Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

CO2 Reduction Related Abstracts

10 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae


Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this study, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA evaluation method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low-carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low-carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, Co2 Emissions, CO2 Reduction, ready-mixed concrete

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Photocatalyst for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol

Authors: Maksudur Rahman Khan, Huei Ruey Ong, Chin Kui Cheng, D. M. Reddy Prasad, Nur Sabrina Binti Rahmat, D. Sathiyamoorthy


Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to the environment is inevitable which is responsible for global warming. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel, such as methanol, methane etc. is a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas CO2 emission. In the present work, Bi2S3/CdS was synthesized as an effective visible light responsive photocatalyst for CO2 reduction into methanol. The Bi2S3/CdS photocatalyst was prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst has been investigated for methanol production as a function of time. Gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was employed to analyze the product. The yield of methanol was found to increase with higher CdS concentration in Bi2S3/CdS and the maximum yield was obtained for 45 wt% of Bi2S3/CdS under visible light irradiation was 20 μmole/g. The result establishes that Bi2S3/CdS is favorable catalyst to reduce CO2 to methanol.

Keywords: methanol, Visible light, CO2 Reduction, XRD, photocatalyst, GC-FID

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8 Development of Composite Materials for CO2 Reduction and Organic Compound Decomposition

Authors: H. F. Shi, C. L. Zhang


Visible-light-responsive g-C3N4/NaNbO3 nanowires photocatalysts were fabricated by introducing polymeric g-C3N4 on NaNbO3 nanowires. The microscopic mechanisms of interface interaction, charge transfer and separation, as well as the influence on the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 composite were systematic investigated. The HR-TEM revealed that an intimate interface between C3N4 and NaNbO3 nanowires formed in the g-C3N4/NaNbO3 heterojunctions. The photocatalytic performance of photocatalysts was evaluated for CO2 reduction under visible-light illumination. Significantly, the activity of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 composite photocatalyst for photoreduction of CO2 was higher than that of either single-phase g-C3N4 or NaNbO3. Such a remarkable enhancement of photocatalytic activity was mainly ascribed to the improved separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the intimate interface of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 heterojunctions, which originated from the well-aligned overlapping band structures of C3N4 and NaNbO3. Pt loaded NaNbO3-xNx (Pt-NNON), a visible-light-sensitive photocatalyst, was synthesized by an in situ photodeposition method from H2PtCl6•6H2O onto NaNbO3-xNx (NNON) sample. Pt-NNON exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for gaseous 2-propanol (IPA) degradation under visible-light irradiation in contrast to NNON. The apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of Pt-NNON sample for IPA photodegradation achieved up to 8.6% at the wavelength of 419 nm. The notably enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the promoted charge separation and transfer capability in the Pt-NNON system. This work suggests that surface nanosteps possibly play an important role as an electron transfer at high way, which facilitates to the charge carrier collection onto Pt rich zones and thus suppresses recombination between photogenerated electrons and holes. This method can thus be considered as an excellent strategy to enhance photocatalytic activity of organic decomposition in addition to the commonly applied noble metal doping method.

Keywords: nanowires, CO2 Reduction, NaNbO3, g-C3N4

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7 Exploring Individual Decision Making Processes and the Role of Information Structure in Promoting Uptake of Energy Efficient Technologies

Authors: Rebecca J. Hafner, Daniel Read, David Elmes


The current research applies decision making theory in order to address the problem of increasing uptake of energy-efficient technologies in the market place, where uptake is currently slower than one might predict following rational choice models. Specifically, in two studies we apply the alignable/non-alignable features effect and explore the impact of varying information structure on the consumers’ preference for standard versus energy efficient technologies. As researchers in the Interdisciplinary centre for Storage, Transformation and Upgrading of Thermal Energy (i-STUTE) are currently developing energy efficient heating systems for homes and businesses, we focus on the context of home heating choice, and compare preference for a standard condensing boiler versus an energy efficient heat pump, according to experimental manipulations in the structure of prior information. In Study 1, we find that people prefer stronger alignable features when options are similar; an effect which is mediated by an increased tendency to infer missing information is the same. Yet, in contrast to previous research, we find no effects of alignability on option preference when options differ. The advanced methodological approach used here, which is the first study of its kind to randomly allocate features as either alignable or non-alignable, highlights potential design effects in previous work. Study 2 is designed to explore the interaction between alignability and construal level as an explanation for the shift in attentional focus when options differ. Theoretical and applied implications for promoting energy efficient technologies are discussed.

