Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Cluster Related Abstracts

16 Personalize E-Learning System Based on Clustering and Sequence Pattern Mining Approach

Authors: K. Vijayalakshmi, H. S. Saini, Rishi Sayal


Network-based education has been growing rapidly in size and quality. Knowledge clustering becomes more important in personalized information retrieval for web-learning. A personalized-Learning service after the learners’ knowledge has been classified with clustering. Through automatic analysis of learners’ behaviors, their partition with similar data level and interests may be discovered so as to produce learners with contents that best match educational needs for collaborative learning. We present a specific mining tool and a recommender engine that we have integrated in the online learning in order to help the teacher to carry out the whole e-learning process. We propose to use sequential pattern mining algorithms to discover the most used path by the students and from this information can recommend links to the new students automatically meanwhile they browse in the course. We have Developed a specific author tool in order to help the teacher to apply all the data mining process. We tend to report on many experiments with real knowledge so as to indicate the quality of using both clustering and sequential pattern mining algorithms together for discovering personalized e-learning systems.

Keywords: e-Learning, Cluster, Pattern, Sequence, personalization

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15 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali


The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several sub-networks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.

Keywords: Cluster, Routing Protocols, Wireless Sensor Networks, AD HOC topology, sub-network, WSN design requirements

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14 The Use of Multivariate Statistical and GIS for Characterization Groundwater Quality in Laghouat Region, Algeria

Authors: Rouighi Mustapha, Bouzid Laghaa Souad, Rouighi Tahar


Due to rain Shortage and the increase of population in the last years, wells excavation and groundwater use for different purposes had been increased without any planning. This is a great challenge for our country. Moreover, this scarcity of water resources in this region is unfortunately combined with rapid fresh water resources quality deterioration, due to salinity and contamination processes. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the studies about groundwater quality in Algeria. In this work consists in the identification of the factors which influence the water quality parameters in Laghouat region by using statistical analysis Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and geographic information system (GIS) in an attempt to discriminate the sources of the variation of water quality variations. The results of PCA technique indicate that variables responsible for water quality composition are mainly related to soluble salts variables; natural processes and the nature of the rock which modifies significantly the water chemistry. Inferred from the positive correlation between K+ and NO3-, NO3- is believed to be human induced rather than naturally originated. In this study, the multivariate statistical analysis and GIS allows the hydrogeologist to have supplementary tools in the characterization and evaluating of aquifers.

Keywords: Analysis, Cluster, Quality, Groundwater, GIS, laghouat

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13 The Study of Effect the Number of Cluster in the Branch on Vegetative Characteristics of Pistacia vera

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi, Seyeh Hassan Eftekhar Afzali


Pistachio is like almond but the second cycle of growth (third phase) has rather fast growth. This is caused to add final mass of product. When the germ grows, it and its cover are reached to the final size during six week period. As starting the second phase, the lignifications of pericarp is begun and continued for 4 or 6 weeks. Physiological maturity or easy separation of green from scutum is specified. This test was done according to random blocks of 6 orchards in the type of Ahmad Aghaie with 4 iterations. Vegetative properties of branch are investigated. The results of the bunch numbers on the growth of branch in current year are shown that the most growth of branch is happened by trimming of one and two bunches of the branch and the most diameter of the branch is happened by trimming of one to four bunches of branch. Trimming of a bunch is caused the most number of pistachio products in the bunch.

Keywords: Cluster, Fruit, pistachio, bud, branch

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12 The Effect of Bunch in the Branch on Vegetative Characteristics of Pistacia vera

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi, Alireza Sohrabi


The pistachio fruit is a strategic product in Iran. One of the problems caused the reduction of pistachio proceeds is related to biennial- bearing or alternative bearing. Biennial- bearing is very important and is happened because of the fallen female bloom buds in vintage year. This test was done according to random blocks of 6 orchards in the type of Ahmad Aghaie with 4 iterations. Vegetative properties of branch are investigated. The results are shown that if the bunch numbers are increased, the possibility of falling is increased in bloom buds. The least possibility of falling of bloom buds is specified in trimming of one bunch and has significant difference with other trimming.

