Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Coatings Related Abstracts

12 Modified Surface Morphology, Structure and Enhanced Weathering Performance of Polyester-Urethane/Organoclay Nanocomposite Coatings

Authors: Gaurav Verma

Abstract:

Organoclay loaded (0-5 weight %) polyester-urethane (PU) coatings were prepared with a branched hydroxyl-bearing polyester and an aliphatic poly-isocyanate. TEM micrographs show partial exfoliation and intercalation of clay platelets in organoclay-polyester dispersions. AFM surface images reveals that the PU hard domains tend to regularise and also self-organise into spherical shapes of sizes 50 nm (0 wt %), 60 nm (2 wt %) and 190 nm (4 wt %) respectively. IR analysis shows that PU chains have increasing tendency to interact with exfoliated clay platelets through hydrogen bonding. This interaction strengthens inter-chain linkages in PU matrix and hence improves anti-ageing properties. 1000 hours of accelerated weathering was evaluated by ATR spectroscopy, while yellowing and overall discoloration was quantified by the Δb* and ΔE* values of the CIELab colour scale. Post-weathering surface properties also showed improvement as the loss of thickness and reduction in gloss in neat PU was 25% and 42%; while it was just 3.5% and 14% respectively for the 2 wt% nanocomposite coating. This work highlights the importance of modifying surface and bulk properties of PU coatings at nanoscale, which led to improved performance in accelerated weathering conditions.

Keywords: Coatings, Ageing, Spectroscopy, AFM

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
11 Hard Coatings Characterization Based on Chromium Nitrides: Applications for Wood Machining

Authors: B. Chemani, H. Aknouche, A. Zerizer, R. Marchal

Abstract:

The phenomena occurring during machining are related to the internal friction of the material that deforms and the friction the flake on the rake face of tool. Various researches have been conducted to improve the wear resistance of the tool by thin film deposition. This work aims to present an experimental approach related to wood machining technique to evaluate the wear for the case of ripping Aleppo pine, a species well established in the Mediterranean in general and in Algeria in particular. The study will be done on tungsten carbide cutting tools widely used in woodworking and coated with chrome nitride (CrN) and Chromium Nitride enriched Aluminium (CrAlN) with percentage different of aluminum sputtered through frame magnetron mark Nordiko 3500. The deposition conditions are already optimized by previous studies. The wear tests were performed in the laboratory of ENSAM Cluny (France) on a numerical control ripper of recordi type. This comparative study of the behavior of tools, coated and uncoated, showed that the addition of the aluminum chromium nitride films does not improve the tool ability to resist abrasive wear that is predominant when ripping the Aleppo pine. By against the aluminum addition improves the crystallization of chromium nitride films.

Keywords: Coatings, Wear, PVD, Aleppo pine, CrAlN

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
10 Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Nitride on Silicon Using a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

Authors: Janella Salamania, Marcedon Fernandez, Matthew Villanueva Henry Ramos

Abstract:

Titanium nitrite (TiN) a popular functional and decorative coating because of its golden yellow color, high hardness and superior wear resistance. It is also being studied as a diffusion barrier in integrated circuits due to its known chemical stability and low resistivity. While there have been numerous deposition methods done for TiN, most required the heating of substrates at high temperatures. In this work, TiN films are deposited on silicon (111) and (100) substrates without substrate heating using a patented magnetized sheet plasma source. Films were successfully deposited without substrate heating at various target bias, while maintaining a constant 25% N2 to Ar ratio, and deposition of time of 30 minutes. The resulting films exhibited a golden yellow color which is characteristic of TiN. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of TiN predominantly oriented in the (111) direction regardless of substrate used. EDX data also confirms the 1:1 stoichiometry of titanium an nitrogen. Ellipsometry measurements estimate the thickness to range from 28 nm to 33 nm. SEM images were also taken to observe the morphology of the film.

