Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

CO2 emission Related Abstracts

18 Thermal Performance and Environmental Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Systems: Case of Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia

Authors: H. Ibrahim, A. Alharbi, R. Boukhanouf, T. Habeebullah


This paper presents a detailed description of evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia. The thermal performance and environmental impact of the evaporative coolers were evaluated. It was found that the evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in pilgrims’ accommodations and in the train stations could reduce energy consumption by as much as 75% and cut carbon dioxide emission by 78% compared to traditional vapour compression systems.

Keywords: Vapor Compression, Electricity Consumption, evaporative cooling, CO2 emission

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17 Environmental Benefits of Corn Cob Ash in Lateritic Soil Cement Stabilization for Road Works in a Sub-Tropical Region

Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh


The potential economic viability and environmental benefits of using a biomass waste, such as corn cob ash (CCA) as pozzolan in stabilizing soils for road pavement construction in a sub-tropical region was investigated. Corn cob was obtained from Maya in South West Nigeria and processed to ash of characteristics similar to Class C Fly Ash pozzolan as specified in ASTM C618-12. This was then blended with ordinary Portland cement in the CCA:OPC ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. Each of these blends was then mixed with lateritic soil of ASHTO classification A-2-6(3) in varying percentages from 0 – 7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The soil-CCA-Cement mixtures were thereafter tested for geotechnical index properties including the BS Proctor Compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the Unconfined Compression Strength Test. The tests were repeated for soil-cement mix without any CCA blending. The cost of the binder inputs and optimal blends of CCA:OPC in the stabilized soil were thereafter analyzed by developing algorithms that relate the experimental data on strength parameters (Unconfined Compression Strength, UCS and California Bearing Ratio, CBR) with the bivariate independent variables CCA and OPC content, using Matlab R2011b. An optimization problem was then set up minimizing the cost of chemical stabilization of laterite with CCA and OPC, subject to the constraints of minimum strength specifications. The Evolutionary Engine as well as the Generalized Reduced Gradient option of the Solver of MS Excel 2010 were used separately on the cells to obtain the optimal blend of CCA:OPC. The optimal blend attaining the required strength of 1800 kN/m2 was determined for the 1:2 CCA:OPC as 5.4% mix (OPC content 3.6%) compared with 4.2% for the OPC only option; and as 6.2% mix for the 1:1 blend (OPC content 3%). The 2:1 blend did not attain the required strength, though over a 100% gain in UCS value was obtained over the control sample with 0% binder. Upon the fact that 0.97 tonne of CO2 is released for every tonne of cement used (OEE, 2001), the reduced OPC requirement to attain the same result indicates the possibility of reducing the net CO2 contribution of the construction industry to the environment ranging from 14 – 28.5% if CCA:OPC blends are widely used in soil stabilization, going by the results of this study. The paper concludes by recommending that Nigeria and other developing countries in the sub-tropics with abundant stock of biomass waste should look in the direction of intensifying the use of biomass waste as fuel and the derived ash for the production of pozzolans for road-works, thereby reducing overall green house gas emissions and in compliance with the objectives of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change.

Keywords: corn cob ash, lateritic soil, CO2 emission, biomass waste, unconfined compression strength

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16 The Reduction of CO2 Emissions Level in Malaysian Transportation Sector: An Optimization Approach

Authors: Siti Indati Mustapa, Hussain Ali Bekhet


Transportation sector represents more than 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. This sector is a major user of fossils based fuels, and it is increasingly being highlighted as the sector which contributes least to CO2 emission reduction targets. Considering this fact, this paper attempts to investigate the problem of reducing CO2 emission using linear programming approach. An optimization model which is used to investigate the optimal level of CO2 emission reduction in the road transport sector is presented. In this paper, scenarios have been used to demonstrate the emission reduction model: (1) utilising alternative fuel scenario, (2) improving fuel efficiency scenario, (3) removing fuel subsidy scenario, (4) reducing demand travel, (5) optimal scenario. This study finds that fuel balancing can contribute to the reduction of the amount of CO2 emission by up to 3%. Beyond 3% emission reductions, more stringent measures that include fuel switching, fuel efficiency improvement, demand travel reduction and combination of mitigation measures have to be employed. The model revealed that the CO2 emission reduction in the road transportation can be reduced by 38.3% in the optimal scenario.

