Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Coating Related Abstracts

40 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Jana Petrů, Tomáš Zlámal, Robert Čep, Lenka Čepová


This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials -cermets- is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: Aerospace, plasma, Coating, Grinding

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39 New Coating Materials Based on Mixtures of Shellac and Pectin for Pharmaceutical Products

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M. Tabatabaeifar, M. Helmis


Shellac is a natural polyester resin secreted by insects. Pectins are natural, non-toxic and water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the peels of citrus fruits or the leftovers of apples. Both polymers are allowed for the use in the pharmaceutical industry and as a food additive. SSB Aquagold® is the aqueous solution of shellac and can be used for a coating process as an enteric or controlled drug release polymer. In this study, tablets containing 10 mg methylene blue as a model drug were prepared with a rotary press. Those tablets were coated with mixtures of shellac and one of the pectin different types (i.e. CU 201, CU 501, CU 701 and CU 020) mostly in a 2:1 ratio or with pure shellac in a small scale fluidized bed apparatus. A stable, simple and reproducible three-stage coating process was successfully developed. The drug contents of the coated tablets were determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characterization of the surface and the film thickness were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the light microscopy. Release studies were performed in a dissolution apparatus with a basket. Most of the formulations were enteric coated. The dissolution profiles showed a delayed or sustained release with a lagtime of at least 4 h. Dissolution profiles of coated tablets with pure shellac had a very long lagtime ranging from 13 to 17.5 h and the slopes were quite high. The duration of the lagtime and the slope of the dissolution profiles could be adjusted by adding the proper type of pectin to the shellac formulation and by variation of the coating amount. In order to apply a coating formulation as a colon delivery system, the prepared film should be resistant against gastric fluid for at least 2 h and against intestinal fluid for 4-6 h. The required delay time was gained with most of the shellac-pectin polymer mixtures. The release profiles were fitted with the modified model of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the Hixson-Crowell model. A correlation coefficient (R²) > 0.99 was obtained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

Keywords: Coating, SEM, shellac, pectin, fluidized bed, release, colon delivery system, kinetic, methylene blue

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38 Effect of Whey Protein Based Edible Coating on the Moisture Loss and Sensory Attributes of Fresh Mutton

Authors: Saba Belgheisi


Food packaging, is an important discipline in the area of food technology, concerns preservation and protection of foods. The objective of this research was to determine of the effect of whey protein based edible coating on the moisture loss and sensory attributes of fresh mutton after 0, 1, 3 and 5 days at 5° C. The moisture content, moisture loss and sensory attributes (juiciness, color and odor) of the coated and uncoated samples were analyzed. The results showed that, moisture content, moisture loss, juiciness and color of the coated and uncoated samples have significant differences (p < 0.05) at the intervals of 0 to 1 and 1 to 3 days of storage. But no significant difference was observed at interval time 3 to 5 days of storage (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant differences in the odor values of the coated and uncoated samples (p > 0.05). Therefore, the coated samples had consistently more moisture, juiciness and colored values than uncoated samples after 3 days at 5° C. So, whey protein edible coating could enhance product presentation and eliminate the need for placing absorbent pads at the bottom of the trays.

Keywords: Coating, Whey Protein, moisture, sensory, mutton

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37 Response of Briquettes Application with Different Coating Materials on Yield and Quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]

Authors: H. B. Torane, M. C. Kasture, S. S. Prabhudesai, P. B. Sanap, V. N. Palsande, J. J. Palkar


The present investigation entitled “Response of briquettes application with different coating materials on yield and quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]” was conducted at Central Experiment Center, Wakawali during kharif season 2013. The field experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replicate. The four coating materials viz., Co – Non coating, C1 – Wax coating, C2 – Jaggary coating, and C3 – Tar coating was applied to Konkan Annapurna Briquette along with three sub treatments of application time i.e B1 – ½ at sowing, B2 - ½ at sowing and ½ at 30 days after sowing and B3 - 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 at 60 days after sowing. It was observed that the application of tar coated Konkan Annapurna Briquettes (KAB) in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing was found promising to enhancing the cucumber fruit yield, higher vine length, number of fruits vine-1, girth of fruit, length of fruit. It was also observed that the quality of the cucumber fruit increased in terms of ascorbic acid. UB-Godavari forms of briquettes .i.e. are promising source of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers as compared to straight fertilizers for enhancing green cucumber fruit yield of Sheetal variety of cucumber in lateritic soil. Amongst the three types of coated briquettes, the tar coated briquettes application was found to be superior for increasing cucumber fruit yield applied in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing @ 5 briquettes per plant at an interval of 30 days after sowing.

