Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Cluster Analysis Related Abstracts

30 The Relevance of Intellectual Capital: An Analysis of Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

Abstract:

In recent years, the intellectual capital reporting in higher education institutions has been acquiring progressive importance worldwide. Intellectual capital approaches becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. Universities produce knowledge, either through scientific and technical research (the results of investigation, publications, etc.) or through teaching (students trained and productive relationships with their stakeholders). The purpose of the present paper is to identify the intangible elements about which university stakeholders demand most information. The results of a study done at Spanish universities are used to see which groups of universities have stakeholders who are more proactive to the disclosure of intellectual capital.

Keywords: Universities, Intellectual Capital, Cluster Analysis, Spain

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29 Analysis Customer Loyalty Characteristic and Segmentation Analysis in Mobile Phone Category in Indonesia

Authors: A. B. Robert, Adam Pramadia, Calvin Andika

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to explore consumer loyalty characteristic of mobile phone category in Indonesia. Second, this research attempts to identify consumer segment and to explore their profile in each segment as the basis of marketing strategy formulation. This study used some tools of multivariate analysis such as discriminant analysis and cluster analysis. Discriminate analysis used to discriminate consumer loyal and not loyal by using particular variables. Cluster analysis used to reveal various segment in mobile phone category. In addition to having better customer understanding in each segment, this study used descriptive analysis and cross tab analysis in each segment defined by cluster analysis. This study expected several findings. First, consumer can be divided into two large group of loyal versus not loyal by set of variables. Second, this study identifies customer segment in mobile phone category. Third, exploring customer profile in each segment that has been identified. This study answer a call for additional empirical research into different product categories. Therefore, a replication research is advisable. By knowing the customer loyalty characteristic, and deep analysis of their consumption behavior and profile for each segment, this study is very advisable for high impact marketing strategy development. This study contributes body of knowledge by adding empirical study of consumer loyalty, segmentation analysis in mobile phone category by multiple brand analysis.

Keywords: Marketing Strategy, Segmentation, Cluster Analysis, Customer Loyalty, discriminant analysis, mobile phone

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28 Institutional Segmantation and Country Clustering: Implications for Multinational Enterprises Over Standardized Management

Authors: Jung-Hoon Han, Jooyoung Kwak

Abstract:

Distances between cultures, institutions are gaining academic attention once again since the classical debate on the validity of globalization. Despite the incessant efforts to define international segments with various concepts, no significant attempts have been made considering the institutional dimensions. Resource-based theory and institutional theory provides useful insights in assessing market environment and understanding when and how MNEs loose or gain advantages. This study consists of two parts: identifying institutional clusters and predicting the effect of MNEs’ origin on the applicability of competitive advantages. MNEs in one country cluster are expected to use similar management systems.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Resource-based theory, Institutional Theory, institutional environment, cultural dimensions, standardized management

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27 Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

Authors: Zaky Musyarof, Dwi Yono Sutarto, Dwima Rindy Atika, R. B. Fajriya Hakim

Abstract:

Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem doesn’t well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Cluster Analysis, Association Rules, Sequential Pattern Mining, evacuation route

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26 Geometric-Morphometric Analysis of Head, Pronotum and Elytra of Brontispa Longissima Gestro in Selected Provinces of the Philippines

Authors: Ana Marie T. Acevedo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to describe variations in the shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum of populations of adult Brontispa longissima (Gestro) infesting coconut farms from selected areas in the Philippines using Cluster Analysis, Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms and Procustean analysis. The data used in this study included shape residuals captured using the method of landmark based geometric morphometrics. Results: The results of the cluster analyses based on the average shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum shows no consistent pattern of similarity between and among five populations of B. longissima. When localized variations using Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms was done, the findings revealed that RWA was only successful in summarizing variations using two relative warps in the shape of the elytra where the first two warps contained 86.29% of the variations of the female and 85.48% for the males. For the head and pronotum, the first two relative warps captured less than 50% of the overall variation. Looking at the shapes of the frequency histograms, all were found to follow a unimodal distribution. The box plots reveal no consistent results. Among the three characters studied only the elytra were more robust and reliable compared to head and pronotum and then Tandag differ from the rest of the other over-lapping populations. On the other hand, Procustean Analyses revealed that elytra were more spread in the posterior region both in male and female. The coordinates in head and pronotum were evenly distributed. In the overlapping consensus configurations show that variability was exaggerated in the right side of the elytra and the posterior parts of the head and pronotum. Results also showed expansion among females while compression among males in elytra. For males, expansion are localized in the posterior part of the elytra, For the head, results showed asymmetry in the distribution of expansion areas where expansion are observed in the right postero-lateral aspect of the female head. Conclusion: The overall results may imply that they might belong to one operational taxonomic unit or ecotype or biotype. Geography might not be the factor responsible for the differentiation of the populations of B. longissima.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, environmental parameters, relative warp analysis, procrustean analysis

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25 A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Water Quality Assessment of River Hindon, India

Authors: Nida Rizvi, Deeksha Katyal, Varun Joshi

Abstract:

River Hindon is an important river catering the demand of highly populated rural and industrial cluster of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Water quality of river Hindon is deteriorating at an alarming rate due to various industrial, municipal and agricultural activities. The present study aimed at identifying the pollution sources and quantifying the degree to which these sources are responsible for the deteriorating water quality of the river. Various water quality parameters, like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total alkalinity were assessed. Water quality data obtained from eight study sites for one year has been subjected to the two multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Principal component analysis was applied with the aim to find out spatial variability and to identify the sources responsible for the water quality of the river. Three Varifactors were obtained after varimax rotation of initial principal components using principal component analysis. Cluster analysis was carried out to classify sampling stations of certain similarity, which grouped eight different sites into two clusters. The study reveals that the anthropogenic influence (municipal, industrial, waste water and agricultural runoff) was the major source of river water pollution. Thus, this study illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and elucidation of multifaceted data sets, recognition of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective river water quality management.