Keywords: Optimization, Fuel Consumption, Linear Programming, Transportation Sector, Malaysia, CO2 emission

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15 Analysis of the Recovery of Burnility Index and Reduction of CO2 for Cement Manufacturing Utilizing Waste Cementitious Powder as Alternative Raw Material of Limestone

Authors: Kwon Eunhee, Park Dongcheon, Jung Jaemin


In countries around the world, environmental regulations are being strengthened, and Korea is no exception to this trend, which means that environment pollution and the environmental load have recently become a significant issue. For this reason, in this study limestone was replaced with cementitious powder to reduce the volume of construction waste as well as the emission of carbon dioxide caused by Tal-carbonate reaction. The research found that cementitious powder can be used as a substitute for limestone. However, the mix proportions of fine aggregate and powder included in the cementitious powder appear to have a great effect on substitution. Thus, future research should focus on developing a technology that can effectively separate and discharge fine aggregate and powder in the cementitious powder.

Keywords: CO2 emission, waste cementitious powder, fine aggregate powder, decarbonation reaction, calcining process

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14 Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Selected Small Heat and Power Plants Operating in Poland

Authors: M. Stelmachowski, M. Wojtczak


The aim of the work was to assess the environmental impact of the selected small and medium-sized companies supplying heat and electricity to the cities with a population of about 50,000 inhabitants. Evaluation and comparison of the impact on the environment have been carried out for the three plants producing heat and two CHP plants with particular attention to emissions into the atmosphere and the impact of introducing a system of trading carbon emissions of these companies.

Keywords: CO2 emission, district heating, heat and power plant, impact on environment

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13 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: Siti Badriyah Rushayati, Resti Meilani, Rachmad Hermawan


A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. The annual occurrences of deforestation and forest fire pose a threat toward such unique biosphere reserve. Forest fire produced smokes that along with mass airflow reached neighboring countries, particularly Singapore and Malaysia. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: Deforestation, CO2 emission, forest fire, biosphere reserve

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12 CO2 Emissions Quantification of the Modular Bridge Superstructure

Authors: Sun-Kyu Park, Sungnam Hong, Jinwoong Choi, Jongho Park, Chanhyuck Jeon


Many industries put emphasis on environmentally-friendliness as environmental problems are on the rise all over the world. Among themselves, the Modular Bridge research is going on. Also performing cross-section optimization and duration reducing, this research aims at developing the modular bridge with Environment-Friendliness and economic feasibility. However, the difficulty lies in verifying environmental effectiveness because there are no field applications of the modular bridge until now. Therefore, this thesis is categorized according to the form of the modular bridge superstructure and assessed CO₂ emission quantification per work types and materials according to each form to verify the environmental effectiveness of the modular bridge.

Keywords: Quantification, environmentally friendly, CO2 emission, modular bridge, carbon emission factor, LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

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11 Analysis of Co2 Emission from Thailand's Thermal Power Sector by Divisia Decomposition Approach

Authors: Isara Muangthai, Lin Sue Jane


Electricity is vital to every country’s economy in the world. For Thailand, the electricity generation sector plays an important role in the economic system, and it is the largest source of CO2 emissions. The aim of this paper is to use the decomposition analysis to investigate the key factors contributing to the changes of CO2 emissions from the electricity sector. The decomposition analysis has been widely used to identify and assess the contributors to the changes in emission trends. Our study adopted the Divisia index decomposition to identify the key factors affecting the evolution of CO2 emissions from Thailand’s thermal power sector during 2000-2011. The change of CO2 emissions were decomposed into five factors, including: Emission coefficient, heat rate, fuel intensity, electricity intensity, and economic growth. Results have shown that CO2 emission in Thailand’s thermal power sector increased 29,173 thousand tons during 2000-2011. Economic growth was found to be the primary factor for increasing CO2 emissions, while the electricity intensity played a dominant role in decreasing CO2 emissions. The increasing effect of economic growth was up to 55,924 million tons of CO2 emissions because the growth and development of the economy relied on a large electricity supply. On the other hand, the shifting of fuel structure towards a lower-carbon content resulted in CO2 emission decline. Since the CO2 emissions released from Thailand’s electricity generation are rapidly increasing, the Thailand government will be required to implement a CO2 reduction plan in the future. In order to cope with the impact of CO2 emissions related to the power sector and to achieve sustainable development, this study suggests that Thailand’s government should focus on restructuring the fuel supply in power generation towards low carbon fuels by promoting the use of renewable energy for electricity, improving the efficiency of electricity use by reducing electricity transmission and the distribution of line losses, implementing energy conservation strategies by enhancing the purchase of energy-saving products, substituting the new power plant technology in the old power plants, promoting a shift of economic structure towards less energy-intensive services and orienting Thailand’s power industry towards low carbon electricity generation.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Electricity Generation, CO2 emission, decomposition analysis