Keywords: Coating, Yield, Tar, briquettes, wax and quality

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36 Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Papaya (Carica papaya)

Authors: Basharat Yousuf, Abhaya K. Srivastava


Psyllium gum alone and in combination with sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya. Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples, refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil. Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore, minimizing the weight loss.

Keywords: Coating, gum, fresh-cut, papaya, psylllium

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35 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste


There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: Textile, Coating, Biomaterial, Finishing

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34 Conductive and Stretchable Graphene Nanoribbon Coated Textiles

Authors: Lu Gan, Songmin Shang, Marcus Chun Wah Yuen


A conductive and stretchable cotton fabric was prepared in this study through coating the graphene nanoribbon onto the cotton fabric. The mechanical and electrical properties of the prepared cotton fabric were then investigated. As shown in the results, the graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric had an improvement in both mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the resistance of the cotton fabric had a linear dependence on the strain applied to it. The prepared graphene nanoribbon coated cotton fabric has great application potentials in smart textile industry.

Keywords: Coating, conductive fabric, graphene nanoribbon, enhanced properties

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33 Microbiological Assessment of Fish Sausages Coated with Smoked-Edible Film, and Stored in Room and Refrigerator Temperatures

Authors: Henny A. Dien, Roike I. Montolalu, Feny Mentang, Jupni Keno, Reynerd S. Burdam, Siegfried Berhimpon


Fish Sausages became popular nowadays, because of high nutritious and low in cholesterol. However, this food is also highly perishable and often contaminated by pathogen bacteria. Edible film was made from myofibril of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) waste, with addition of liquid smoke 0.8%. The aim of this study were to determine the TPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film, and stored in room temperature (26-29oC), and refrigerator (5-10oC). Results shown that TPC in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film were lower than that of without coated, both for storage in room temperature and in refrigerator. Total coliform in coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 7-120 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged between 7-93 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without liquid smoke were 7-240 MPN/g (1-4 days) in room temperature, and 7-150 MPN/g in refrigerator. Total E. coli of fish sausages coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 3-4 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged were 3 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without smoked both stored in room temperature and in refrigerator, shown total E. coli 3 MPN/g during 4 days in room temperature, and 6 days in refrigerator. Total E. coli of sausages without coated stored in room temperature ranged between 7-24 MPN/g, and that of stored in refrigerator ranged between 3-4 MPN/g.

Keywords: Coating, edible film, smoke liquid, sausages

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32 Metallic Coating for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Substrate

Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Said Abdi, Nadjet Bouhelal, Ismail Daoud


This paper investigates the application of metallic coatings on high fiber volume fraction carbon/epoxy polymer matrix composites. For the grip of the metallic layer, a method of modifying the surface of the composite by introducing a mixture of copper and steel powder (filler powders) which can reduce the impact of thermal spray particles. The powder was introduced to the surface at the time of the forming. Arc spray was used to project the zinc coating layer. The substrate was grit blasted to avoid poor adherence. The porosity, microstructure, and morphology of layers are characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. The samples were studied also in terms of hardness and erosion resistance. This investigation did not reveal any visible evidence damage to the substrates. The hardness of zinc layer was about 25.94 MPa and the porosity was around (∼6.70%). The erosion test showed that the zinc coating improves the resistance to erosion. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that thermal spraying allows the production of protective coating on PMC. Zinc coating has been identified as a compatible material with the substrate. The filler powders layer protects the substrate from the impact of hot particles and allows avoiding the rupture of brittle carbon fibers.