Keywords: Water Quality, Cluster Analysis, multivariate statistical techniques, river Hindon

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24 Comparative Correlation Investigation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils of Different Land Uses: Sources Evaluation Perspective

Authors: O. Onoriode Emoyan, E. Eyitemi Akporhonor, Charles Otobrise

Abstract:

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed mainly as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials during industrial, domestic activities or natural occurrence. Their toxicity and contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem have been established. Though with limited validity index, previous research has focused on PAHs isomer pair ratios of variable physicochemical properties in source identification. The objective of this investigation was to determine the empirical validity of Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and cluster analysis (CA) in PAHs source identification along soil samples of different land uses. Therefore, 16 PAHs grouped as endocrine disruption substances (EDSs) were determined in 10 sample stations in top and sub soils seasonally. PAHs was determined the use of Varian 300 gas chromatograph interfaced with flame ionization detector. Instruments and reagents used are of standard and chromatographic grades respectively. PCC and CA results showed that the classification of PAHs along kinetically and thermodyanamically-favoured and those derived directly from plants product through biologically mediated processes used in source signature is about the predominance PAHs are likely to be. Therefore the observed PAHs in the studied stations have trace quantities of the vast majority of the sixteen un-substituted PAHs which may ultimately inhabit the actual source signature authentication. Type and extent of bacterial metabolism, transformation products/substrates, and environmental factors such as: salinity, pH, oxygen concentration, nutrients, light intensity, temperature, co-substrates and environmental medium are hereby recommended as factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, comparative correlation, kinetically and thermodynamically-favored PAHs, pearson correlation coefficient, sources evaluation

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23 Spatial Distribution and Cluster Analysis of Sexual Risk Behaviors and STIs Reported by Chinese Adults in Guangzhou, China: A Representative Population-Based Study

Authors: Wen Chen, Yu Wang, Li Ling, Fangjing Zhou, Brian J. Hall, Carl Latkin, Joseph D. Tucker

Abstract:

Background: Economic and social reforms designed to open China to the world has been successful, but also appear to have rapidly laid the foundation for the reemergence of STIs since 1980s. Changes in sexual behaviors, relationships, and norms among Chinese contributed to the STIs epidemic. As the massive population moved during the last 30 years, early coital debut, multiple sexual partnerships, and unprotected sex have increased within the general population. Our objectives were to assess associations between residences location, sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adults living in Guangzhou, China. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling followed a two-step process was used to select populations aged 18-59 years in Guangzhou, China. Spatial methods including Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were utilized to identify 1400 coordinates with latitude and longitude. Face-to-face household interviews were conducted to collect self-report data on sexual risk behaviors and diagnosed STIs. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic was implemented to identify and detect spatial distribution and clusters of sexual risk behaviors and STIs. The presence and location of statistically significant clusters were mapped in the study areas using ArcGIS software. Results: In this study, 1215 of 1400 households attempted surveys, with 368 refusals, resulting in a sample of 751 completed surveys. The prevalence of self-reported sexual risk behaviors was between 5.1% and 50.0%. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of diagnosed STIs was 7.06%. Anal intercourse clustered in an area located along the border within the rural-urban continuum (p=0.001). High rate clusters for alcohol or other drugs using before sex (p=0.008) and migrants who lived in Guangzhou less than one year (p=0.007) overlapped this cluster. Excess cases for sex without a condom (p=0.031) overlapped the cluster for college students (p<0.001). Conclusions: Short-term migrants and college students reported greater sexual risk behaviors. Programs to increase safer sex within these communities to reduce the risk of STIs are warranted in Guangzhou. Spatial analysis identified geographical clusters of sexual risk behaviors, which is critical for optimizing surveillance and targeting control measures for these locations in the future.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Spatial Distribution, migrant, sexual risk behaviors

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22 Chemical Variability in the Essential Oils from the Leaves and Buds of Syzygium Species

Authors: Rabia Waseem, Low Kah Hin, Najihah Mohamed Hashim

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The variability in the chemical components of the Syzygium species essential oils has been evaluated. The leaves of Syzygium species have been collected from Perak, Malaysia. The essential oils extracted by using the conventional Hydro-distillation extraction procedure and analyzed by using Gas chromatography System attached with Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Twenty-seven constituents were found in Syzygium species in which the major constituents include: α-Pinene (3.94%), α-Thujene (2.16%), α-Terpineol (2.95%), g-Elemene (2.89%) and D-Limonene (14.59%). The aim of this study was the comparison between the evaluated data and existing literature to fortify the major variability through statistical analysis.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Medicinal Plants, Cluster Analysis, Essential Oil, chemotaxonomy

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21 The Effect of Classroom Atmospherics on Second Language Learning

Authors: Sresha Yadav, Ishwar Kumar

Abstract:

Second language learning is an important area of research in the language and linguistic domains. Literature suggests that several factors impact second language learning, including age, motivation, objectives, teacher, instructional material, classroom interaction, intelligence and previous background, previous linguistic experience, other student characteristics. Previous researchers have also highlighted that classroom atmospherics has a significant impact on learning as well as on the performance of students. However, the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning is still not known in the existing literature. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to explore whether classroom atmospherics has an impact on second language learning or not? And if it does, it would be worthwhile to explore the nature of such relationship. The present study aims to explore the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by dwelling into the existing literature to explore factors which impact second language learning, classroom atmospherics which impact language learning and the metrics through which such learning impacts could be measured. Based on the findings of literature review, the researchers have adopted a clustering approach for categorization and positioning of various measures of second language learning. Based on the clustering approach, the researchers have approach for measuring the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by drawing a student sample consisting of 80 respondents. The results of the study uncover various basic premises of second language learning, especially with regard to classroom atmospherics. The present study is important not only from the point of view of language learning but implications could be drawn with regard to the design of classroom atmospherics, environmental psychology, anthropometrics, etc as well.

Keywords: Linguistics, Second Language Learning, Cluster Analysis, classroom atmospherics

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20 A Statistical Approach to Classification of Agricultural Regions

Authors: Hasan Vural

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Turkey is a favorable country to produce a great variety of agricultural products because of her different geographic and climatic conditions which have been used to divide the country into four main and seven sub regions. This classification into seven regions traditionally has been used in order to data collection and publication especially related with agricultural production. Afterwards, nine agricultural regions were considered. Recently, the governmental body which is responsible of data collection and dissemination (Turkish Institute of Statistics-TIS) has used 12 classes which include 11 sub regions and Istanbul province. This study aims to evaluate these classification efforts based on the acreage of ten main crops in a ten years time period (1996-2005). The panel data grouped in 11 subregions has been evaluated by cluster and multivariate statistical methods. It was concluded that from the agricultural production point of view, it will be rather meaningful to consider three main and eight sub-agricultural regions throughout the country.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, factorial analysis, agricultural region

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19 Classification of Traffic Complex Acoustic Space

Authors: Bin Wang, Jian Kang

Abstract:

After years of development, the study of soundscape has been refined to the types of urban space and building. Traffic complex takes traffic function as the core, with obvious design features of architectural space combination and traffic streamline. The acoustic environment is strongly characterized by function, space, material, user and other factors. Traffic complex integrates various functions of business, accommodation, entertainment and so on. It has various forms, complex and varied experiences, and its acoustic environment is turned rich and interesting with distribution and coordination of various functions, division and unification of the mass, separation and organization of different space and the cross and the integration of multiple traffic flow. In this study, it made field recordings of each space of various traffic complex, and extracted and analyzed different acoustic elements, including changes in sound pressure, frequency distribution, steady sound source, sound source information and other aspects, to make cluster analysis of each independent traffic complex buildings. It divided complicated traffic complex building space into several typical sound space from acoustic environment perspective, mainly including stable sound space, high-pressure sound space, rhythm sound space and upheaval sound space. This classification can further deepen the study of subjective evaluation and control of the acoustic environment of traffic complex.

Keywords: classification, Cluster Analysis, Soundscape, traffic complex

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18 Corporate Social Responsibility Participation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Different Job Characteristic Profiles

Authors: Min Woo Lee, Kyoung Seok Kim

Abstract:

We made an effort to resolve a research question, which is about the relationship between employees’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) participation and their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and an effect of profiles of job characteristics. To test the question, we divided sample into two groups that have the profiles of each job characteristic. One group had high level on the five dimensions of job characteristic (D group), whereas another group had low level on the dimensions (R group). As a result, regression analyses showed that the relationship between CSR participation and OCB is positive in the D group, but the relationship is not significant in the R group. The results raise a question to the argument of recent studies showing that there is positive relationship between the CSR and the OCB. Implications and limitations are demonstrated in the conclusion.

Keywords: CSR, Cluster Analysis, job characteristics, OCB

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17 Cluster Analysis of Customer Churn in Telecom Industry

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie

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The research examines the factors that affect customer churn (CC) in the Jordanian telecom industry. A total of 700 surveys were distributed. Cluster analysis revealed three main clusters. Results showed that CC and customer satisfaction (CS) were the key determinants in forming the three clusters. In two clusters, the center values of CC were high, indicating that the customers were loyal and SC was expensive and time- and energy-consuming. Still, the mobile service provider (MSP) should enhance its communication (COM), and value added services (VASs), as well as customer complaint management systems (CCMS). Finally, for the third cluster the center of the CC indicates a poor level of loyalty, which facilitates customers churn to another MSP. The results of this study provide valuable feedback for MSP decision makers regarding approaches to improving their performance and reducing CC.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, switching cost, telecom industry, customer churn

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16 Cluster Analysis of Retailers’ Benefits from Their Cooperation with Manufacturers: Business Models Perspective