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10 Re-Use of Waste Marble in Producing Green Concrete

Authors: Hasan Şahan Arel


In this study, literature related to the replacement of cement with waste marble and the use of waste marble as an aggregate in concrete production was examined. Workability of the concrete decreased when marble powder was used as a substitute for fine aggregate. Marble powder contributed to the compressive strength of concrete because of the CaCO3 and SiO2 present in the chemical structure of the marble. Additionally, the use of marble pieces in place of coarse aggregate revealed that this contributed to the workability and mechanical properties of the concrete. When natural standard sand was replaced with marble dust at a ratio of 15% and 75%, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete increased by 20%-26% and 10%-15%, respectively. However, coarse marble aggregates exhibited the best performance at a 100% replacement ratio. Additionally, there was a greater improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete when waste marble was used in a coarse aggregate form when compared to that of when marble was used in a dust form. If the cement was replaced with marble powder in proportions of 20% or more, then adverse effects were observed on the compressive strength and workability of the concrete. This study indicated that marble dust at a cement-replacement ratio of 5%-10% affected the mechanical properties of concrete by decreasing the global annual CO2 emissions by 12% and also lowering the costs from US$40/m3 to US$33/m3.

Keywords: Concrete, Mechanical Properties, CO2 emission, marble, cement production

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9 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: K. Mahmoud, M. Mourad


Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: CO2 emission, hybrid electric vehicle, electrification strategy, driving cycle

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8 Electricity Generation from Renewables and Targets: An Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Taner Ersoz, Tugrul Bayraktar


Renewable energy is referred to as "clean energy" and common popular support for the use of renewable energy (RE) is to provide electricity with zero carbon dioxide emissions. This study provides useful insight into the European Union (EU) RE, especially, into electricity generation obtained from renewables, and their targets. The objective of this study is to identify groups of European countries, using multivariate statistical analysis and selected indicators. The hierarchical clustering method is used to decide the number of clusters for EU countries. The conducted statistical hierarchical cluster analysis is based on the Ward’s clustering method and squared Euclidean distances. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified eight distinct clusters of European countries. Then, non-hierarchical clustering (k-means) method was applied. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the validity of the results with data normalized by Z score transformation. To explore the relationship between the selected indicators, correlation coefficients were computed. The results of the study reveal the current situation of RE in European Union Member States.

Keywords: K-Means Clustering, CO2 emission, share of electricity generation, discriminant

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7 A Study on Marble Based Geopolymer Mortar / Concrete

Authors: Wei-Hao Lee, Ta-Wui Cheng, Yung-Chin Ding, Tai-Tien Wang


The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes as the raw material to fabricate geopolymer green mortar / concrete. Experiment results show that using marble to make geopolymer mortar and concrete, the compressive strength after 28 days curing can reach 35 MPa and 25 MPa, respectively. The characteristics of marble-based geopolymer green mortar and concrete will keep testing for a long term in order to understand the effect parameters. The study is based on resource recovery and recycling. Its basic characteristics are low consumption, low carbon dioxide emission and high efficiency that meet the international tendency 'Circular Economy.' By comparing with Portland cement mortar and concrete, production 1 ton of marble-based geopolymer mortar and concrete, they can be saved around 50.3% and 49.6% carbon dioxide emission, respectively. Production 1 m3 of marble-based geopolymer concrete costs about 62 USD that cheaper than that of traditional Portland concrete. It is proved that the marble-based geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, Geopolymer, CO2 emission, marble