Keywords: Coating, Composite, erosion, arc spray

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31 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana


Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: Coating, resistant starch, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts

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30 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, O. S. I. Fayomi, V. S. Aigbodion


Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, Microstructure, Wear, Microhardness, mild steel, zinc-yttrium

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29 Investigation of Water Absorption and Compressive Strength of Resin Coated Mortar

Authors: Yasir Ali, Zain Ul Abdin, Muhammad Wisal Khattak


Nowadays various advanced techniques are used to enhance the performance of materials in the field of construction engineering. Structures exposed to an aggressive, humid and hostile environment are experiencing severe negative impacts which lead to premature failure. Polyester resin is one of the advanced material used for improving performance of structural materials especially for repair/ refurbish purpose of structures and protection from contaminated environmental effect/ hazards. This study investigated the aptness of the polyester resin as coating agent on the mortar and assessed its performance in an ambient environment of Pakistan. Cubical specimens of mortar were fabricated. These specimens were tested for water absorption and compressive strength after one day and sixty days. These tests were performed under different exposure conditions (ambient environment and submerged in water). The specimens were coated with one, two and three layers and results were compared to control (no/ zero resin layer) specimens. Test results indicated that there is a significant decrease in water absorption of mortar coated with resin when compared to controlled specimens. The compressive strength test results revealed that resin coated specimen had higher strength when compared to controlled specimens. The results suggested that resin is a promising material and can be used effectively in structures which are exposed to high temperatures. The study would be helpful in improving performance of the structural material in a hazardous environment.

Keywords: Coating, mortar, ambient environment, polyester resin

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28 Novel Self-Healing Eco-Friendly Coatings with Antifouling and Anticorrosion Properties for Maritime Applications

Authors: K. N. Kipreou, E. Efthmiadou, G. Kordas


Biofouling represents one of the most crucial problems in the present maritime industries when its control still challenges the researchers all over the world. The present work is referred to the synthesis and characterization CeMo and Cu2O nanocontainers by using a wide range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for marine applications. The above nanosystems will be loaded with active monomers and corrosion rendering healing ability to marine paints. The objective of this project is their ability for self-healing, self-polishing and finally for anti-corrosion activity. One of the driving forces for the exploration of CeMo, is the unique anticorrosive behavior, which will be confirmed by the electrochemistry methodology. It has be highlighted that the nanocontainers of Cu2O with the appropriate antibacterial inhibitor will improve the hydrophobicity and the morphology of the coating surfaces reducing the water friction. In summary, both novel nanoc will increase the lifetime of the paints releasing the antifouling agent in a control manner.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Coating, Antifouling, Biofouling, Copper, SEM, copper oxide, anticorrosion, inhibitors, marinepaints, nanocontainer

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27 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic


In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: Coating, Ion implantation, nanohardness, super hard

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26 Cold Spray Fabrication of Coating for Highly Corrosive Environment

Authors: Harminder Singh


Cold spray is a novel and emerging technology for the fabrication of coating. In this study, coating is successfully developed by this process on superalloy surface. The selected coating composition is already proved as corrosion resistant. The microstructure of the newly developed coating is examined by various characterization techniques, for testing its suitability for high temperature corrosive conditions of waste incinerator. The energy producing waste incinerators are still running at low efficiency, mainly due to their chlorine based highly corrosive conditions. The characterization results show that the developed cold sprayed coating structure is suitable for its further testing in highly aggressive conditions.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, Microstructure, Cold Spray

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25 Analytical Characterization of TiO2-Based Nanocoatings for the Protection and Preservation of Architectural Calcareous Stone Monuments

Authors: Sayed M. Ahmed, Sawsan S. Darwish, Mahmoud A. Adam, Nagib A. Elmarzugi, Mohammad A. Al-Dosari, Nadia A. Al-Mouallimi