Keywords: Decision-making, Energy-efficient technologies, CO2 Reduction, alignability effects, construal level theory

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6 Effects of Using Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies to Reduce Energy Consumption and Expenditure of a Single Detached House

Authors: Gul Nihal Gugul, Merih Aydinalp-Koksal


In this study, hourly energy consumption model of a single detached house in Ankara, Turkey is developed using ESP-r building energy simulation software. Natural gas is used for space heating, cooking, and domestic water heating in this two story 4500 square feet four-bedroom home. Hourly electricity consumption of the home is monitored by an automated meter reading system, and daily natural gas consumption is recorded by the owners during 2013. Climate data of the region and building envelope data are used to develop the model. The heating energy consumption of the house that is estimated by the ESP-r model is then compared with the actual heating demand to determine the performance of the model. Scenarios are applied to the model to determine the amount of reduction in the total energy consumption of the house. The scenarios are using photovoltaic panels to generate electricity, ground source heat pumps for space heating and solar panels for domestic hot water generation. Alternative scenarios such as improving wall and roof insulations and window glazing are also applied. These scenarios are evaluated based on annual energy, associated CO2 emissions, and fuel expenditure savings. The pay-back periods for each scenario are also calculated to determine best alternative energy source or technology option for this home to reduce annual energy use and CO2 emission.

Keywords: Building Energy Simulation, CO2 Reduction, ESP-r, residential energy saving

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5 Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Methoxy and Nitrile-Functionalized Ionic Liquids

Authors: D. A. Bruzon, G. Tapang, I. S. Martinez


Global warming and climate change are significant environmental concerns, which require immediate global action in carbon emission mitigation. The capture, sequestration, and conversion of carbon dioxide to other products such as methane or ethanol are ways to control excessive emissions. Ionic liquids have shown great potential among the materials studied as carbon capture solvents and catalysts in the reduction of CO2. In this study, ionic liquids comprising of a methoxy (-OCH3) and cyano (-CN) functionalized imidazolium cation, [MOBMIM] and [CNBMIM] respectively, paired with tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [FAP] anion were evaluated as effective capture solvents, and organocatalysts in the reduction of CO2. An in-situ electrochemical set-up, which can measure controlled amounts of CO2 both in the gas and in the ionic liquid phase, was used. Initially, reduction potentials of CO2 in the CO2-saturated ionic liquids containing the internal standard cobaltocene were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Chronoamperometric transients were obtained at potentials slightly less negative than the reduction potentials of CO2 in each ionic liquid. The time-dependent current response was measured under a controlled atmosphere. Reduction potentials of CO2 in methoxy and cyano-functionalized [FAP] ionic liquids were observed to occur at ca. -1.0 V (vs. Cc+/Cc), which was significantly lower compared to the non-functionalized analog [PMIM][FAP], with an observed reduction potential of CO2 at -1.6 V (vs. Cc+/Cc). This decrease in the potential required for CO2 reduction in the functionalized ionic liquids shows that the functional groups methoxy and cyano effectively decreased the free energy of formation of the radical anion CO2●⁻, suggesting that these electrolytes may be used as organocatalysts in the reduction of the greenhouse gas. However, upon analyzing the solubility of the gas in each ionic liquid, [PMIM][FAP] showed the highest absorption capacity, at 4.81 mM under saturated conditions, compared to [MOBMIM][FAP] at 1.86 mM, and [CNBMIM][FAP] at 0.76 mM. Also, calculated Henry’s constant determined from the concentration-pressure graph of each functionalized ionic liquid shows that the groups -OCH3 and -CN attached terminal to a C4 alkyl chain do not significantly improve CO2 solubility.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Ionic Liquids, Carbon capture, CO2 Reduction

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4 Highly Selective Conversion of CO2 to CO on Cu Nanoparticles

Authors: Muhammad Sharif, Rauf Razzaq, Kaiwu Dong, Ralf Jackstell, Matthias Beller


Carbon dioxide (CO2), a key greenhouse gas produced from both anthropogenic and natural sources, has been recently considered to be an important C1 building-block for the synthesis of many industrial fuels and chemicals. Catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 using a heterogeneous system is regarded as an efficient process for CO2 valorization. In this regard CO2 reduction to CO via the reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGSR) has attracted much attention as a viable process for large scale commercial CO2 utilization. This process can generate syn-gas (CO+H2) which can provide an alternative route to direct CO2 conversion to methanol and/or liquid HCs from FT reaction. Herein, we report a highly active and selective silica supported copper catalyst with efficient CO2 reduction to CO in a slurry-bed batch autoclave reactor. The reactions were carried out at 200°C and 60 bar initial pressure with CO2/H2 ratio of 1:3 with varying temperature, pressure and fed-gas ratio. The gaseous phase products were analyzed using FID while the liquid products were analyzed by using FID detectors. It was found that Cu/SiO2 catalyst prepared using novel ammonia precipitation-urea gelation method achieved 26% CO2 conversion with a CO and methanol selectivity of 98 and 2% respectively. The high catalytic activity could be attributed to its strong metal-support interaction with highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ species active for RWGSR. So, it can be concluded that reduction of CO2 to CO via RWGSR could address the problem of using CO2 gas in C1 chemistry.