Authors: M. K. Witek-Hajduk, T. M. Napiórkowski

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A number of studies discussed the topic of benefits of retailers-manufacturers cooperation and coopetition. However, there are only few publications focused on the benefits of cooperation and coopetition between retailers and their suppliers of durable consumer goods; especially in the context of business model of cooperating partners. This paper aims to provide a clustering approach to segment retailers selling consumer durables according to the benefits they obtain from their cooperation with key manufacturers and differentiate the said retailers’ in term of the business models of cooperating partners. For the purpose of the study, a survey (with a CATI method) collected data on 603 consumer durables retailers present on the Polish market. Retailers are clustered both, with hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods. Five distinctive groups of consumer durables’ retailers are (based on the studied benefits) identified using the two-stage clustering approach. The clusters are then characterized with a set of exogenous variables, key of which are business models employed by the retailer and its partnering key manufacturer. The paper finds that the a combination of a medium sized retailer classified as an Integrator with a chiefly domestic capital and a manufacturer categorized as a Market Player will yield the highest benefits. On the other side of the spectrum is medium sized Distributor retailer with solely domestic capital – in this case, the business model of the cooperating manufactrer appears to be irreleveant. This paper is the one of the first empirical study using cluster analysis on primary data that defines the types of cooperation between consumer durables’ retailers and manufacturers – their key suppliers. The analysis integrates a perspective of both retailers’ and manufacturers’ business models and matches them with individual and joint benefits.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Business Model, benefits of cooperation, retailer-manufacturer cooperation

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15 Longevity of Soybean Seeds Submitted to Different Mechanized Harvesting Conditions

Authors: Rute Faria, Digo Moraes, Amanda Santos, Dione Morais, Maria Sartori

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Seed vigor is a fundamental component for the good performance of the entire soybean production process. Seeds with mechanical damage at harvest time will be more susceptible to fungal and insect attack during storage, which will invariably reduce their vigor to the field, compromising uniformity and final stand performance. Harvesters, even the most modern ones, when not properly regulated or operated, can cause irreversible damages to the seeds, compromising even their commercialization. Therefore, the control of an efficient harvest is necessary in order to guarantee a good quality final product. In this work, the damage caused by two different harvesters (one rented, and another one) was evaluated, traveling in two speeds (4 and 8 km / h). The design was completely randomized in 2 x 2 factorial, with four replications. To evaluate the physiological quality seed germination and vigor tests were carried out over a period of six months. A multivariate analysis of Principal Components (PCA) and clustering allowed us to verify that the leased machine had better performance in the incidence of immediate damages in the seeds, but after a storage period of 6 months the vigor of these seeds reduced more than own machine evidencing that such a machine would bring more damages to the seeds.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, PCA, Glycine max (L.), vigor

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14 Identifying the Factors that Influence Water-Use Efficiency in Agriculture: Case Study in a Spanish Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Muñoz, Ángeles Godoy-Durán, Emilio Galdeano-Gómez, Juan C. Pérez-Mesa

Abstract:

The current agricultural system in some arid and semi-arid areas is not sustainable in the long term. In southeast Spain, groundwater is the main water source and is overexploited, while alternatives like desalination are still limited. The Water Plan for the Mediterranean Basins 2015-2020 indicates a global deficit of 73.42 hm3 and an overexploitation of the aquifers of 205.58hm3. In order to solve this serious problem, two major actions can be taken: increasing available water, and/or improving the efficiency of its use. This study focuses on the latter. The main aim of this study is to present the major factors related to water usage efficiency in farming. It focuses on Almería province, southeast Spain, one of the most arid areas of the country, and in particular on family farms as the main direct managers of water use in this zone. Many of these farms are among the most water efficient in Spanish agriculture, but this efficiency is not generalized throughout the sector. This work conducts a comprehensive assessment of water performance in this area, using on-farm water-use, structural, socio-economic and environmental information. Two statistical techniques are used: descriptive analysis and cluster analysis. Thus, two groups are identified: the least and the most efficient farms regarding water usage. By analyzing both the common characteristics within each group and the differences between the groups with a one-way ANOVA analysis, several conclusions can be reached. The main differences between the two clusters center on the extent to which innovation and new technologies are used in irrigation. The most water efficient farms are characterized by more educated farmers, a greater degree of innovation, new irrigation technology, specialized production and awareness of water issues and environmental sustainability. The research shows that better practices and policies can have a substantial impact on achieving a more sustainable and efficient use of water. The findings of this study can be extended to farms in similar arid and semi-arid areas and contribute to foster appropriate policies to improve the efficiency of water usage in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Spain, family farms, water-use efficiency

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13 Spatio-Temporal Changes of Rainfall in São Paulo, Brazil (1973-2012): A Gamma Distribution and Cluster Analysis

Authors: Guilherme Henrique Gabriel, Lucí Hidalgo Nunes

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An important feature of rainfall regimes is the variability, which is subject to the atmosphere’s general and regional dynamics, geographical position and relief. Despite being inherent to the climate system, it can harshly impact virtually all human activities. In turn, global climate change has the ability to significantly affect smaller-scale rainfall regimes by altering their current variability patterns. In this regard, it is useful to know if regional climates are changing over time and whether it is possible to link these variations to climate change trends observed globally. This study is part of an international project (Metropole-FAPESP, Proc. 2012/51876-0 and Proc. 2015/11035-5) and the objective was to identify and evaluate possible changes in rainfall behavior in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, using rainfall data from 79 rain gauges for the last forty years. Cluster analysis and gamma distribution parameters were used for evaluating spatial and temporal trends, and the outcomes are presented by means of geographic information systems tools. Results show remarkable changes in rainfall distribution patterns in São Paulo over the years: changes in shape and scale parameters of gamma distribution indicate both an increase in the irregularity of rainfall distribution and the probability of occurrence of extreme events. Additionally, the spatial outcome of cluster analysis along with the gamma distribution parameters suggest that changes occurred simultaneously over the whole area, indicating that they could be related to remote causes beyond the local and regional ones, especially in a current global climate change scenario.