Historical stone surfaces and architectural heritage especially which located in open areas may undergo unwanted changes due to the exposure to many physical and chemical deterioration factors, air pollution, soluble salts, Rh/temperature, and biodeterioration are the main causes of decay of stone building materials. The development and application of self-cleaning treatments on historical and architectural stone surfaces could be a significant improvement in conservation, protection, and maintenance of cultural heritage. In this paper, nanometric titanium dioxide has become a promising photocatalytic material owing to its ability to catalyze the complete degradation of many organic contaminants and represent an appealing way to create self-cleaning surfaces, thus limiting maintenance costs, and to promote the degradation of polluting agents. The obtained nano-TiO2 coatings were applied on travertine (Marble and limestone often used in historical and monumental buildings). The efficacy of the treatments has been evaluated after coating and artificial thermal aging, through capillary water absorption, Ultraviolet-light exposure to evaluate photo-induced and the hydrophobic effects of the coated surface, while the surface morphology before and after treatment was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The changes of molecular structure occurring in treated samples were spectroscopy studied by FTIR-ATR, and Colorimetric measurements have been performed to evaluate the optical appearance. All the results get together with the apparent effect that coated TiO2 nanoparticles is an innovative method, which enhanced the durability of stone surfaces toward UV aging, improved their resistance to relative humidity and temperature, self-cleaning photo-induced effects are well evident, and no alteration of the original features.

Keywords: Coating, thermal aging, self-cleaning, photocatalysis TiO2, architectural calcareous stone monuments

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24 Synthesis, Microstructure and Photoluminescence Properties of Yttrium Orthovanadates: Influences of Silica Nano-Particles and Nano-Layers

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Rafiaei


In this investigation, firstly Eu3+ doped YVO4 phosphor was synthesized using solid-state method. Then silica was coated on the surface of particles via sol-gel method. To study the influence of SiO2 addition on microstructure and photoluminescence characteristics of YVO4:4% Eu3+ phosphor materials, we employed X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High-Resolution Transmitted Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Photoluminescence (PL) equipments. The XPS characterization confirmed the formation of Y–O–Si and V-O-Si bondings between YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor particle and SiO2 coating. In addition, it was found that although the amounts of added SiO2 were not remarkable, but it resulted in enhancement of emission intensity of the phosphors. Finally by employing ESR analysis, it was shown that surface oxygen vacancies, result in reduction of V5+ to the lower valence state of V4+.

Keywords: Coating, Solid State, Photoluminescence, sol-gel, silica

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23 Effect of Polymer Coated Urea on Nutrient Efficiency and Nitrate Leaching Using Maize and Annual Ryegrass

Authors: Amrei Voelkner, Nils Peters, Thomas Mannheim


The worldwide exponential growth of the population and the simultaneous increasing food production requires the strategic realization of sustainable and improved cultivation systems to ensure the fertility of arable land and to guarantee the food supply for the whole world. To fulfill this target, large quantities of fertilizers have to be applied to the field, but the long-term environmental impacts remain uncertain. Thus, a combined system would be necessary to increase the nutrient availability for plants while reducing nutrient losses (e.g. NO3- by leaching) to the environment. To enhance the nutrient efficiency, polymer coated fertilizer with a controlled release behavior have been developed. This kind of fertilizer ensures a delayed release of nutrients to synchronize the nutrient supply with the demand of different crops. In the last decades, research focused primarily on semi-permeable polyurethane coatings, which remain in the soil for a long period after the complete solvation of the fertilizer core. Within the implementation of the new European Regulation Directive the replacement of non-degradable synthetic polymers by degradable coatings is necessary. It was, therefore, the objective of this study to develop a total biodegradable polymer (to CO2 and H2O) coating according to ISO 17556 and to compare the retarding effect of the biodegradable coatings with commercially available non-degradable products. To investigate the effect of ten selected coated urea fertilizer on the yield of annual ryegrass and maize, the fresh and dry mass, the percentage of total nitrogen and main nutrients were analyzed in greenhouse experiments in sixfold replications using near-infrared spectroscopy. For the experiments, a homogenized and air-dried loamy sand (Cambic Luvisol) was equipped with a basic fertilization of P, K, Mg and S. To investigate the effect of nitrogen level increase, three levels (80%, 100%, 120%) were established, whereas the impact of CRF granules was determined using a N-level of 100%. Additionally, leaching of NO3- from pots planted with annual ryegrass was examined to evaluate the retention capacity of urea by the polymer coating. For this, leachate from Kick-Brauckmann-Pots was collected daily and analyzed for total nitrogen, NO3- and NH4+ in twofold repetition once a week using near-infrared spectroscopy. We summarize from the results that the coated fertilizer have a clear impact on the yield of annual ryegrass and maize. Compared to the control, an increase of fresh and dry mass could be recognized. Partially, the non-degradable coatings showed a retarding effect for a longer period, which was however reflected by a lower fresh and dry mass. It was ascertained that the percentage of leached-out nitrate could be reduced markedly. As a conclusion, it could be pointed out that the impact of coated fertilizer of all polymer types might contribute to a reduction of negative environmental impacts in addition to their fertilizing effect.