Keywords: Coatings, Thin Films, Nitrides, reactive magnetron sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
9 Self-Healing Coatings and Electrospun Fibers

Authors: M. Grandcolas, N. Rival, H. Bu, S. Jahren, R. Schmid, H. Johnsen

Abstract:

The concept of an autonomic self-healing material, where initiation of repair is integrated to the material, is now being considered for engineering applications and is a hot topic in the literature. Among several concepts/techniques, two are most interesting: i) Capsules: Integration of microcapsules in or at the surface of coatings or fibre-like structures has recently gained much attention. Upon damage-induced cracking, the microcapsules are broken by the propagating crack fronts resulting in a release of an active chemical (healing agent) by capillary action, subsequently repairing and avoiding further crack growth. ii) Self-healing polymers: Interestingly, the introduction of dynamic covalent bonds into polymer networks has also recently been used as a powerful approach towards the design of various intrinsically self-healing polymer systems. The idea behind this is to reconnect the chemical crosslinks which are broken when a material fractures, restoring the integrity of the material and thereby prolonging its lifetime. We propose here to integrate both self-healing concepts (capsules, self-healing polymers) in electrospun fibres and coatings. Different capsule preparation approaches have been investigated in SINTEF. The most advanced method to produce capsules is based on emulsification to create a water-in-oil emulsion before polymerisation. The healing agent is a polyurethane-based dispersion that was encapsulated in shell materials consisting of urea-benzaldehyde resins. Results showed the successful preparation of microcapsules and release of the agent when capsules break. Since capsules are produced in water-in-oil systems we mainly investigated organic solvent based coatings while a major challenge resides in the incorporation of capsules into water-based coatings. We also focused on developing more robust microcapsules to prevent premature rupture of the capsules. The capsules have been characterized in terms of size, and encapsulation and release might be visualized by incorporating fluorescent dyes and examine the capsules by microscopy techniques. Alternatively, electrospinning is an innovative technique that has attracted enormous attention due to unique properties of the produced nano-to-micro fibers, ease of fabrication and functionalization, and versatility in controlling parameters. Especially roll-to-roll electrospinning is a unique method which has been used in industry to produce nanofibers continuously. Electrospun nanofibers can usually reach a diameter down to 100 nm, depending on the polymer used, which is of interest for the concept with self-healing polymer systems. In this work, we proved the feasibility of fabrication of POSS-based (POSS: polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, tradename FunzioNano™) nanofibers via electrospinning. Two different formulations based on aqueous or organic solvents have shown nanofibres with a diameter between 200 – 450nm with low defects. The addition of FunzioNano™ in the polymer blend also showed enhanced properties in term of wettability, promising for e.g. membrane technology. The self-healing polymer systems developed are here POSS-based materials synthesized to develop dynamic soft brushes.

Keywords: Coatings, Electrospinning, fibers, capsules

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
8 Corrosion and Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Potential Coatings Applied in High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel for Offshore Applications

Authors: Ainara Lopez-Ortega, Raquel Bayon, Elena Rodriguez, Amaya Igartua

Abstract:

The materials used in offshore structural applications are continuously subjected to aggressive environmental conditions that accelerate their degradation, thus shortening their useful life. Wear, corrosion and the effect of marine microorganisms are the main processes taking place in marine environments, and whenever they occur simultaneously the durability of materials is strongly reduced. In the present work, the tribocorrosion behaviour of a High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steel and three coatings commonly used for protecting offshore components has been studied by means of unidirectional tribological tests in synthetic seawater. The coatings were found to enhance the tribological response of the uncoated steel and provide the system with improved corrosion resistance, in terms of smaller material losses and reduction of friction coefficients. The tests were repeated after ageing the materials in a salt-fog cabinet, and the aging process was found to slightly affect the performance of two of the coatings, in terms of higher material losses, meanwhile the third coating was not affected.

Keywords: Coatings, Corrosion, Seawater, Tribocorrosion, high-strength low-alloy steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
7 Evaluation of Corrosion Behaviour of Coatings Applied in a High-Strength Low Alloy Steel in Different Climatic Cabinets

Authors: Ainara Lopez-Ortega, Raquel Bayon, Elena Rodriguez, Amaya Igartua

Abstract:

Corrosion is one of the most concerning phenomenon that accelerates material degradation in offshore applications. In order to avoid the premature failure of metallic materials in marine environments, organic coatings have widely been used, due to their elevated corrosion resistance. Thermally-sprayed metals have recently been used in offshore applications, whereas ceramic materials are usually less employed, due to their high cost. The protectiveness of the coatings can be evaluated and categorized in corrosivity categories in accordance with the ISO 12944-6 Standard. According to this standard, for coatings that are supposed to work in marine environments, a C5-M category is required for components working out of the water or partially immersed in the splash zone, and an Im2 category for totally immersed components. C5-M/Im-2 high category would correspond to a durability of more than 20 years without maintenance in accordance with ISO 12944 and NORSOK M501 standards. In this work, the corrosion behavior of three potential coatings used in offshore applications has been evaluated. For this aim, the materials have been subjected to different environmental conditions in several climatic chambers (humidostatic, climatic, immersion, UV and salt-fog). The category of the coatings to each condition has been selected, in accordance with the previously mentioned standard.