Keywords: Cluster, pistachio, bud, alternate bearing

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11 A Comparative and Critical Analysis of Some Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Masood Ahmad, Ishtiaq Wahid, Nighat Ayub, Sajad Ali


Lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is directly proportional to the energy consumption of its constituent nodes. Routing in wireless sensor network is very challenging due its inherit characteristics. In hierarchal routing the sensor filed is divided into clusters. The cluster-heads are selected from each cluster, which forms a hierarchy of nodes. The cluster-heads are used to transmit the data to the base station while other nodes perform the sensing task. In this way the lifetime of the network is increased. In this paper a comparative study of hierarchal routing protocols are conducted. The simulation is done in NS-2 for validation.

Keywords: Sensor Networks, Cluster, Routing, WSN

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10 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala


Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.

Keywords: Cluster, Mineralogy, Ferrous Metallurgy, shaft furnace, metallic iron whisker

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9 Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya

Authors: Lillian Musila, Valerie Oundo, Daniel Erwin, Willie Sang


Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.

Keywords: Cluster, Kenya, MRSA, spa typing

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8 An Energy-Balanced Clustering Method on Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Yu-Ting Tsai, Chiun-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Chun Chu


In recent years, due to the development of wireless network technology, many researchers have devoted to the study of wireless sensor networks. The applications of wireless sensor network mainly use the sensor nodes to collect the required information, and send the information back to the users. Since the sensed area is difficult to reach, there are many restrictions on the design of the sensor nodes, where the most important restriction is the limited energy of sensor nodes. Because of the limited energy, researchers proposed a number of ways to reduce energy consumption and balance the load of sensor nodes in order to increase the network lifetime. In this paper, we proposed the Energy-Balanced Clustering method with Auxiliary Members on Wireless Sensor Networks(EBCAM)based on the cluster routing. The main purpose is to balance the energy consumption on the sensed area and average the distribution of dead nodes in order to avoid excessive energy consumption because of the increasing in transmission distance. In addition, we use the residual energy and average energy consumption of the nodes within the cluster to choose the cluster heads, use the multi hop transmission method to deliver the data, and dynamically adjust the transmission radius according to the load conditions. Finally, we use the auxiliary cluster members to change the delivering path according to the residual energy of the cluster head in order to its load. Finally, we compare the proposed method with the related algorithms via simulated experiments and then analyze the results. It reveals that the proposed method outperforms other algorithms in the numbers of used rounds and the average energy consumption.

Keywords: Cluster, Wireless Sensor Network, routing algorithm, auxiliary nodes, load balance

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7 The Effective Use of the Network in the Distributed Storage

Authors: Mamouni Mohammed Dhiya Eddine


This work aims at studying the exploitation of high-speed networks of clusters for distributed storage. Parallel applications running on clusters require both high-performance communications between nodes and efficient access to the storage system. Many studies on network technologies led to the design of dedicated architectures for clusters with very fast communications between computing nodes. Efficient distributed storage in clusters has been essentially developed by adding parallelization mechanisms so that the server(s) may sustain an increased workload. In this work, we propose to improve the performance of distributed storage systems in clusters by efficiently using the underlying high-performance network to access distant storage systems. The main question we are addressing is: do high-speed networks of clusters fit the requirements of a transparent, efficient and high-performance access to remote storage? We show that storage requirements are very different from those of parallel computation. High-speed networks of clusters were designed to optimize communications between different nodes of a parallel application. We study their utilization in a very different context, storage in clusters, where client-server models are generally used to access remote storage (for instance NFS, PVFS or LUSTRE). Our experimental study based on the usage of the GM programming interface of MYRINET high-speed networks for distributed storage raised several interesting problems. Firstly, the specific memory utilization in the storage access system layers does not easily fit the traditional memory model of high-speed networks. Secondly, client-server models that are used for distributed storage have specific requirements on message control and event processing, which are not handled by existing interfaces. We propose different solutions to solve communication control problems at the filesystem level. We show that a modification of the network programming interface is required. Data transfer issues need an adaptation of the operating system. We detail several propositions for network programming interfaces which make their utilization easier in the context of distributed storage. The integration of a flexible processing of data transfer in the new programming interface MYRINET/MX is finally presented. Performance evaluations show that its usage in the context of both storage and other types of applications is easy and efficient.

Keywords: Cluster, distributed storage, application programming interface, remote file access, high-speed network, MYRINET, zero-copy, memory registration, communication control, event notification

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6 Design and Analysis of a Clustered Nozzle Configuration and Comparison of Its Thrust

Authors: Abdul Hadi Butt, Asfandyar Arshad


The purpose of this paper is to study the thrust variation in different configurations of clustered nozzles. It involves the design and analysis of clustered configuration of nozzles using Ansys fluent. Clustered nozzles with different configurations are simulated and compared on basis of effective exhaust thrust. Mixing length for the flow interaction is also calculated. Further clustered configurations are analyzed over different altitudes. An optimum value of the thrust among different configurations is proposed at the end of comparisons.