Keywords: Coating, Biodegradable Polymers, nitrate leaching, enhanced efficiency fertilizers

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22 The Effects of Dimethyl Adipate (DMA) on Coated Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar


An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with dimethyl adipate (DMA) in proportions of 2%, 6/%, and 12% on a coated engine. In this study, cylinder, piston, exhaust and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's hazardous emission values decreased.

Keywords: Coating, Diesel Engine, dimethyl adipate (DMA), exhaust emissions

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21 Determination of Elasticity Constants of Isotropic Thin Films Using Impulse Excitation Technique

Authors: M. F. Slim, A. Alhussein, F. Sanchette, M. François


Thin films are widely used in various applications to enhance the surface properties and characteristics of materials. They are used in many domains such as: biomedical, automotive, aeronautics, military, electronics and energy. Depending on the elaboration technique, the elastic behavior of thin films may be different from this of bulk materials. This dependence on the elaboration techniques and their parameters makes the control of the elasticity constants of coated components necessary. Our work is focused on the characterization of the elasticity constants of isotropic thin films by means of Impulse Excitation Techniques. The tests rely on the measurement of the sample resonance frequency before and after deposition. In this work, a finite element model was performed with ABAQUS software. This model was then compared with the analytical approaches used to determine the Young’s and shear moduli. The best model to determine the film Young’s modulus was identified and a relation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of thin films of any thickness was developed. In order to confirm the model experimentally, Tungsten films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% purity tungsten target. The choice of tungsten was done because it is well known that its elastic behavior at crystal scale is ideally isotropic. The macroscopic elasticity constants, Young’s and shear moduli and Poisson’s ratio of the deposited film were determined by means of Impulse Excitation Technique. The Young’s modulus obtained from IET was compared with measurements by the nano-indentation technique. We did not observe any significant difference and the value is in accordance with the one reported in the literature. This work presents a new methodology on the determination of the elasticity constants of thin films using Impulse Excitation Technique. A formulation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of a coating, whatever the thickness, was developed and used to determine the macroscopic elasticity constants of tungsten films. The developed model was validated numerically and experimentally.

Keywords: Characterization, Coating, Shear Modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, PVD, dynamical resonant method

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20 The Effect of Feedstock Powder Treatment / Processing on the Microstructure, Quality, and Performance of Thermally Sprayed Titanium Based Composite Coating

Authors: Asma Salman, Brian Gabbitas, Peng Cao, Deliang Zhang


The performance of a coating is strongly dependent upon its microstructure, which in turn is dependent on the characteristics of the feedstock powder. This study involves the evaluation and performance of a titanium-based composite coating produced by the HVOF (high-velocity oxygen fuel) spraying method. The feedstock for making the composite coating was produced using high energy mechanical milling of TiO2 and Al powders followed by a combustion reaction. The characteristics of the feedstock powder were improved by treating it with an organic binder. Two types of coatings were produced using treated and untreated feedstock powders. The microstructures and characteristics of both types of coatings were studied, and their thermal shock resistance was accessed by dipping into molten aluminum. The results of this study showed that feedstock treatment did not have a significant effect on the microstructure of the coatings. However, it did affect the uniformity, thickness and surface roughness of the coating on the steel substrate. A coating produced by an untreated feedstock showed better thermal shock resistance in molten aluminum compared with the one produced by PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) treatment.

