Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Clinical Pharmacy Related Abstracts

3 Prevalence of Non-Adherence among Psychiatric Patients in Jordan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Maher Khdour, Karem H. Alzoubi, Tareq L. Mukattash, Ejlal Abu El-Rub, Anan S. Jarab, Sayyer I. Al-Azzam, Mohammed Shara, Yazid N. Alhamarneh


Background: It has been estimated that up to 50% of any patient population is at least partially non-adherent to their prescribed treatment. Identifying barriers to adherence is required to develop effective interventions for psychiatric patients. Objective: To explore the prevalence and factors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients present at four psychiatric clinics. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A sample of psychiatric patients attending outpatient psychiatric clinics was enrolled between March and April 2011. Results: A total of 243 psychiatric patients took part in this study with the majority of patients (92.5%) being prescribed more than one psychiatric disorder. The majority (64.2%) of the patients was classified as non-adherent according to the Morisky adherence questionnaire and forgetfulness was the most prevalent reason for that. Conclusions: Non-adherence is a common and important issue among psychiatric patients. Polypharmacy, safety concerns and lack of insight towards the prescribed treatment were reported as the main reasons of non-adherence.

Keywords: Psychiatric Disorders, Clinical Pharmacy, medication adherence, Polypharmacy

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2 Co-payment Strategies for Chronic Medications: A Qualitative and Comparative Analysis at European Level

Authors: Pedro M. Abreu, Bruno R. Mendes


The management of pharmacotherapy and the process of dispensing medicines is becoming critical in clinical pharmacy due to the increase of incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases, the complexity and customization of therapeutic regimens, the introduction of innovative and more expensive medicines, the unbalanced relation between expenditure and revenue as well as due to the lack of rationalization associated with medication use. For these reasons, co-payments emerged in Europe in the 70s and have been applied over the past few years in healthcare. Co-payments lead to a rationing and rationalization of user’s access under healthcare services and products, and simultaneously, to a qualification and improvement of the services and products for the end-user. This analysis, under hospital practices particularly and co-payment strategies in general, was carried out on all the European regions and identified four reference countries, that apply repeatedly this tool and with different approaches. The structure, content and adaptation of European co-payments were analyzed through 7 qualitative attributes and 19 performance indicators, and the results expressed in a scorecard, allowing to conclude that the German models (total score of 68,2% and 63,6% in both elected co-payments) can collect more compliance and effectiveness, the English models (total score of 50%) can be more accessible, and the French models (total score of 50%) can be more adequate to the socio-economic and legal framework. Other European models did not show the same quality and/or performance, so were not taken as a standard in the future design of co-payments strategies. In this sense, we can see in the co-payments a strategy not only to moderate the consumption of healthcare products and services, but especially to improve them, as well as a strategy to increment the value that the end-user assigns to these services and products, such as medicines.

Keywords: Healthcare, Clinical Pharmacy, Medicines, co-payments

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1 Pill-Box Dispenser as a Strategy for Therapeutic Management: A Qualitative Evaluation

Authors: Bruno R. Mendes, Francisco J. Caldeira, Rita S. Luís


Population ageing is directly correlated to an increase in medicine consumption. Beyond the latter and the polymedicated profile of elderly, it is possible to see a need for pharmacotherapeutic monitoring due to cognitive and physical impairment. In this sense, the tracking, organization and administration of medicines become a daily challenge and the pill-box dispenser system a solution. The pill-box dispenser (system) consists in a small compartmentalized container to unit dose organization, which means a container able to correlate the patient’s prescribed dose regimen and the time schedule of intake. In many European countries, this system is part of pharmacist’s role in clinical pharmacy. Despite this simple solution, therapy compliance is only possible if the patient adheres to the system, so it is important to establish a qualitative and quantitative analysis on the perception of the patient on the benefits and risks of the pill-box dispenser as well as the identification of the ideal system. The analysis was conducted through an observational study, based on the application of a standardized questionnaire structured with the numerical scale of Likert (5 levels) and previously validated on the population. The study was performed during a limited period of time and under a randomized sample of 188 participants. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions: 6 background measures and 16 specific measures. The standards for the final comparative analysis were obtained through the state-of-the-art on the subject. The study carried out using the Likert scale afforded a degree of agreement and discordance between measures (Sample vs. Standard) of 56,25% and 43,75%, respectively. It was concluded that the pill-box dispenser has greater acceptance among a younger population, that was not the initial target of the system. However, this allows us to guarantee a high adherence in the future. Additionally, it was noted that the cost associated with this service is not a limiting factor for its use. The pill-box dispenser system, as currently implemented, demonstrates an important weakness regarding the quality and effectiveness of the medicines, which is not understood by the patient, revealing a significant lack of literacy when it concerns with medicine area. The characteristics of an ideal system remain unchanged, which means that the size, appearance and availability of information in the pill-box continue to be indispensable elements for the compliance with the system. The pill-box dispenser remains unsuitable regarding container size and the type of treatment to which it applies. Despite that, it might be a future standard for clinical pharmacy, allowing a differentiation of the pharmacist role, as well as a wider range of applications to other age groups and treatments.

Keywords: Patient Safety, Clinical Pharmacy, Medicines, pill-box dispenser

Procedia PDF Downloads 99