Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

co-Infection Related Abstracts

6 Plasmodium falciparum and Scistosoma haematobium Co-infection in School Aged Children in Jinduut, Shendam Local Government Area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: D. A. Dakul, T. M. Akindigh, B. J. Dogonyaro, O. J. Abba, K. T. Tangtur, N. Sambo, J. A. E. Okopi, J. A. Yohanna, G. E. Imade, G. S. Mwansat, S. Oguche

Abstract:

Malaria and urinary Schistosomaisis are both endemic in Nigeria and pose a serious health challenge in rural areas where co-infections are common. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of co-infection and the impact of concurrent infection on haemoglobin concentration, Eosinophil and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium infection were determined by Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (MRDT) kits and the presence of visible haematuria respectively and confirmed by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (cPCR). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Of the 110 children examined, 13 (11.8%) had concurrent infection with Schistosoma haematobium falciparum, 46(41.8%) had Plasmodium falciparum infection while 16(14.5%) had Schistosoma haematobium infection. A strong association between co-infection and the ages of 10-15 years with a 36.4% prevalence of anaemia was observed. Malaria was significantly associated with anaemia than with concurrent infections or schistomiasis alone. Co-infection with both pathogens and a high prevalence of anaemia was observed in Jinduut community. Although the causes of anaemia are multi-factorial, further investigation into the extent to which malaria and urinary schistosomiasis contribute to anaemia is needed. Also, integrated control efforts must be strengthened to mitigate the impact of concurrent infection in this group of vulnerable members in the community. The results can be applied to other communities during control.

Keywords: Nigeria, co-Infection, plasmodium falciparum and scistosoma haematobium, Jinduut

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5 Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Co-Infection with Hepatitis B Virus and Baseline Cd4+ T Cell Count among Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital, Nepal

Authors: Soma Kanta Baral

Abstract:

Background: Since 1981, when the first AIDS case was reported, worldwide, more than 34 million people have been infected with HIV. Almost 95 percent of the people infected with HIV live in developing countries. As HBV & HIV share similar routes of transmission by sexual intercourse or drug use by parenteral injection, co-infection is common. Because of the limited access to healthcare & HIV treatment in developing countries, HIV-infected individuals are present late for care. Enumeration of CD4+ T cell count at the time of diagnosis has been useful to initiate the therapy in HIV infected individuals. The baseline CD4+ T cell count shows high immunological variability among patients. Methods: This prospective study was done in the serology section of the Department of Microbiology over a period of one year from august 2012 to July 2013. A total of 13037 individuals subjected for HIV test were included in the study comprising of 4982 males & 8055 females. Blood sample was collected by vein puncture aseptically with standard operational procedure in clean & dry test-tube. All blood samples were screened for HIV as described by WHO algorithm by Immuno-chromatography rapid kits. Further confirmation was done by biokit ELISA method as per the manufacturer’s guidelines. After informed consent, HIV positive individuals were screened for HBsAg by Immuno-chromatography rapid kits (Hepacard). Further confirmation was done by biokit ELISA method as per the manufacturer’s guidelines. EDTA blood samples were collected from the HIV sero-positive individuals for baseline CD4+ T count. Then, CD4+ T cells count was determined by using FACS Calibur Flow Cytometer (BD). Results: Among 13037 individuals screened for HIV, 104 (0.8%) were found to be infected comprising of 69(66.34%) males & 35 (33.65%) females. The study showed that the high infection was noted in housewives (28.7%), active age group (30.76%), rural area (56.7%) & in heterosexual route (80.9%) of transmission. Out of total HIV infected individuals, distribution of HBV co-infection was found to be 6(5.7%). All co- infected individuals were married, male, above the age of 25 years & heterosexual route of transmission. Baseline CD4+ T cell count of HIV infected patient was found higher (mean CD4+ T cell count; 283cells/cu.mm) than HBV co-infected patients (mean CD4+ T cell count; 91 cells/cu.mm). Majority (77.2%) of HIV infected & all co-infected individuals were presented in our center late (CD4+ T cell count;< 350/cu. mm) for diagnosis and care. Majority of co- infected 4 (80%) were late presented with advanced AIDS stage (CD4+ count; <200/cu.mm). Conclusions: The study showed a high percentage of HIV sero-positive & co- infected individuals. Baseline CD4+ T cell count of majority of HIV infected individuals was found to be low. Hence, more sustained and vigorous awareness campaigns & counseling still need to be done in order to promote early diagnosis and management.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, HBsAg, co-Infection, CD4+

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4 Multiple Etiologies and Incidences of Co-Infections in Childhood Diarrhea in a Hospital Based Screening Study in Odisha, India

Authors: Arpit K. Shrivastava, Nirmal K. Mohakud, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi S. Sahu

Abstract:

Acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years of age. Multiple etiologies have been implicated for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea. In our study fecal samples (n=165) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies such as Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, EHEC, STEC, O157, O111), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. The overall results from our study showed that 57% of children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were positive for at least one infectious etiology. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli was detected to be the major etiological agent (29.09%) followed by Rotavirus (24.24%), Shigella (21.21%), Adenovirus (5.45%), Cryptosporidium (2.42%), and Giardia (0.60%). Among the different DEC strains, EPEC was detected significantly higher in <2 years children in comparison to >2 years age group (p =0.001). Concurrent infections with two or more pathogens were observed in 47 of 160 (28.48%) cases with a predominant incidence particularly in <2-year-old children (66.66%) compared to children of 2 to 5 years age group. Co-infection of Rotavirus with Shigella was the most frequent combination, which was detected in 17.94% cases, followed by Rotavirus with EPEC (15.38%) and Shigella with STEC (12.82%). Detection of multiple infectious etiologies and diagnosis of the right causative agent(s) can immensely help in better management of acute childhood diarrhea. In future more studies focusing on the detection of cases with concurrent infections must be carried out, as we believe that the etiological agents might be complementing each other’s strategies of pathogenesis resulting in severe diarrhea.