Keywords: Climate Change, Cluster Analysis, Rainfall, gamma distribution

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12 Coping Strategies among Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Cluster Analysis

Authors: Noor Ismael, Lisa Mische Lawson, Lauren Little, Murad Moqbel

Abstract:

Background/Significance: Caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) develop coping mechanisms to overcome daily challenges to successfully parent their child. There is variability in coping strategies used among caregivers of children with ASD. Capturing homogeneity among such variable groups may help elucidate targeted intervention approaches for caregivers of children with ASD. Study Purpose: This study aimed to identify groups of caregivers of children with ASD based on coping mechanisms, and to examine whether there are differences among these groups in terms of strain level. Methods: This study utilized a secondary data analysis, and included survey responses of 273 caregivers of children with ASD. Measures consisted of the COPE Inventory and the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire. Data analyses consisted of cluster analysis to group caregiver coping strategies, and analysis of variance to compare the caregiver coping groups on strain level. Results: Cluster analysis results showed four distinct groups with different combinations of coping strategies: Social-Supported/Planning (group one), Spontaneous/Reactive (group two), Self-Supporting/Reappraisal (group three), and Religious/Expressive (group four). Caregivers in group one (Social-Supported/Planning) demonstrated significantly higher levels than the remaining three groups in the use of the following coping strategies: planning, use of instrumental social support, and use of emotional social support, relative to the other three groups. Caregivers in group two (Spontaneous/Reactive) used less restraint relative to the other three groups, and less suppression of competing activities relative to the other three groups as coping strategies. Also, group two showed significantly lower levels of religious coping as compared to the other three groups. In contrast to group one, caregivers in group three (Self-Supporting/Reappraisal) demonstrated significantly lower levels of the use of instrumental social support and the use of emotional social support relative to the other three groups. Additionally, caregivers in group three showed more acceptance, positive reinterpretation and growth coping strategies. Caregivers in group four (Religious/Expressive) demonstrated significantly higher levels of religious coping relative to the other three groups and utilized more venting of emotions strategies. Analysis of Variance results showed no significant differences between the four groups on the strain scores. Conclusions: There are four distinct groups with different combinations of coping strategies: Social-Supported/Planning, Spontaneous/Reactive, Self-Supporting/Reappraisal, and Religious/Expressive. Each caregiver group engaged in a combination of coping strategies to overcome the strain of caregiving.

Keywords: autism, Cluster Analysis, coping strategies, caregivers

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11 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Contamination Sources Using Geostatistical Methods and GIS in Miryang City, Korea

Authors: S. Y. Chung, H. E. Elzain, V. Senapathi, Kye-Hun Park

Abstract:

Groundwater is considered a significant source for drinking and irrigation purposes in Miryang city, and it is attributed to a limited number of a surface water reservoirs and high seasonal variations in precipitation. Population growth in addition to the expansion of agricultural land uses and industrial development may affect the quality and management of groundwater. This research utilized multidisciplinary approaches of geostatistics such as multivariate statistics, factor analysis, cluster analysis and kriging technique in order to identify the hydrogeochemical process and characterizing the control factors of the groundwater geochemistry distribution for developing risk maps, exploiting data obtained from chemical investigation of groundwater samples under the area of study. A total of 79 samples have been collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) for major and trace elements. Chemical maps using 2-D spatial Geographic Information System (GIS) of groundwater provided a powerful tool for detecting the possible potential sites of groundwater that involve the threat of contamination. GIS computer based map exhibited that the higher rate of contamination observed in the central and southern area with relatively less extent in the northern and southwestern parts. It could be attributed to the effect of irrigation, residual saline water, municipal sewage and livestock wastes. At wells elevation over than 85m, the scatter diagram represents that the groundwater of the research area was mainly influenced by saline water and NO3. Level of pH measurement revealed low acidic condition due to dissolved atmospheric CO2 in the soil, while the saline water had a major impact on the higher values of TDS and EC. Based on the cluster analysis results, the groundwater has been categorized into three group includes the CaHCO3 type of the fresh water, NaHCO3 type slightly influenced by sea water and Ca-Cl, Na-Cl types which are heavily affected by saline water. The most predominant water type was CaHCO3 in the study area. Contamination sources and chemical characteristics were identified from factor analysis interrelationship and cluster analysis. The chemical elements that belong to factor 1 analysis were related to the effect of sea water while the elements of factor 2 associated with agricultural fertilizers. The degree level, distribution, and location of groundwater contamination have been generated by using Kriging methods. Thus, geostatistics model provided more accurate results for identifying the source of contamination and evaluating the groundwater quality. GIS was also a creative tool to visualize and analyze the issues affecting water quality in the Miryang city.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Factor Analysis, groundwater characteristics, GIS chemical maps, Kriging techniques

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10 A Construction Management Tool: Determining a Project Schedule Typical Behaviors Using Cluster Analysis

Authors: Natalia Rudeli, Elisabeth Viles, Adrian Santilli

Abstract:

Delays in the construction industry are a global phenomenon. Many construction projects experience extensive delays exceeding the initially estimated completion time. The main purpose of this study is to identify construction projects typical behaviors in order to develop a prognosis and management tool. Being able to know a construction projects schedule tendency will enable evidence-based decision-making to allow resolutions to be made before delays occur. This study presents an innovative approach that uses Cluster Analysis Method to support predictions during Earned Value Analyses. A clustering analysis was used to predict future scheduling, Earned Value Management (EVM), and Earned Schedule (ES) principal Indexes behaviors in construction projects. The analysis was made using a database with 90 different construction projects. It was validated with additional data extracted from literature and with another 15 contrasting projects. For all projects, planned and executed schedules were collected and the EVM and ES principal indexes were calculated. A complete linkage classification method was used. In this way, the cluster analysis made considers that the distance (or similarity) between two clusters must be measured by its most disparate elements, i.e. that the distance is given by the maximum span among its components. Finally, through the use of EVM and ES Indexes and Tukey and Fisher Pairwise Comparisons, the statistical dissimilarity was verified and four clusters were obtained. It can be said that construction projects show an average delay of 35% of its planned completion time. Furthermore, four typical behaviors were found and for each of the obtained clusters, the interim milestones and the necessary rhythms of construction were identified. In general, detected typical behaviors are: (1) Projects that perform a 5% of work advance in the first two tenths and maintain a constant rhythm until completion (greater than 10% for each remaining tenth), being able to finish on the initially estimated time. (2) Projects that start with an adequate construction rate but suffer minor delays culminating with a total delay of almost 27% of the planned time. (3) Projects which start with a performance below the planned rate and end up with an average delay of 64%, and (4) projects that begin with a poor performance, suffer great delays and end up with an average delay of a 120% of the planned completion time. The obtained clusters compose a tool to identify the behavior of new construction projects by comparing their current work performance to the validated database, thus allowing the correction of initial estimations towards more accurate completion schedules.

Keywords: Construction Management, Cluster Analysis, schedule, earned value

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9 Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Farming: Empirical Evidence from a Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Muñoz, Ángeles Godoy-Durán, Emilio Galdeano-Gómez, Juan C. Pérez-Mesa

Abstract:

Spain is very sensitive to water management issues due to its climatic characteristics and the deficit of this resource in many areas of its territory. This study examines the characteristics of the family farms that are more efficient in the use of water, focusing on a semi-arid area located in Almeria, southeast of Spain. In the case of irrigated agriculture, water usage efficiency usually indicates water productivity in terms of yield (kg/m³), or in economic terms (euros/m³). These two water usage indicators were considered to analyse water usage efficiency according to other studies on water efficiency in the horticultural area under analysis. This work also takes into account other water usage characteristics such as water supplied, innovative irrigation practices, water-efficient technology, and water-saving practices. The results show that the most water efficient farms have technical advisors and use irrigation on demand, that measures the water needs of the crops and are considered the most technological irrigation system. These farms are more technological and less labor intensive. They are also aware of water scarcity and the need to conserve the environment. This approach allow managers to identify the principal factors and best practices related to water efficiency in order to promote and implement them in inefficient farms and promote sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, Cluster Analysis, Spain, family farms, water-use efficiency

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8 Comparative Analysis of the Computer Methods' Usage for Calculation of Hydrocarbon Reserves in the Baltic Sea

Authors: Pavel Shcherban, Vlad Golovanov

Abstract:

Nowadays, the depletion of hydrocarbon deposits on the land of the Kaliningrad region leads to active geological exploration and development of oil and natural gas reserves in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea. LLC 'Lukoil-Kaliningradmorneft' implements a comprehensive program for the development of the region's shelf in 2014-2023. Due to heterogeneity of reservoir rocks in various open fields, as well as with ambiguous conclusions on the contours of deposits, additional geological prospecting and refinement of the recoverable oil reserves are carried out. The key element is use of an effective technique of computer stock modeling at the first stage of processing of the received data. The following step uses information for the cluster analysis, which makes it possible to optimize the field development approaches. The article analyzes the effectiveness of various methods for reserves' calculation and computer modelling methods of the offshore hydrocarbon fields. Cluster analysis allows to measure influence of the obtained data on the development of a technical and economic model for mining deposits. The relationship between the accuracy of the calculation of recoverable reserves and the need of modernization of existing mining infrastructure, as well as the optimization of the scheme of opening and development of oil deposits, is observed.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, computer modelling of deposits, correction of the feasibility study, offshore hydrocarbon fields

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7 An Automated Stock Investment System Using Machine Learning Techniques: An Application in Australia

Authors: Carol Anne Hargreaves

Abstract:

A key issue in stock investment is how to select representative features for stock selection. The objective of this paper is to firstly determine whether an automated stock investment system, using machine learning techniques, may be used to identify a portfolio of growth stocks that are highly likely to provide returns better than the stock market index. The second objective is to identify the technical features that best characterize whether a stock’s price is likely to go up and to identify the most important factors and their contribution to predicting the likelihood of the stock price going up. Unsupervised machine learning techniques, such as cluster analysis, were applied to the stock data to identify a cluster of stocks that was likely to go up in price – portfolio 1. Next, the principal component analysis technique was used to select stocks that were rated high on component one and component two – portfolio 2. Thirdly, a supervised machine learning technique, the logistic regression method, was used to select stocks with a high probability of their price going up – portfolio 3. The predictive models were validated with metrics such as, sensitivity (recall), specificity and overall accuracy for all models. All accuracy measures were above 70%. All portfolios outperformed the market by more than eight times. The top three stocks were selected for each of the three stock portfolios and traded in the market for one month. After one month the return for each stock portfolio was computed and compared with the stock market index returns. The returns for all three stock portfolios was 23.87% for the principal component analysis stock portfolio, 11.65% for the logistic regression portfolio and 8.88% for the K-means cluster portfolio while the stock market performance was 0.38%. This study confirms that an automated stock investment system using machine learning techniques can identify top performing stock portfolios that outperform the stock market.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Cluster Analysis, Decision trees, Logistic Regression, Factor Analysis, stock market trading, automated stock investment system