Keywords: Coatings, Corrosion, Offshore, cabinet

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
6 Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method

Authors: D. Kari Basavaraja, M. G. Skanda, C. Soumya, V. Ramesh

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.

Keywords: Coatings, design of experiment, impact strength, fracture toughness, bath parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
5 The Formation of Thin Copper Films on Graphite Surface Using Magnetron Sputtering Method

Authors: Zydrunas Kavaliauskas, Aleksandras Iljinas, Liutauras Marcinauskas, Mindaugas Milieska, Vitas Valincius

Abstract:

The magnetron sputtering deposition method is often used to obtain thin film coatings. The main advantage of magnetron vaporization compared to other deposition methods is the high rate erosion of the cathode material (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.) and the ability to operate under low-pressure conditions. The structure of the formed coatings depends on the working parameters of the magnetron deposition system, which is why it is possible to influence the properties of the growing film, such as morphology, crystal orientation, and dimensions, stresses, adhesion, etc. The properties of these coatings depend on the distance between the substrate and the magnetron surface, the vacuum depth, the gas used, etc. Using this deposition technology, substrates are most often placed near the anode. The magnetic trap of the magnetrons for localization of electrons in the cathode region is formed using a permanent magnet system that is on the side of the cathode. The scientific literature suggests that, after insertion of a small amount of copper into graphite, the electronic conductivity of graphite increase. The aim of this work is to create thin (up to 300 nm) layers on a graphite surface using a magnetron evaporation method, to investigate the formation peculiarities and microstructure of thin films, as well as the mechanism of copper diffusion into graphite inner layers at different thermal treatment temperatures. The electron scanning microscope was used to investigate the microrelief of the coating surface. The chemical composition is determined using the EDS method, which shows that, with an increase of the thermal treatment of the copper-carbon layer from 200 °C to 400 °C, the copper content is reduced from 8 to 4 % in atomic mass units. This is because the EDS method captures only the amount of copper on the graphite surface, while the temperature of the heat treatment increases part of the copper because of the diffusion processes penetrates into the inner layers of the graphite. The XRD method shows that the crystalline copper structure is not affected by thermal treatment.

Keywords: Coatings, Carbon, Copper, magnetron sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
4 Electrochemical and Microstructure Properties of Chromium-Graphene and SnZn-Graphene Oxide Composite Coatings

Authors: Rekha M. Y., Punith Kumar, Anshul Kamboj, Chandan Srivastava

Abstract:

Coatings plays an important role in providing protection for a substrate and in improving the surface quality. Graphene/graphene oxide (GO) using in coating systems provides an environmental friendly solution towards protection against corrosion. Issues such as, lack of scale, high cost, low quality limits the practical application of graphene/GO as corrosion resistant coating material. One other way to employ these materials for corrosion protection is to incorporate them into coatings that are conventionally used for corrosion protection. Due to the extraordinary properties of graphene/GO, it has been demonstrated that the coatings containing graphene/GO are more corrosion resistant than pure metal/alloy coatings. In the present work, Cr-graphene and SnZn-GO composite coatings were investigated in enhancing the corrosion resistant property when compared to pure Cr coating and pure SnZn coating respectively. All the coatings were electrodeposited over mild-steel substrate. Graphene and GO were synthesized by electrochemical exfoliation method and modified Hummers’ method respectively. In Cr coatings, the microstructural study revealed that the addition of formic acid in the coatings reduced the number of cracks in the coatings. Further addition of graphene in Cr coating enhanced the Cr coating’s morphology. Chemically synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were also embedded in the as-deposited Cr and Cr-graphene coatings to enhance the adhesion of the coating, to improve the surface finish and to increase the corrosion resistant property of the coatings. Diffraction analysis revealed that the addition of graphene also altered the texture of the Cr coatings. In SnZn alloy coatings, the morphological and topographical characterization revealed that the relative smoothness and compactness of the coatings increased with increase in the addition of GO in the coatings. The microstructural investigation revealed large-scale segregation of Zn-rich and Sn-rich phases in the pure SnZn coating. However, in SnZn-GO composite coating the uniform distribution of Zn phase in the Sn-rich matrix was observed. This distribution caused the early and uniform formation of ZnO, which is the corrosion product, yielding better corrosion resistance for the SnZn-GO composite coatings as compared to pure SnZn coating. A significant improvement in corrosion resistance in terms of reduction in corrosion current and corrosion rate and increase in the polarization resistance was observed in Cr coating containing graphene and in SnZn coatings containing GO.