Keywords: Coating, Powder Processing, Feedstock, thermal shock resistance, thermally spraying

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19 Functional Plasma-Spray Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of RAFM Steels in Fusion Energy Systems

Authors: Chen Jiang, Eric Jordan, Maurice Gell, Balakrishnan Nair


Nuclear fusion, one of the most promising options for reliably generating large amounts of carbon-free energy in the future, has seen a plethora of ground-breaking technological advances in recent years. An efficient and durable “breeding blanket”, needed to ensure a reactor’s self-sufficiency by maintaining the optimal coolant temperature as well as by minimizing radiation dosage behind the blanket, still remains a technological challenge for the various reactor designs for commercial fusion power plants. A relatively new dual-coolant lead-lithium (DCLL) breeder design has exhibited great potential for high-temperature (>700oC), high-thermal-efficiency (>40%) fusion reactor operation. However, the structural material, namely reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel, is not chemically stable in contact with molten Pb-17%Li coolant. Thus, to utilize this new promising reactor design, the demand for effective corrosion-resistant coatings on RAFM steels represents a pressing need. Solution Spray Technologies LLC (SST) is developing a double-layer ceramic coating design to address the corrosion protection of RAFM steels, using a novel solution and solution/suspension plasma spray technology through a US Department of Energy-funded project. Plasma spray is a coating deposition method widely used in many energy applications. Novel derivatives of the conventional powder plasma spray process, known as the solution-precursor and solution/suspension-hybrid plasma spray process, are powerful methods to fabricate thin, dense ceramic coatings with complex compositions necessary for the corrosion protection in DCLL breeders. These processes can be used to produce ultra-fine molten splats and to allow fine adjustment of coating chemistry. Thin, dense ceramic coatings with chosen chemistry for superior chemical stability in molten Pb-Li, low activation properties, and good radiation tolerance, is ideal for corrosion-protection of RAFM steels. A key challenge is to accommodate its CTE mismatch with the RAFM substrate through the selection and incorporation of appropriate bond layers, thus allowing for enhanced coating durability and robustness. Systematic process optimization is being used to define the optimal plasma spray conditions for both the topcoat and bond-layer, and X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDS are applied to successfully validate the chemistry and phase composition of the coatings. The plasma-sprayed double-layer corrosion resistant coatings were also deposited onto simulated RAFM steel substrates, which are being tested separately under thermal cycling, high-temperature moist air oxidation as well as molten Pb-Li capsule corrosion conditions. Results from this testing on coated samples, and comparisons with bare RAFM reference samples will be presented and conclusions will be presented assessing the viability of the new ceramic coatings to be viable corrosion prevention systems for DCLL breeders in commercial nuclear fusion reactors.

Keywords: Coating, Corrosion Protection, Plasma Spray, breeding blanket

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18 The Effect of Tooth Brushing with Whitening and Non-Whitening Tooth Paste on Surface Roughness of Coated and Uncoated Glass Ionomer Cement

Authors: Hidayati, Eni Rahmi, Deli Mona, Cytha Nilam Chairani, Aulina Refri Rahmi


Background: Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration's surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. It can be prevented by mechanically clean the tooth surface by brushing the teeth using toothpaste. Toothpaste may contain abrasives materials that usually found in whitening toothpaste. Those abrasive materials could increase the roughness of the restoration`s surface. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is one of the restorative material widely used to this day. GC America has made an innovation called EQUIA to improve their wear resistance by coating the surface of GIC using G-Coat Plus. Objective: To determine the effect of teeth was brushing with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste to the surface roughness of coated and uncoated restoration (GIC). Methods: This research was a laboratory experimental with pretest-posttest group design. There were 28 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with non-whitening toothpaste. Each group was divided into group which coated by G-Coat Plus and group which left uncoated. The value of surface roughness was measured by using Roughness Tester. The data was analyzed by using independent t-test to determine differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste. Result: It was found that average roughness differences before and after being brushed by whitening toothpaste were smaller in coated samples than in uncoated samples (0.07 ± 0.09 < 0.12 ± 0.02). Similar results were also found in samples brushed by non-whitening toothpaste (0.02 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01). The differences of average roughness in samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste were smaller than samples brushed with whitening toothpaste. Conclusion: The data showed there were statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste (p < 0.05) but the was no statistically significant to samples brushed with whitening toothpaste (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Coating, surface roughness, toothpaste, EQUIA

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17 Thin Films of Glassy Carbon Prepared by Cluster Deposition