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6 An Intelligent Traffic Management System Based on the WiFi and Bluetooth Sensing

Authors: Hamed Hossein Afshari, Shahrzad Jalali, Amir Hossein Ghods, Bijan Raahemi

Abstract:

This paper introduces an automated clustering solution that applies to WiFi/Bluetooth sensing data and is later used for traffic management applications. The paper initially summarizes a number of clustering approaches and thereafter shows their performance for noise removal. In this context, clustering is used to recognize WiFi and Bluetooth MAC addresses that belong to passengers traveling by a public urban transit bus. The main objective is to build an intelligent system that automatically filters out MAC addresses that belong to persons located outside the bus for different routes in the city of Ottawa. The proposed intelligent system alleviates the need for defining restrictive thresholds that however reduces the accuracy as well as the range of applicability of the solution for different routes. This paper moreover discusses the performance benefits of the presented clustering approaches in terms of the accuracy, time and space complexity, and the ease of use. Note that results of clustering can further be used for the purpose of the origin-destination estimation of individual passengers, predicting the traffic load, and intelligent management of urban bus schedules.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Cluster Analysis, Traffic Management, WiFi-Bluetooth sensing

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5 A Design for Customer Preferences Model by Cluster Analysis of Geometric Features and Customer Preferences

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Ching-Yen Chen

Abstract:

In the design cycle, a main design task is to determine the external shape of the product. The external shape of a product is one of the key factors that can affect the customers’ preferences linking to the motivation to buy the product, especially in the case of a consumer electronic product such as a mobile phone. The relationship between the external shape and the customer preferences needs to be studied to enhance the customer’s purchase desire and action. In this research, a design for customer preferences model is developed for investigating the relationships between the external shape and the customer preferences of a product. In the first stage, the names of the geometric features are collected and evaluated from the data of the specified internet web pages using the developed text miner. The key geometric features can be determined if the number of occurrence on the web pages is relatively high. For each key geometric feature, the numerical values are explored using the text miner to collect the internet data from the web pages. In the second stage, a cluster analysis model is developed to evaluate the numerical values of the key geometric features to divide the external shapes into several groups. Several design suggestion cases can be proposed, for example, large model, mid-size model, and mini model, for designing a mobile phone. A customer preference index is developed by evaluating the numerical data of each of the key geometric features of the design suggestion cases. The design suggestion case with the top ranking of the customer preference index can be selected as the final design of the product. In this paper, an example product of a notebook computer is illustrated. It shows that the external shape of a product can be used to drive customer preferences. The presented design for customer preferences model is useful for determining a suitable external shape of the product to increase customer preferences.

Keywords: Product Design, Cluster Analysis, Design Evaluation, customer preferences, design for customer preferences

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4 Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Malaysian Palm Oil Board-Senegal Oil Palm Germplasm Using Multivariate Tools

Authors: Khin Aye Myint, Mohd Rafii Yusop, Mohd Yusoff Abd Samad, Shairul Izan Ramlee, Mohd Din Amiruddin, Zulkifli Yaakub

Abstract:

The narrow base of genetic is the main obstacle of breeding and genetic improvement in oil palm industry. In order to broaden the genetic bases, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board has been extensively collected wild germplasm from its original area of 11 African countries which are Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Cameroon, Zaire, Angola, Madagascar, and Tanzania. The germplasm collections were established and maintained as a field gene bank in Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, Malaysia to conserve a wide range of oil palm genetic resources for genetic improvement of Malaysian oil palm industry. Therefore, assessing the performance and genetic diversity of the wild materials is very important for understanding the genetic structure of natural oil palm population and to explore genetic resources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis are very efficient multivariate tools in the evaluation of genetic variation of germplasm and have been applied in many crops. In this study, eight populations of MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm were studied to explore the genetic variation pattern using PCA and cluster analysis. A total of 20 yield and yield component traits were used to analyze PCA and Ward’s clustering using SAS 9.4 version software. The first four principal components which have eigenvalue >1 accounted for 93% of total variation with the value of 44%, 19%, 18% and 12% respectively for each principal component. PC1 showed highest positive correlation with fresh fruit bunch (0.315), bunch number (0.321), oil yield (0.317), kernel yield (0.326), total economic product (0.324), and total oil (0.324) while PC 2 has the largest positive association with oil to wet mesocarp (0.397) and oil to fruit (0.458). The oil palm population were grouped into four distinct clusters based on 20 evaluated traits, this imply that high genetic variation existed in among the germplasm. Cluster 1 contains two populations which are SEN 12 and SEN 10, while cluster 2 has only one population of SEN 3. Cluster 3 consists of three populations which are SEN 4, SEN 6, and SEN 7 while SEN 2 and SEN 5 were grouped in cluster 4. Cluster 4 showed the highest mean value of fresh fruit bunch, bunch number, oil yield, kernel yield, total economic product, and total oil and Cluster 1 was characterized by high oil to wet mesocarp, and oil to fruit. The desired traits that have the largest positive correlation on extracted PCs could be utilized for the improvement of oil palm breeding program. The populations from different clusters with the highest cluster means could be used for hybridization. The information from this study can be utilized for effective conservation and selection of the MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm for the future breeding program.