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6 Growth Performance Of fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella sp. Exposed to Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Titin Handayani, Adi Mulyanto, Fajar Eko Priyanto


It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO₂ emissions. Based on light and CO₂, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient feeding of CO₂, especially on a large scale, is one of them. Current methods for CO₂ feeding to algae cultures rely on the sparging pure CO₂ or directly from flue gas. The limiting factor in this system is the solubility of CO₂ in water, which demands a considerable amount of energy for an effective gas to liquid transfer and leads to losses to the atmosphere. Due to the current ineffective methods for CO₂ introduction into algae ponds very large surface areas would be required for enough ponds to capture a considerable amount of the CO₂. The purpose of this study is to assess technology to capture carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions generated by industry by utilizing of microalgae Chlorella sp. The microalgae were cultivated in a bioreactor culture pond raceway type. The result is expected to be useful in mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases in reducing the CO₂ emissions. The research activities include: (1) Characterization of boiler flue gas, (2) Operation of culture pond, (3) Sampling and sample analysis. The results of this study showed that the initial assessment absorption of the flue gas by microalgae using 1000 L raceway pond completed by heat exchanger were quite promising. The transfer of CO₂ into the pond culture system was run well. This identified from the success of cooling the boiler flue gas from the temperature of about 200 °C to below ambient temperature. Except for the temperature, the gas bubbles into the culture media were quite fine. Therefore, the contact between the gas and the media was well performed. The efficiency of CO₂ absorption by Chlorella sp reached 6.68 % with an average CO₂ loading of 0.29 g/L/day.

Keywords: Microalgae, CO2 emission, heat exchange, Chlorella sp, milk industry, raceway pond

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5 Significant Reduction in Specific CO₂ Emission through Process Optimization at G Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh, M. K. G. Choudhury, Santanu Mallick


One of the key corporate goals of Tata Steel company is to demonstrate Environment Leadership. Decreasing specific CO₂ emission is one of the key steps to achieve the stated corporate goal. At any Blast Furnace, specific CO₂ emission is directly proportional to fuel intake. To reduce the fuel intake at G Blast Furnace, an initial benchmarking exercise was carried out with international and domestic Blast Furnaces to determine the potential for improvement. The gap identified during the exercise revealed that the benchmark Blast Furnaces operated with superior raw material quality than that in G Blast Furnace. However, since the raw materials to G Blast Furnace are sourced from the captive mines, improvement in the raw material quality was out of scope. Therefore, trials were taken with different operating regimes, to identify the key process parameters, which on optimization could significantly reduce the fuel intake in G Blast Furnace. The key process parameters identified from the trial were the Stoichiometric Oxygen Ratio, Melting Capacity ratio and the burden distribution inside the furnace. These identified process parameters were optimized to bridge the gap in fuel intake at G Blast Furnace, thereby reducing specific CO₂ emission to benchmark levels. This paradigm shift enabled to lower the fuel intake by 70kg per ton of liquid iron produced, thereby reducing the specific CO₂ emission by 15 percent.

Keywords: CO2 emission, blast furnace, benchmark, fuel rate

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4 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Multi-Generation Plant Driven by Pine Sawdust as Primary Fuel

Authors: Behzad Panahirad, UğUr Atikol


The current study is based on a combined heat and power system with multi-objectives, driven by biomass. The system consists of a combustion chamber (CC), a single effect absorption cooling system (SEACS), an air conditioning unit (AC), a reheat steam Rankine cycle (RRC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an electrolyzer. The purpose of this system is to produce hydrogen, electricity, heat, cooling, and air conditioning. All the simulations had been performed by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Pine sawdust is the selected biofuel for the combustion process. The overall utilization factor (εₑₙ) and exergetic efficiency (ψₑₓ) were calculated to be 2.096 and 24.03% respectively. The performed renewable and environmental impact analysis indicated a sustainability index of 1.316 (SI) and a specific CO2 emission of 353.8 kg/MWh. The parametric study is conducted based on the variation of ambient (sink) temperature, biofuel mass flow rate, and boilers outlet temperatures. The parametric simulation showed that the increase in biofuel mass flow rate has a positive effect on the sustainability of the system.

