The strong gender patterns both in preferred contexts and in estimated success rates were identified however the real success rate did not differ so strongly. The success gap between word problems with and without preferred contexts were stronger than the gap between problems with and without real experience with the context. The hypothesis that motivational factors are more important than cognitive factors was confirmed.

Keywords: Cognition, Mathematics, Motivation, context of reality, word problems

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9 Rendering Cognition Based Learning in Coherence with Development within the Context of PostgreSQL

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj, Senuri Sucharitharathna, Chathurika Senarath, Yasanthy Kanagaraj, Indraka Udayakumara

Abstract:

PostgreSQL is an Object Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS) that has been in existence for a while. Despite the superior features that it wraps and packages to manage database and data, the database community has not fully realized the importance and advantages of PostgreSQL. Hence, this research tends to focus on provisioning a better environment of development for PostgreSQL in order to induce the utilization and elucidate the importance of PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL is also known to be the world’s most elementary SQL-compliant open source ORDBMS. But, users have not yet resolved to PostgreSQL due to the facts that it is still under the layers and the complexity of its persistent textual environment for an introductory user. Simply stating this, there is a dire need to explicate an easy way of making the users comprehend the procedure and standards with which databases are created, tables and the relationships among them, manipulating queries and their flow based on conditions in PostgreSQL to help the community resolve to PostgreSQL at an augmented rate. Hence, this research under development within the context tends to initially identify the dominant features provided by PostgreSQL over its competitors. Following the identified merits, an analysis on why the database community holds a hesitance in migrating to PostgreSQL’s environment will be carried out. These will be modulated and tailored based on the scope and the constraints discovered. The resultant of the research proposes a system that will serve as a designing platform as well as a learning tool that will provide an interactive method of learning via a visual editor mode and incorporate a textual editor for well-versed users. The study is based on conjuring viable solutions that analyze a user’s cognitive perception in comprehending human computer interfaces and the behavioural processing of design elements. By providing a visually draggable and manipulative environment to work with Postgresql databases and table queries, it is expected to highlight the elementary features displayed by Postgresql over any other existent systems in order to grasp and disseminate the importance and simplicity offered by this to a hesitant user.

Keywords: Cognition, Database, PostgreSQL, text-editor, visual-editor

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