Keywords: Cluster, ANSYS, FLUENT, thrust, CD nozzle

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5 Comparing the Apparent Error Rate of Gender Specifying from Human Skeletal Remains by Using Classification and Cluster Methods

Authors: Jularat Chumnaul


In forensic science, corpses from various homicides are different; there are both complete and incomplete, depending on causes of death or forms of homicide. For example, some corpses are cut into pieces, some are camouflaged by dumping into the river, some are buried, some are burned to destroy the evidence, and others. If the corpses are incomplete, it can lead to the difficulty of personally identifying because some tissues and bones are destroyed. To specify gender of the corpses from skeletal remains, the most precise method is DNA identification. However, this method is costly and takes longer so that other identification techniques are used instead. The first technique that is widely used is considering the features of bones. In general, an evidence from the corpses such as some pieces of bones, especially the skull and pelvis can be used to identify their gender. To use this technique, forensic scientists are required observation skills in order to classify the difference between male and female bones. Although this technique is uncomplicated, saving time and cost, and the forensic scientists can fairly accurately determine gender by using this technique (apparently an accuracy rate of 90% or more), the crucial disadvantage is there are only some positions of skeleton that can be used to specify gender such as supraorbital ridge, nuchal crest, temporal lobe, mandible, and chin. Therefore, the skeletal remains that will be used have to be complete. The other technique that is widely used for gender specifying in forensic science and archeology is skeletal measurements. The advantage of this method is it can be used in several positions in one piece of bones, and it can be used even if the bones are not complete. In this study, the classification and cluster analysis are applied to this technique, including the Kth Nearest Neighbor Classification, Classification Tree, Ward Linkage Cluster, K-mean Cluster, and Two Step Cluster. The data contains 507 particular individuals and 9 skeletal measurements (diameter measurements), and the performance of five methods are investigated by considering the apparent error rate (APER). The results from this study indicate that the Two Step Cluster and Kth Nearest Neighbor method seem to be suitable to specify gender from human skeletal remains because both yield small apparent error rate of 0.20% and 4.14%, respectively. On the other hand, the Classification Tree, Ward Linkage Cluster, and K-mean Cluster method are not appropriate since they yield large apparent error rate of 10.65%, 10.65%, and 16.37%, respectively. However, there are other ways to evaluate the performance of classification such as an estimate of the error rate using the holdout procedure or misclassification costs, and the difference methods can make the different conclusions.

Keywords: Cluster, classification, skeletal measurements, apparent error rate

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4 Creation of Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Competitiveness through Cluster Mapping

Authors: Danuvasin Charoen


This research investigates cluster development in the area called the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which consists of Thailand, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Yunnan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Myanmar, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Cambodia, and Vietnam. The study utilized Porter’s competitiveness theory and the cluster mapping approach to analyze the competitiveness of the region. The data collection consists of interviews, focus groups, and the analysis of secondary data. The findings identify some evidence of cluster development in the GMS; however, there is no clear indication of collaboration among the components in the clusters. GMS clusters tend to be stand-alone. The clusters in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Cambodia tend to be labor intensive, whereas the clusters in Thailand and the PRC (Yunnan) have the potential to successfully develop into innovative clusters. The collaboration and integration among the clusters in the GMS area are promising, though it could take a long time. The most likely relationship between the GMS countries could be, for example, suppliers of the low-end, labor-intensive products will be located in the low income countries such as Myanmar, Lao PDR, and Cambodia, and these countries will be providing input materials for innovative clusters in the middle income countries such as Thailand and the PRC.

Keywords: Development, Cluster, Competitiveness, GMS

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3 Improved Color-Based K-Mean Algorithm for Clustering of Satellite Image

Authors: Sangeeta Yadav, Mantosh Biswas


In this paper, we proposed an improved color based K-mean algorithm for clustering of satellite Image (SAR). Our method comprises of two stages. The first step is an interactive selection process where users are required to input the number of colors (ncolor), number of clusters, and then they are prompted to select the points in each color cluster. In the second step these points are given as input to K-mean clustering algorithm that clusters the image based on color and Minimum Square Euclidean distance. The proposed method reduces the mixed pixel problem to a great extent.