Keywords: biomass, Irreversibility, CO2 emission, exergy assessment, multi-objective plant

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3 The Effect of Global Value Chain Participation on Environment

Authors: Piyaphan Changwatchai


Global value chain is important for current world economy through foreign direct investment. Multinational enterprises' efficient location seeking for each stage of production lead to global production network and more global value chain participation of several countries. Global value chain participation has several effects on participating countries in several aspects including the environment. The effect of global value chain participation on the environment is ambiguous. As a result, this research aims to study the effect of global value chain participation on countries' CO₂ emission and methane emission by using quantitative analysis with secondary panel data of sixty countries. The analysis is divided into two types of global value chain participation, which are forward global value chain participation and backward global value chain participation. The results show that, for forward global value chain participation, GDP per capita affects two types of pollutants in downward bell curve shape. Forward global value chain participation negatively affects CO₂ emission and methane emission. As for backward global value chain participation, GDP per capita affects two types of pollutants in downward bell curve shape. Backward global value chain participation negatively affects methane emission only. However, when considering Asian countries, forward global value chain participation positively affects CO₂ emission. The recommendations of this research are that countries participating in global value chain should promote production with effective environmental management in each stage of value chain. The examples of policies are providing incentives to private sectors, including domestic producers and MNEs, for green production technology and efficient environment management and engaging in international agreements in terms of green production. Furthermore, government should regulate each stage of production in value chain toward green production, especially for Asia countries.

Keywords: Environment, CO2 emission, methane emission, global value chain participation

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2 A Study on Marble-Slag Based Geopolymer Green Concrete

Authors: Wei-Hao Lee, Ta-Wui Cheng, Yung-Chin Ding, Zong-Xian Qiu


The greenhouse effect is an important issue since it has been responsible for global warming. Carbon dioxide plays an important part of role in the greenhouse effect. Therefore, human has the responsibility for reducing CO₂ emissions in their daily operations. Except iron making and power plants, another major CO₂ production industry is cement industry. According to the statistics by EPA of Taiwan, production 1 ton of Portland cement will produce 520.29 kg of CO₂. There are over 7.8 million tons of CO₂ produced annually. Thus, trying to development low CO₂ emission green concrete is an important issue, and it can reduce CO₂ emission problems in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes and slag as the raw materials to fabricate geopolymer green concrete. The result shows the marble based geopolymer green concrete have good workability and the compressive strength after curing for 28 days and 365 days can be reached 44MPa and 53MPa in indoor environment, 28MPa and 40.43MPa in outdoor environment. The acid resistance test shows the geopolymer green concrete have good resistance for chemical attack. The coefficient of permeability of geopolymer green concrete is better than Portland concrete. By comparing with Portland cement products, the marble based geopolymer not only reduce CO₂ emission problems but also provides great performance in practices. According to the experiment results shown that geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development in the future, the new material could be expected to replace the Portland cement products in the future days.

Keywords: slag, Geopolymer, Green Concrete, CO2 emission, marble

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1 The Impact of Financial Development, FDI and Urbanization on CO2 emissions in Bangladesh: A Linear and Nonlinear ARDL Model

Authors: Rabeya Basri, Chaleampong Kongcharoen


The study examines the linear and nonlinear associations between CO2 emission, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, foreign direct investment, trade openness, urbanization, agriculture, and industry as potential contributing factors of CO2 emissions in case of Bangladesh for the duration of 1974-2018. The study uses two cointegration approaches such as linear, nonlinear ARDL methods to ascertain the affiliation between the variables and the bound test results approve the long term linkage between the variables. The empirical findings disclose that the crucial determining factors of CO2 emissions in Bangladesh are economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, FDI, urbanization and industry. This study also finds the proof of the EKC hypothesis in Bangladesh. The results of NARDL estimations show that energy consumption, trade openness and agriculture influence CO2 emissions in an asymmetric way in the long run. More importantly, increases in trade openness drive down CO2 emissions; in contrast, the size of carbon emissions amplifies in case of lowering trade openness. The outcomes of both linear and nonlinear ARDL models show that energy consumption, FDI, financial development, and urbanization increase CO2 emissions, while trade openness decreases it.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, CO2 emission, FDI, Linear and nonlinear ARDL model

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