Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

CNT Related Abstracts

6 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki

Abstract:

This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber, epoxy, CNT, RC columns

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5 O-Functionalized CNT Mediated CO Hydro-Deoxygenation and Chain Growth

Authors: V. Meunier, M. Terrones, K. Mondal, S. Talapatra, S. Pokhrel, C. Frizzel, B. Sumpter, A. L. Elias

Abstract:

Worldwide energy independence is reliant on the ability to leverage locally available resources for fuel production. Recently, syngas produced through gasification of carbonaceous materials provided a gateway to a host of processes for the production of various chemicals including transportation fuels. The basis of the production of gasoline and diesel-like fuels is the Fischer Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) process: A catalyzed chemical reaction that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) into long chain hydrocarbons. Until now, it has been argued that only transition metal catalysts (usually Co or Fe) are active toward the CO hydrogenation and subsequent chain growth in the presence of hydrogen. In this paper, we demonstrate that carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces are also capable of hydro-deoxygenating CO and producing long chain hydrocarbons similar to that obtained through the FTS but with orders of magnitude higher conversion efficiencies than the present state-of-the-art FTS catalysts. We have used advanced experimental tools such as XPS and microscopy techniques to characterize CNTs and identify C-O functional groups as the active sites for the enhanced catalytic activity. Furthermore, we have conducted quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to confirm that C-O groups (inherent on CNT surfaces) could indeed be catalytically active towards reduction of CO with H2, and capable of sustaining chain growth. The DFT calculations have shown that the kinetically and thermodynamically feasible route for CO insertion and hydro-deoxygenation are different from that on transition metal catalysts. Experiments on a continuous flow tubular reactor with various nearly metal-free CNTs have been carried out and the products have been analyzed. CNTs functionalized by various methods were evaluated under different conditions. Reactor tests revealed that the hydrogen pre-treatment reduced the activity of the catalysts to negligible levels. Without the pretreatment, the activity for CO conversion as found to be 7 µmol CO/g CNT/s. The O-functionalized samples showed very activities greater than 85 µmol CO/g CNT/s with nearly 100% conversion. Analyses show that CO hydro-deoxygenation occurred at the C-O/O-H functional groups. It was found that while the products were similar to FT products, differences in selectivities were observed which, in turn, was a result of a different catalytic mechanism. These findings now open a new paradigm for CNT-based hydrogenation catalysts and constitute a defining point for obtaining clean, earth abundant, alternative fuels through the use of efficient and renewable catalyst.

Keywords: dft, Liquid Fuels, XPS, CNT, CO Hydrodeoxygenation, XTL

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4 Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Sources

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan

Abstract:

Electricity is the primary requirement today's world, including Indonesia. This is because electricity is a source of electrical energy that is flexible to use. Fossil energy sources are the major energy source that is used as a source of energy power plants. Unfortunately, this conversion process impacts on the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and causes an increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, disrupting health, ozone depletion, and the greenhouse effect. Solutions have been applied are solar cells, ocean wave power, the wind, water, and so forth. However, low efficiency and complicated treatment led to most people and industry in Indonesia still using fossil fuels. Referring to this Fuel Cell was developed. Fuel Cells are electrochemical technology that continuously converts chemical energy into electrical energy for the fuel and oxidizer are the efficiency is considerably higher than the previous natural source of electrical energy, which is 40-60%. However, Fuel Cells still have some weaknesses in terms of the use of an expensive platinum catalyst which is limited and not environmentally friendly. Because of it, required the simultaneous source of electrical energy and environmentally friendly. On the other hand, Indonesia is a rich country in marine sediments and organic content that is never exhausted. Stacking the organic component can be an alternative energy source continued development of fuel cell is A Microbial Fuel Cell. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) is a tool that uses bacteria to generate electricity from organic and non-organic compounds. MFC same tools as usual fuel cell composed of an anode, cathode and electrolyte. Its main advantage is the catalyst in the microbial fuel cell is a microorganism and working conditions carried out in neutral solution, low temperatures, and environmentally friendly than previous fuel cells (Chemistry Fuel Cell). However, when compared to Chemistry Fuel Cell, MFC only have an efficiency of 40%. Therefore, the authors provide a solution in the form of Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Source. Nano-MFC has the advantage of an effective, high efficiency, cheap and environmental friendly. Related stakeholders that helped are government ministers, especially Energy Minister, the Institute for Research, as well as the industry as a production executive facilitator. strategic steps undertaken to achieve that begin from conduct preliminary research, then lab scale testing, and dissemination and build cooperation with related parties (MOU), conduct last research and its applications in the field, then do the licensing and production of Nano-MFC on an industrial scale and publications to the public.

Keywords: Electric, Efficiency, Microorganisms, Sediment, CNT

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3 Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites

Authors: Anees Ahmad, Yashfeen Khan

Abstract:

In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.

Keywords: Biosensors, Hybrids, polyaniline, CNT, synergism

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2 A First Order Shear Deformation Theory Approach for the Buckling Behavior of Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: V. V. Subba Rao, P. Pramod Kumar, Madhu Salumari

Abstract:

Due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, carbon nanotube (CNTs) reinforced polymer composites are being considered as one of the most promising nanocomposites which can improve the performance when used in structural applications. The buckling behavior is one of the most important parameter needs to be considered in the design of structural members like beams and plates. In the present paper, the elastic constants of CNT reinforced polymer composites are evaluated by using Mori-Tanaka micromechanics approach. Knowing the elastic constants, an analytical study is being conducted to investigate the buckling behavior of nanocomposites for different CNT volume fractions at different boundary conditions using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The effect of stacking sequence and CNT radius on the buckling of beam has also been presented. This study is being conducted primarily with an intension to find the stiffening effect of CNTs when used in polymer composites as reinforcement.

Keywords: Micromechanics, buckling, CNT, FSDT

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1 [Keynote Talk]: Morphological Analysis of Continuous Graphene Oxide Fibers Incorporated with Carbon Nanotube and MnCl₂

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Pelin Altay, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek

Abstract:

Graphene oxide fibers have recently received increasing attention due to their excellent properties such as high specific surface area, high mechanical strength, good thermal properties and high electrical conductivity. They have shown notable potential in various applications including batteries, sensors, filtration and separation and wearable electronics. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties and can be used together with graphene oxide fibers for several application areas such as lithium ion batteries, wearable electronics, etc. Metals salts that can be converted into metal ions and metal oxide can be also used for several application areas such as battery, purification natural gas, filtration, absorption. This study investigates the effects of CNT and metal complex compounds (MnCl₂, metal salts) on the morphological structure of graphene oxide fibers. The graphene oxide dispersion was manufactured by modified Hummers method, and continuous graphene oxide fibers were produced with wet spinning. The CNT and MnCl₂ were incorporated into the coagulation baths during wet spinning process. Produced composite continuous fibers were analyzed with SEM, SEM-EDS and AFM microscopies and as spun fiber counts were measured.

Keywords: CNT, continuous graphene oxide fiber, Hummers' method, MnCl₂

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