Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

co-integration Related Abstracts

9 Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

Authors: L. L. Ivy-Yap, H. A. Bekhet


As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 periods. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential sector, a sector that is important for the contemplation of energy policy. The Phillips-Perron (P-P) unit root test is employed to infer the stationary of each variable while the bound test is executed to determine the existence of co-integration relationship among the variables, modeled in an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) framework. The CUSUM and CUSUM of squares tests are applied to ensure the stability of the model. The results suggest the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship and bidirectional Granger causality between EC and the macroeconomic variables. The empirical findings will help policy makers of Malaysia in developing new monitoring standards of energy consumption. As it is the major contributing factor in economic growth and CO2 emission, there is a need for more proper planning in Malaysia to attain future targets in order to cut emissions.

Keywords: Elasticity, co-integration, granger causality, Malaysia, residential electricity consumption

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8 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)

Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi


This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base, and trade openness on gross fixed capital formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.

Keywords: Libya, bounds test, co-integration, ARDL, capital formation

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7 Financial Inclusion for Inclusive Growth in an Emerging Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, William Chimee Nwaoha


The paper set out to stress on how financial inclusion index could be calculated and also investigated the impact of inclusive finance on inclusive growth in an emerging economy. In the light of these objectives, chi-wins method was used to calculate indexes of financial inclusion while co-integration and error correction model were used for evaluation of the impact of financial inclusion on inclusive growth. The result of the analysis revealed that financial inclusion while having a long-run relationship with GDP growth is an insignificant function of the growth of the economy. The speed of adjustment is correctly signed and significant. On the basis of these results, the researchers called for tireless efforts of government and banking sector in promoting financial inclusion in developing countries.

Keywords: co-integration, chi-wins index, error correction model, financial inclusion

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6 Co-Integrated Commodity Forward Pricing Model

Authors: F. Boudet, V. Galano, D. Gmira, L. Munoz, A. Reina


Commodities pricing needs a specific approach as they are often linked to each other and so are expectedly doing their prices. They are called co-integrated when at least one stationary linear combination exists between them. Though widespread in economic literature, and even if many equilibrium relations and co-movements exist in the economy, this principle of co-movement is not developed in derivatives field. The present study focuses on the following problem: How can the price of a forward agreement on a commodity be simulated, when it is co-integrated with other ones? Theoretical analysis is developed from Gibson-Schwartz model and an analytical solution is given for short maturities contracts and under risk-neutral conditions. The application has been made to crude oil and heating oil energy commodities and result confirms the applicability of proposed method.

Keywords: co-integration, commodities, forward pricing, Gibson-Schwartz

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5 Co-integration for Soft Commodities with Non-Constant Volatility

Authors: E. Channol, O. Collet, N. Kostyuchyk, T. Mesbah, Quoc Hoang Long Nguyen


In this paper, a pricing model is proposed for co-integrated commodities extending Larsson model. The futures formulae have been derived and tests have been performed with non-constant volatility. The model has been applied to energy commodities (gas, CO2, energy) and soft commodities (corn, wheat). Results show that non-constant volatility leads to more accurate short term prices, which provides better evaluation of value-at-risk and more generally improve the risk management.

Keywords: Risk management, co-integration, soft commodities, value-at-risk

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4 Co-Integration and Error Correction Mechanism of Supply Response of Sugarcane in Pakistan (1980-2012)

Authors: Himayatullah Khan


This study estimates supply response function of sugarcane in Pakistan from 1980-81 to 2012-13. The study uses co-integration approach and error correction mechanism. Sugarcane production, area and price series were tested for unit root using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF). The study found that these series were stationary at their first differenced level. Using the Augmented Engle-Granger test and Cointegrating Regression Durbin-Watson (CRDW) test, the study found that “production and price” and “area and price” were co-integrated suggesting that the two sets of time series had long-run or equilibrium relationship. The results of the error correction models for the two sets of series showed that there was disequilibrium in the short run there may be disequilibrium. The Engle-Granger residual may be thought of as the equilibrium error which can be used to tie the short-run behavior of the dependent variable to its long-run value. The Granger-Causality test results showed that log of price granger caused both the long of production and log of area whereas, the log of production and log of area Granger caused each other.

Keywords: sugarcane, co-integration, error correction mechanism, Granger-causality, supply response

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3 An Empirical Study on Growth, Trade, Foreign Direct Investment and Environment in India

Authors: Shilpi Tripathi


India has adopted the policy of economic reforms (Globalization, Liberalization, and Privatization) in 1991 which has reduced the trade barriers and investment restrictions and further increased the economy’s international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The paper empirically studies the relationship between India’s international trades, GDP, FDI and environment during 1978-2012. The first part of the paper focuses on the background and trends of FDI, GDP, trade, and environment (CO2). The second part focuses on the literature regarding the relationship among all the variables. The last part of paper, we examine the results of empirical analysis like co integration and Granger causality between foreign trade, FDI inflows, GDP and CO2 since 1978. The findings of the paper revealed that there is only one uni- directional causality exists between GDP and trade. The direction of causality reveals that international trade is one of the major contributors to the economic growth (GDP). While, there is no causality found between GDP and FDI, FDI, and CO2 and International trade and CO2. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations that will ensure environmental friendly trade, investment and growth in India for future.

Keywords: International Trade, CO2, Foreign Direct Investment, co-integration, granger causality test, GDP

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2 The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth of Ethiopia: Econometrics Cointegration Analysis

Authors: Dejene Gizaw Kidane


This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth of Ethiopia using yearly time-series data for 1974 through 2013. Economic growth is proxies by real per capita gross domestic product and foreign direct investment proxies by the inflow of foreign direct investment. Other control variables such as gross domestic saving, trade, government consumption and inflation has been incorporated. In order to fully account for feedbacks, a vector autoregressive model is utilized. The results show that there is a stable, long-run relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth. The variance decomposition results show that the main sources of Ethiopia economic growth variations are due largely own shocks. The pairwise Granger causality results show that there is a unidirectional causality that runs from FDI to economic growth of Ethiopia. Hence, the researcher therefore recommends that, FDI facilitate economic growth, so the government has to exert much effort in order to attract more FDI into the country.

Keywords: co-integration, granger causality, FDI, VECM, real per capita GDP

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1 A Study of Islamic Stock Indices and Macroeconomic Variables

Authors: Mohammad Irfan


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among the key macroeconomic variables and Islamic stock market in India. This study is based on the time series data of financial years 2009-2015 to explore the consistency of relationship between macroeconomic variables and Shariah Indices. The ADF (Augmented Dickey–Fuller Test Statistic) and PP (Phillips–Perron Test Statistic) tests are employed to check stationarity of the data. The study depicts the long run relationship between Shariah indices and macroeconomic variables by using the Johansen Co-integration test. BSE Shariah and Nifty Shariah have uni-direct Granger causality. The outcome of VECM is significantly confirming the applicability of best fitted model. Thus, Islamic stock indices are proficiently working for the development of Indian economy. It suggests that by keeping eyes on Islamic stock market which will be more interactive in the future with other macroeconomic variables.

Keywords: co-integration, granger causality, macroeconomic variables, Indian Shariah Indices, vector error correction model (VECM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 148