Keywords: Cluster, ncolor method, K-mean method, interactive selection process

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2 The Importance of Value Added Services Provided by Science and Technology Parks to Boost Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Turkey

Authors: Faruk Inaltekin, Imran Gurakan


This paper will aim to discuss the importance of value-added services provided by Science and Technology Parks for entrepreneurship development in Turkey. Entrepreneurship is vital subject for all countries. It has not only fostered economic development but also promoted innovation at local and international levels. To foster high tech entrepreneurship ecosystem, Technopark (Science and Technology Park/STP) concept was initiated with the establishment of Silicon Valley in the 1950s. The success and rise of Silicon Valley led to the spread of technopark activities. Developed economies have been setting up projects to plan and build STPs since the 1960s and 1970s. To promote the establishment of STPs, necessary legislations were made by Ministry of Science, Industry, and Technology in 2001, Technology Development Zones Law (No. 4691) and it has been revised in 2016 to provide more supports. STPs’ basic aim is to provide customers high-quality office spaces with various 'value added services' such as business development, network connections, cooperation programs, investor/customers meetings and internationalization services. For this aim, STPs should help startups deal with difficulties in the early stages and to support mature companies’ export activities in the foreign market. STPs should support the production, commercialization and more significantly internationalization of technology-intensive business and foster growth of companies. Nowadays within this value-added services, internationalization is very popular subject in the world. Most of STPs design clusters or accelerator programs in order to support their companies in the foreign market penetration. If startups are not ready for international competition, STPs should help them to get ready for foreign market with training and mentoring sessions. These training and mentoring sessions should take a goal based approach to working with companies. Each company has different needs and goals. Therefore the definition of ‘success' varies for each company. For this reason, it is very important to create customized value added services to meet the needs of startups. After local supports, STPs should also be able to support their startups in foreign market. Organizing well defined international accelerator program plays an important role in this mission. Turkey is strategically placed between key markets in Europe, Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. Its population is young and well educated. So both government agencies and the private sectors endeavor to foster and encourage entrepreneurship ecosystem with many supports. In sum, the task of technoparks with these and similar value added services is very important for developing entrepreneurship ecosystem. The priorities of all value added services are to identify the commercialization and growth obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and get rid of them with the one-to-one customized services. Also, in order to have a healthy startup ecosystem and create sustainable entrepreneurship, stakeholders (technoparks, incubators, accelerators, investors, universities, governmental organizations etc.) should fulfill their roles and/or duties and collaborate with each other. STPs play an important role as bridge for these stakeholders & entrepreneurs. STPs always should benchmark and renew services offered to how to help the start-ups to survive, develop their business and benefit from these stakeholders.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Cluster, startup, accelerator, technopark, value added services

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1 Networks in the Tourism Sector in Brazil: Proposal of a Management Model Applied to Tourism Clusters

Authors: Gysele Lima Ricci, Jose Miguel Rodriguez Anton


Companies in the tourism sector need to achieve competitive advantages for their survival in the market. In this way, the models based on association, cooperation, complementarity, distribution, exchange and mutual assistance arise as a possibility of organizational development, taking as reference the concept of networks. Many companies seek to partner in local networks as clusters to act together and associate. The main objective of the present research is to identify the specificities of management and the practices of cooperation in the tourist destination of São Paulo - Brazil, and to propose a new management model with possible cluster of tourism. The empirical analysis was carried out in three phases. As a first phase, a research was made by the companies, associations and tourism organizations existing in São Paulo, analyzing the characteristics of their business. In the second phase, the management specificities and cooperation practice used in the tourist destination. And in the third phase, identifying the possible strengths and weaknesses that potential or potential tourist cluster could have, proposing the development of the management model of the same adapted to the needs of the companies, associations and organizations. As a main result, it has been identified that companies, associations and organizations could be looking for synergies with each other and collaborate through a Hiperred organizational structure, in which they share their knowledge, try to make the most of the collaboration and to benefit from three concepts: flexibility, learning and collaboration. Finally, it is concluded that, the proposed tourism cluster management model is viable for the development of tourism destinations because it makes it possible to strategically address agents which are responsible for public policies, as well as public and private companies and organizations in their strategies competitiveness and cooperation.

Keywords: Cluster, Networks, management model, tourism sector

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