Keywords: Children, Odisha, co-Infection, infectious diarrhea

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3 Assessment of HIV/Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection among Patients Living with HIV in Northern and Southern Region of Nigeria

Authors: Folajinmi Oluwasina, Greg Abiaziem, Moses Luke, Mobolaji Kolawole, Nancy Yibowei, Anne Taiwo

Abstract:

Background: Occurrence of HIV infection has an adverse effect on the natural causes of Hepatitis B Viral (HBV) infection, faster progression of hepatic fibrosis demonstrated in patients with co-infection. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients, and to retrospectively evaluate laboratory characteristics of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patient files for all HIV-infected cases followed-up and treated at 52 health facilities. Among HIV-infected cases, those with HBsAg positivity and HIV/Hepatitis B co-infection were determined. Socio demographic, alcohol or substance use, ART, CD4, Viral Load levels and treatment durations were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 125 HIV-infected patients evaluated retrospectively, 17 (13.6%) had HBsAg positivity. Of these 17 cases were 11(64.7%) male and 6 (35.3%) female, with a mean age of 48.7 years. No patients had a history of alcohol or substance use. The mean duration of follow up was 28 months. 9 (52.9%) patients had negative HBV DNA at presentation while 8(47%) had positive HBV DNA, with normal ALT levels in all subjects. Among the 9 cases with negative HBV DNA who had no indication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In five cases, treatment was commenced since HBV DNA was elevated in conjunction with low CD4. One patient in whom treatment was not indicated based on HBV DNA and CD4 levels in conjunction with the absence of AIDS defining clinical picture was currently being followed-up without treatment. Of the patients receiving HAART therapy, the average CD4 count at presentation was 278 cells/mm3 vs. 466 cells/mm3 at the end of 12 months. In three subjects with positive HBV DNA, a decrease in HBV DNA was noted after initiation of treatment. In four patients with negative DNA who received treatment, the HBV DNA negative status was found to remain, while one patient who did not receive treatment had elevated HBV DNA and decreased CD4 levels. Conclusion: It was shown that this group of patients with HIV/HBV co-infection, HAART was found to be associated with a decrease in HBV DNA in HBV DNA positive cases, absence of transition to positivity among those with negative HBV DNA, and with increased CD4 in all subjects.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, Dna, co-Infection, anti retroviral therapy

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2 Comparative Vector Susceptibility for Dengue Virus and Their Co-Infection in A. aegypti and A. albopictus

Authors: Monika Soni, Chandra Bhattacharya, Prafulla Dutta, Siraj Ahmed Ahmed

Abstract:

Dengue is now a globally important arboviral disease. Extensive vector surveillance has already established A.aegypti as a primary vector, but A.albopictus is now accelerating the situation through gradual adaptation to human surroundings. Global destabilization and gradual climatic shift with rising in temperature have significantly expanded the geographic range of these species These versatile vectors also host Chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever virus. Biggest challenge faced by endemic countries now is upsurge in co-infection reported with multiple serotypes and virus co-circulation. To foster vector control interventions and mitigate disease burden, there is surge for knowledge on vector susceptibility and viral tolerance in response to multiple infections. To address our understanding on transmission dynamics and reproductive fitness, both the vectors were exposed to single and dual combinations of all four dengue serotypes by artificial feeding and followed up to third generation. Artificial feeding observed significant difference in feeding rate for both the species where A.albopictus was poor artificial feeder (35-50%) compared to A.aegypti (95-97%) Robust sequential screening of viral antigen in mosquitoes was followed by Dengue NS1 ELISA, RT-PCR and Quantitative PCR. To observe viral dissemination in different mosquito tissues Indirect immunofluorescence assay was performed. Result showed that both the vectors were infected initially with all dengue(1-4)serotypes and its co-infection (D1 and D2, D1 and D3, D1 and D4, D2 and D4) combinations. In case of DENV-2 there was significant difference in the peak titer observed at 16th day post infection. But when exposed to dual infections A.aegypti supported all combinations of virus where A.albopictus only continued single infections in successive days. There was a significant negative effect on the fecundity and fertility of both the vectors compared to control (PANOVA < 0.001). In case of dengue 2 infected mosquito, fecundity in parent generation was significantly higher (PBonferroni < 0.001) for A.albopicus compare to A.aegypti but there was a complete loss of fecundity from second to third generation for A.albopictus. It was observed that A.aegypti becomes infected with multiple serotypes frequently even at low viral titres compared to A.albopictus. Possible reason for this could be the presence of wolbachia infection in A.albopictus or mosquito innate immune response, small RNA interference etc. Based on the observations it could be anticipated that transovarial transmission may not be an important phenomenon for clinical disease outcome, due to the absence of viral positivity by third generation. Also, Dengue NS1 ELISA can be used for preliminary viral detection in mosquitoes as more than 90% of the samples were found positive compared to RT-PCR and viral load estimation.

Keywords: Dengue, co-Infection, reproductive fitness, viral quantification

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1 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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