Authors: Hatem Diaf, Patrice Melinon, Antonio Pereira, Bernard Moine, Nicholas Blanchard, Florent Bourquard, Florence Garrelie, Christophe Donnet


Glassy carbon exhibits excellent biological compatibility with live tissues meaning it has high potential for applications in life science. Moreover, glassy carbon has interesting properties including 'high temperature resistance', hardness, low density, low electrical resistance, low friction, and low thermal resistance. The structure of glassy carbon has long been a subject of debate. It is now admitted that glassy carbon is 100% sp2. This term is a little bit confusing as long sp2 hybridization defined from quantum chemistry is related to both properties: threefold configuration and pi bonding (parallel pz orbitals). Using plasma laser deposition of carbon clusters combined with pulsed nano/femto laser annealing, we are able to synthesize thin films of glassy carbon of good quality (probed by G band/ D disorder band ratio in Raman spectroscopy) without thermal post annealing. A careful inspecting of Raman signal, plasmon losses and structure performed by HRTEM (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy) reveals that both properties (threefold and pi orbitals) cannot coexist together. The structure of the films is compared to models including schwarzites based from negatively curved surfaces at the opposite of onions or fullerene-like structures with positively curved surfaces. This study shows that a huge collection of porous carbon named vitreous carbon with different structures can coexist.

Keywords: Coating, Electronic Structure, glassy carbon, cluster deposition

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16 Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. Hanafy, H. Al-Tassan


Cluster formation is an essential phenomenon during direct reduction processes at shaft furnaces. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets, a coating material basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied for iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Coated pellets with various concentrations were reduced isothermally in weight loss technique with simulated gas mixture to the composition of reducing gases at shaft furnaces. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating condition that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index was 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 kg steel dust/ton ore.

Keywords: Coating, Reduction, Ironmaking, steel dust

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15 Influence of Morphology and Coatings in the Tribological Behavior of a Texturised Deterministic Surface by Photochemical Machining

Authors: Juan C. Sanchez, Jose L. Endrino, Alejandro Toro, Hugo A. Estupinan, Glenn Leighton


For years, the reduction of friction and wear has been a matter of interest in the engineering field. Several solutions have been proposed to address this issue, including the use of lubricants and coatings to reduce the frictional forces and to increase the surface wear resistance. Alternatively, texturing processes have been used in a wide variety of materials, in many cases inspired in natural surfaces. Nature has shown how species adapt to the environment and the engineers try to understand natural surfaces for particular applications by analyzing outstanding species such as gecko for high adhesion, lotus leaves for hydrophobicity, sharks for reduced flow resistance and snakes for optimized frictional response. Texturized surfaces have shown a superior performance in terms of the frictional response in many situations, and the control of its behavior greatly depends on the manufacturing process. The focus of this work is to evaluate the tribological behavior of AISI 52100 steel samples texturized by Photochemical Machining (PCM). The surface texture was inspired by several features of the snakeskin such as aspect ratio of fibrils and mean fibril spacing. Two coatings were applied on the texturized surface, namely Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) and Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS₂), and their tribological behavior after pin-on-disk tests were compared with that of the non-texturized and uncovered surfaces. The samples were characterised through Stereoscopic Microscope (SM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Optical Microscope (OM), Profilometer, Raman Spectrometer (RS) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). The Coefficient of Friction (COF) measured in pin-on-disk tests showed correlations with the sliding direction (relative to the texture features) and the aspect ratio of the texture features. Regarding the coated surfaces, the DLC and MoS₂ coating had a good performance in terms of wear rate and coefficient of friction compared with the uncoated and non-texturized surfaces. On the other hand, for the uncoated surfaces, the texture showed an influence in the tribological performance with respect to the non-texturized surface.

Keywords: Coating, coefficient of friction, deterministic surface, photochemical machining

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14 The Tribological Behaviors of Vacuum Gas Nitriding Titanium and Steel Substrates at Different Process Temperatures

Authors: Hikmet Cicek


Metal nitrides show excellence tribological properties and they used for especially on machine parts. In this work, the vacuum gas nitriding proses were applied to the titanium, D2 and 52100 steel substrates at three different proses temperatures (500 °C, 600°C and 700 °C). Structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized. X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were conducted to determine structural properties. Microhardness test and pin-on-disc wear test were made to observe tribological properties. Coefficient of friction, wear rate and wear traces were examined comparatively. According to the test results, the process temperature very effective parameter for the vacuum gas nitriding method.