Keywords: Germplasm, Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, oil palm, genetic variability

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3 Analysis of the Role of Population Ageing on Crosstown Roads' Traffic Accidents Using Latent Class Clustering

Authors: N. Casado-Sanz, B. Guirao

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The population aged 65 and over is projected to double in the coming decades. Due to this increase, driver population is expected to grow and in the near future, all countries will be faced with population aging of varying intensity and in unique time frames. This is the greatest challenge facing industrialized nations and due to this fact, the study of the relationships of dependency between population aging and road safety is becoming increasingly relevant. Although the deterioration of driving skills in the elderly has been analyzed in depth, to our knowledge few research studies have focused on the road infrastructure and the mobility of this particular group of users. In Spain, crosstown roads have one of the highest fatality rates. These rural routes have a higher percentage of elderly people who are more dependent on driving due to the absence or limitations of urban public transportation. Analysing road safety in these routes is very complex because of the variety of the features, the dispersion of the data and the complete lack of related literature. The objective of this paper is to identify key factors that cause traffic accidents. The individuals under study were the accidents with killed or seriously injured in Spanish crosstown roads during the period 2006-2015. Latent cluster analysis was applied as a preliminary tool for segmentation of accidents, considering population aging as the main input among other socioeconomic indicators. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was carried out to estimate the degree of dependence between the accident rate and the variables that define each group. The results show that segmenting the data is very interesting and provides further information. Additionally, the results revealed the clear influence of the aging variable in the clusters obtained. Other variables related to infrastructure and mobility levels, such as the crosstown roads layout and the traffic intensity aimed to be one of the key factors in the causality of road accidents.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Rural Roads, Road Safety, population ageing

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2 Multivariate Assessment of Mathematics Test Scores of Students in Qatar

Authors: Elizabeth Stojanovski, Ali Rashash Alzahrani

Abstract:

Data on various aspects of education are collected at the institutional and government level regularly. In Australia, for example, students at various levels of schooling undertake examinations in numeracy and literacy as part of NAPLAN testing, enabling longitudinal assessment of such data as well as comparisons between schools and states within Australia. Another source of educational data collected internationally is via the PISA study which collects data from several countries when students are approximately 15 years of age and enables comparisons in the performance of science, mathematics and English between countries as well as ranking of countries based on performance in these standardised tests. As well as student and school outcomes based on the tests taken as part of the PISA study, there is a wealth of other data collected in the study including parental demographics data and data related to teaching strategies used by educators. Overall, an abundance of educational data is available which has the potential to be used to help improve educational attainment and teaching of content in order to improve learning outcomes. A multivariate assessment of such data enables multiple variables to be considered simultaneously and will be used in the present study to help develop profiles of students based on performance in mathematics using data obtained from the PISA study.

Keywords: Education, Mathematics, Cluster Analysis, profiles

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1 An Investigative Study on the Use of Online Marketing Methods in Hungary

Authors: E. Happ, Zs. Ivancsone Horvath

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With the development of the information technology, IT, sector, all industry of the world has a new path, dealing with digitalisation. Tourism is the most rapidly increasing industry in the world. Without digitalisation, tourism operators would not be competitive enough with foreign destinations or other experience-based service providers. Digitalisation is also necessary to enable organizations, which are interested in tourism to meet the growing expectations of consumers. With the help of digitalisation, tourism providers can also obtain information about tourists, changes in consumer behaviour, and the use of online services. The degree of digitalisation in tourism is different for different services. The research is based on a questionnaire survey conducted in 2018 in Hungary. The sample with more than 500 respondents was processed by the SPSS program, using a variety of analysis methods. The following two variables were observed from more aspects: frequency of travel and the importance of services related to online travel. With the help of these variables, a cluster analysis was performed among the participants. The sample can be divided into two groups using K-mean cluster analysis. Cluster ‘1’ is a positive group; they can be called the “most digital tourists.” They agree in most things, with low standard deviation, and for them, digitalisation is a starting point. To the members of Cluster ‘2’, digitalisation is important, too. The results show what is important (accommodation, information gathering) to them, but also what they are not interested in at all within the digital world (e.g., car rental or online sharing). Interestingly, there is no third negative cluster. This result (that there is no result) proves that tourism uses digitalisation, and the question is only the extent of the use of online tools and methods. With the help of the designed consumer groups, the characteristics of digital tourism segments can be identified. The help of different variables characterised these groups. One of them is the frequency of travel, where there is a significant correlation between travel frequency and cluster membership. The shift is clear towards Cluster ‘1’, which means, those who find services related to online travel more important, are more likely to travel as well. By learning more about digital tourists’ consumer behaviour, the results of this research can help the providers in what kind of marketing tools could be used to influence the consumer choices of the different consumer groups created using digital devices, furthermore how to conduct more detailed and effective marketing activities. The main finding of the research was that most of the people have digital tools which are important to be able to participate in e-tourism. Of these, mobile devices are increasingly preferred. That means the challenge for service providers is no longer the digital presence but having optimised application for different devices.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Digital Tourism, marketing tool, tourist behaviour

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