Keywords: methanol, CO2 Reduction, synthesis gas, slurry reactor

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3 System-Wide Impact of Energy Efficiency in the Industry Sector: A Comparative Study between Canada and Denmark

Authors: M. Baldini, H. K. Jacobsen, M. Jaccard


In light of the international efforts to comply with the Paris agreement and emission targets for future energy systems, Denmark and Canada are among the front-runner countries dealing with climate change. The experiences in the energy sector have seen both countries coping with trade-offs between investments in renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency, thus tackling the climate issue from the supply and demand side respectively. On the demand side, the industrial sector is going through a remarkable transformation, with implementation of energy efficiency measures, change of input fuel for end-use processes and forecasted electrification as main features under the spotlight. By looking at Canada and Denmark's experiences as pathfinders on the demand and supply approach to climate change, it is possible to obtain valuable experience that may be applied to other countries aiming at the same goal. This paper presents a comparative study on industrial energy efficiency between Canada and Denmark. The study focuses on technologies and system options, policy design and implementation and modelling methodologies when implementing industrial energy savings in optimization models in comparison to simulation models. The study identifies gaps and junctures in the approach towards climate change actions and, learning from each other, lessen the differences to further foster the adoption of energy efficiency measurements in the industrial sector, aiming at reducing energy consumption and, consequently, CO₂ emissions.

Keywords: Energy System Modelling, CO2 Reduction, comparative study, industrial energy efficiency

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2 Carbon Emission Reduction by Compact City Construction in Toyama, Japan

Authors: Yong Li, Benyan Jiang, Dawei Xia


Compact city construction is considered as an effective measure to reduce carbon emission in city lives. Toyama City started its compact city strategy in 2000 and was selected as a Japanese Environmental Model City in 2008 for its achievement. This paper takes Toyama as a study case, aiming to find how city polices affected people’s life styles and reduced carbon emission. The main materials used in this study are first-hand documents, like urban planning materials, government annual report and statistic data from transportation association. It is found that the main measures taken by Toyama City include the construction of light rail transit, increasing the frequency of buses, building park and ride parking lots. In addition to hardware facilities, it also offers flexible policies like passengers' coupons for the senior citizens and free use of parking lots by buying shopping vouchers. Besides, Toyama City encourages citizens to live within 500 meters of public transportation. People who buy an apartment near public transportation will receive 500,000 Japanese Yen. These measures have proven to their effects. Compared with 2005, in 2014, the transportation sector reduced emissions of 2.35 million tons of CO₂, 13.6%. This aspect is related to the increase in the number of cars in public transport and also related to fuel improvement.

Keywords: public transportation, CO2 Reduction, compact city, Toyama

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1 A Novel Framework toward CO2 Reduction Using Smart Parking System

Authors: Muhammad Sajjad, Farkhund Iqbal, Rahman Ali, Mohammed Hussain, Zulfiqar Ahmad Khan


Nowadays, CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) emission is increasing every day in urban areas all over the world due to many reasons like burning coal, oil, gas etc. The main factors involving its higher rate of emission are vehicles in urban. Each driver wants closer car parking at many institutions such as hospitals, store, and offices etc. These travelers’ vehicles consume fuel and produce CO2, while searching for the nearest location of parking car to empty slot or sometimes even driving around a parking lot for a while until they find a vacant parking slot. For that reason, it can be cover long distance, wasting time and fuel. In this paper, we developed an automatic smart parking system which is helping to reduce, fuel consumption, searching time and CO2 emission. The proposed smart parking system is based on resource contain device Raspberry Pi which take advantage of IoT and integrated with cloud server. The proposed system using GPS system of the vehicle to get the position and wireless communication system to communicate with cloud server. A smart phone application is developed to remotely find the nearest parking, slot status and booking of slot where searching of empty slot is based on merge sort algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed smart parking framework provide user friendly interface and efficiently reduce CO2 emission.

Keywords: CO2, IoT, CO2 Reduction, Number plate Recognition, car parking, merge sort, smart car parking

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