Keywords: Coating, Tribology, Wear, gas nitriding

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13 Surface Coatings of Boards Made from Alternative Materials

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Petra Gajdacova


In recent years, alternative materials, such as annual plants or recycled and waste materials are becoming more and more popular input material for the production of composite materials. They can be used for the production of insulation boards, construction boards or furniture boards. Surface finishing of those boards is essential for utilization in furniture. However, some difficulties could occur during coating of boards from alternative materials; physical and chemical differences from conventional particleboards need to be considered. From the physical aspects, surface soundness and surface roughness mainly determine the quality of the surface. Since surface layers of boards from alternative materials have often lower density, these characteristics could be deteriorated and thus the production process needs to be optimized. Also, chemical reactions of board’s material with coating could be undesirable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters affecting the surface quality of boards made form alternative materials and to find possibilities of the coating of these boards. In this study, boards of particles from rapeseed stems were produced using a laboratory press. Surface soundness, as representatives of mechanical properties and surface roughness, as representative of physical properties, were measured on boards from rapeseed stems. Results clearly indicated that produced boards had lower surface quality than commercially produced particle boards from wood. Therefore, higher thickness of surface coating on rapeseed based boards is needed.

Keywords: Composites, Surface, Coating, annual plant, particleboard

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12 A Comparative Study of the Tribological Behavior of Bilayer Coatings for Machine Protection

Authors: Cristina Diaz, Lucia Perez-Gandarillas, Gonzalo Garcia-Fuentes, Simone Visigalli, Roberto Canziani, Giuseppe Di Florio, Paolo Gronchi


During their lifetime, industrial machines are often subjected to chemical, mechanical and thermal extreme conditions. In some cases, the loss of efficiency comes from the degradation of the surface as a result of its exposition to abrasive environments that can cause wear. This is a common problem to be solved in industries of diverse nature such as food, paper or concrete industries, among others. For this reason, a good selection of the material is of high importance. In the machine design context, stainless steels such as AISI 304 and 316 are widely used. However, the severity of the external conditions can require additional protection for the steel and sometimes coating solutions are demanded in order to extend the lifespan of these materials. Therefore, the development of effective coatings with high wear resistance is of utmost technological relevance. In this research, bilayer coatings made of Titanium-Tantalum, Titanium-Niobium, Titanium-Hafnium, and Titanium-Zirconium have been developed using magnetron sputtering configuration by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) technology. Their tribological behavior has been measured and evaluated under different environmental conditions. Two kinds of steels were used as substrates: AISI 304, AISI 316. For the comparison with these materials, titanium alloy substrate was also employed. Regarding the characterization, wear rate and friction coefficient were evaluated by a tribo-tester, using a pin-on-ball configuration with different lubricants such as tomato sauce, wine, olive oil, wet compost, a mix of sand and concrete with water and NaCl to approximate the results to real extreme conditions. In addition, topographical images of the wear tracks were obtained in order to get more insight of the wear behavior and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken to evaluate the adhesion and quality of the coating. The characterization was completed with the measurement of nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus. Concerning the results, thicknesses of the samples varied from 100 nm (Ti-Zr layer) to 1.4 µm (Ti-Hf layer) and SEM images confirmed that the addition of the Ti layer improved the adhesion of the coatings. Moreover, results have pointed out that these coatings have increased the wear resistance in comparison with the original substrates under environments of different severity. Furthermore, nanoindentation hardness results showed an improvement of the elastic strain to failure and a high modulus of elasticity (approximately 200 GPa). As a conclusion, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr, Ti-Nb, and Ti-Hf are very promising and effective coatings in terms of tribological behavior, improving considerably the wear resistance and friction coefficient of typically used machine materials.

Keywords: Coating, Tribology, Wear, stainless steel

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11 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh


Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, PTFE, ceria, polytetrafluoroethylene

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