Keywords: Coatings, Corrosion, Graphene, electrodeposition, graphene-oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3 Corrosion Protective Coatings in Machines Design

Authors: Cristina Diaz, Lucia Perez, Simone Visigalli, Giuseppe Di Florio, Gonzalo Fuentes, Roberto Canziani, Paolo Gronchi

Abstract:

During the last 50 years, the selection of materials is one of the main decisions in machine design for different industrial applications. It is due to numerous physical, chemical, mechanical and technological factors to consider in it. Corrosion effects are related with all of these factors and impact in the life cycle, machine incidences and the costs for the life of the machine. Corrosion affects the deterioration or destruction of metals due to the reaction with the environment, generally wet. In food industry, dewatering industry, concrete industry, paper industry, etc. corrosion is an unsolved problem and it might introduce some alterations of some characteristics in the final product. Nowadays, depending on the selected metal, its surface and its environment of work, corrosion prevention might be a change of metal, use a coating, cathodic protection, use of corrosion inhibitors, etc. In the vast majority of the situations, use of a corrosion resistant material or in its defect, a corrosion protection coating is the solution. Stainless steels are widely used in machine design, because of their strength, easily cleaned capacity, corrosion resistance and appearance. Typical used are AISI 304 and AISI 316. However, their benefits don’t fit every application, and some coatings are required against corrosion such as some paintings, galvanizing, chrome plating, SiO₂, TiO₂ or ZrO₂ coatings, etc. In this work, some coatings based in a bilayer made of Titanium-Tantalum, Titanium-Niobium, Titanium-Hafnium or Titanium-Zirconium, have been developed used magnetron sputtering configuration by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) technology, for trying to reduce corrosion effects on AISI 304, AISI 316 and comparing it with Titanium alloy substrates. Ti alloy display exceptional corrosion resistance to chlorides, sour and oxidising acidic media and seawater. In this study, Ti alloy (99%) has been included for comparison with coated AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steel. Corrosion tests were conducted by a Gamry Instrument under ASTM G5-94 standard, using different electrolytes such as tomato salsa, wine, olive oil, wet compost, a mix of sand and concrete with water and NaCl for testing corrosion in different industrial environments. In general, in all tested environments, the results showed an improvement of corrosion resistance of all coated AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steel substrates when they were compared to uncoated stainless steel substrates. After that, comparing these results with corrosion studies on uncoated Ti alloy substrate, it was observed that in some cases, coated stainless steel substrates, reached similar current density that uncoated Ti alloy. Moreover, Titanium-Zirconium and Titanium-Tantalum coatings showed for all substrates in study including coated Ti alloy substrates, a reduction in current density more than two order in magnitude. As conclusion, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr, Ti-Nb and Ti-Hf coatings have been developed for improving corrosion resistance of AISI 304 and AISI 316 materials. After corrosion tests in several industry environments, substrates have shown improvements on corrosion resistance. Similar processes have been carried out in Ti alloy (99%) substrates. Coated AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steel, might reach similar corrosion protection on the surface than uncoated Ti alloy (99%). Moreover, coated Ti Alloy (99%) might increase its corrosion resistance using these coatings.

Keywords: Coatings, Corrosion, stainless steel, PVD

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
2 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Coatings, Immune System, Implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
1 Highly Transparent, Hydrophobic and Self-Cleaning ZnO-Durazane Based Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings

Authors: Philippe Champagne, Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin

Abstract:

In this report, we present a simple route to realize robust, hydrophobic, and highly transparent coatings using organic polysilazane (durazane) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). These coatings were deposited by spraying the mixture solution on glass slides. Thus, the properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. This sprayable polymer mixed with ZnO nanoparticles shows high transparency for visible light > 90%, a hydrophobic character (CA > 90°), and good mechanical and chemical stability. The coating also demonstrates excellent self-cleaning properties, which makes it a promising candidate for commercial use.

Keywords: Coatings, Durability, zinc oxide nanoparticles, hydrophobicity, self-cleaning, transparence, organic polysilazane

Procedia PDF Downloads 1